Gene Symbol: spir
Description: spire
Alias: 38C.34, 38C.37, CG10076, CG18621, Dmel\CG10076, NP2788, Spir, Spire, l(2)08327, p150-Spir, p150Spir, spire, CG10076-PA, CG10076-PB, CG10076-PC, CG10076-PD, CG10076-PE, CG10076-PF, CG10076-PG, CG10076-PH, CG10076-PI, CG10076-PJ, spir-PA, spir-PB, spir-PC, spir-PD, spir-PE, spir-PF, spir-PG, spir-PH, spir-PI, spir-PJ
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Otto I, Raabe T, Rennefahrt U, Bork P, Rapp U, Kerkhoff E. The p150-Spir protein provides a link between c-Jun N-terminal kinase function and actin reorganization. Curr Biol. 2000;10:345-8 pubmed
    ..We have identified a novel DJNK-interacting protein, p150-Spir, that belongs to the Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) homology domain 2 (WH2) family of proteins involved in ..
  2. Kim Ha J, Smith J, Macdonald P. oskar mRNA is localized to the posterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte. Cell. 1991;66:23-35 pubmed
    ..In addition, we find that nonsense oskar mutations disrupt osk mRNA localization, while missense oskar mutations do not. ..
  3. Rosales Nieves A, Johndrow J, Keller L, Magie C, Pinto Santini D, Parkhurst S. Coordination of microtubule and microfilament dynamics by Drosophila Rho1, Spire and Cappuccino. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:367-76 pubmed
    The actin-nucleation factors Spire and Cappuccino (Capu) regulate the onset of ooplasmic streaming in Drosophila melanogaster. Although this streaming event is microtubule-based, actin assembly is required for its timing...
  4. Quinlan M, Hilgert S, Bedrossian A, Mullins R, Kerkhoff E. Regulatory interactions between two actin nucleators, Spire and Cappuccino. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:117-28 pubmed
    b>Spire and Cappuccino are actin nucleation factors that are required to establish the polarity of Drosophila melanogaster oocytes. Their mutant phenotypes are nearly identical, and the proteins interact biochemically...
  5. Lasko P, Ashburner M. Posterior localization of vasa protein correlates with, but is not sufficient for, pole cell development. Genes Dev. 1990;4:905-21 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed with respect to the multiple functions of the vasa gene. ..
  6. Mahowald A. Germ plasm revisited and illuminated. Science. 1992;255:1216-7 pubmed
  7. Kerkhoff E, Simpson J, Leberfinger C, Otto I, Doerks T, Bork P, et al. The Spir actin organizers are involved in vesicle transport processes. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1963-8 pubmed
    The p150-Spir protein, which was discovered as a phosphorylation target of the Jun N-terminal kinase, is an essential regulator of the polarization of the Drosophila oocyte...
  8. Ciccarelli F, Bork P, Kerkhoff E. The KIND module: a putative signalling domain evolved from the C lobe of the protein kinase fold. Trends Biochem Sci. 2003;28:349-52 pubmed
  9. St Johnston D, Beuchle D, Nusslein Volhard C. Staufen, a gene required to localize maternal RNAs in the Drosophila egg. Cell. 1991;66:51-63 pubmed
    ..By the time the egg is laid, staufen protein is also concentrated at the anterior pole, in the same region as bicoid RNA. ..

More Information


  1. Manseau L, Schupbach T. cappuccino and spire: two unique maternal-effect loci required for both the anteroposterior and dorsoventral patterns of the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 1989;3:1437-52 pubmed
    cappuccino and spire are unique Drosophila maternal-effect loci that participate in pattern formation in both the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes of the early embryo...
  2. Kerkhoff E. Cellular functions of the Spir actin-nucleation factors. Trends Cell Biol. 2006;16:477-83 pubmed
    ..In vitro actin polymerization assays and electron microscopic data show that Spire nucleates actin polymerization by binding four actin monomers to a cluster of four Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome ..
  3. Manseau L, Calley J, Phan H. Profilin is required for posterior patterning of the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 1996;122:2109-16 pubmed
    ..cytoplasmic streaming within the oocyte, similar to that which occurs prematurely in cappuccino and spire mutant oocytes...
  4. Emmons S, Phan H, Calley J, Chen W, James B, Manseau L. Cappuccino, a Drosophila maternal effect gene required for polarity of the egg and embryo, is related to the vertebrate limb deformity locus. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2482-94 pubmed
    ..By inducing cytoplasmic streaming in wild-type oocytes during mid-oogenesis, we show that premature cytoplasmic streaming can displace staufen protein from the posterior pole, but not gurken mRNA from around the oocyte nucleus. ..
  5. Theurkauf W. Premature microtubule-dependent cytoplasmic streaming in cappuccino and spire mutant oocytes. Science. 1994;265:2093-6 pubmed
    ..The cappuccino and spire loci are required for both posterior and dorsoventral patterning...
  6. Ephrussi A, Dickinson L, Lehmann R. Oskar organizes the germ plasm and directs localization of the posterior determinant nanos. Cell. 1991;66:37-50 pubmed
    ..We propose that the pole plasm is assembled stepwise and that continued interaction among its components is required for germ cell determination. ..
  7. Wellington A, Emmons S, James B, Calley J, Grover M, Tolias P, et al. Spire contains actin binding domains and is related to ascidian posterior end mark-5. Development. 1999;126:5267-74 pubmed
    b>Spire is a maternal effect locus that affects both the dorsal-ventral and anterior-posterior axes of the Drosophila egg and embryo...
  8. Quinlan M, Heuser J, Kerkhoff E, Mullins R. Drosophila Spire is an actin nucleation factor. Nature. 2005;433:382-8 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the Drosophila protein Spire represents a third class of actin nucleation factor...
  9. Neuman Silberberg F, Schupbach T. The Drosophila dorsoventral patterning gene gurken produces a dorsally localized RNA and encodes a TGF alpha-like protein. Cell. 1993;75:165-74 pubmed
    ..We propose that the dorsal localization of grk RNA results in a spatially restricted ligand that asymmetrically activates the receptor. ..
  10. Liang L, Diehl Jones W, Lasko P. Localization of vasa protein to the Drosophila pole plasm is independent of its RNA-binding and helicase activities. Development. 1994;120:1201-11 pubmed
    ..Posterior localization of vasa protein depends upon the functions of four genes: capu, spir, osk and stau...
  11. Serbus L, Cha B, Theurkauf W, Saxton W. Dynein and the actin cytoskeleton control kinesin-driven cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes. Development. 2005;132:3743-52 pubmed
    ..This allows a cooperative self-amplifying loop of plus-end-directed organelle motion and parallel microtubule orientation that drives vigorous streaming currents and thorough mixing of oocyte and nurse-cell cytoplasm. ..
  12. Glotzer J, Saffrich R, Glotzer M, Ephrussi A. Cytoplasmic flows localize injected oskar RNA in Drosophila oocytes. Curr Biol. 1997;7:326-37 pubmed
    ..These results also highlight the role of the osk RNA anchor in the localization process. ..
  13. Cooley L, Theurkauf W. Cytoskeletal functions during Drosophila oogenesis. Science. 1994;266:590-6 pubmed
    ..Genetic, molecular, and cytological studies have shed light on the specific functions of the cytoskeleton during oogenesis. The results of these studies are reviewed here, and their mechanistic implications are considered. ..
  14. Clark I, Giniger E, Ruohola Baker H, Jan L, Jan Y. Transient posterior localization of a kinesin fusion protein reflects anteroposterior polarity of the Drosophila oocyte. Curr Biol. 1994;4:289-300 pubmed
    ..The genetic requirements for this localization and its sensitivity to colchicine, both of which are shared with the posterior transport of oskar mRNA and Staufen protein, suggest that similar mechanism may function in both processes. ..
  15. Ferrandon D, Elphick L, Nusslein Volhard C, St Johnston D. Staufen protein associates with the 3'UTR of bicoid mRNA to form particles that move in a microtubule-dependent manner. Cell. 1994;79:1221-32 pubmed
    ..Since staufen is also transported with oskar (osk) mRNA during oogenesis, staufen associates specifically with both osk and bcd mRNAs to mediate their localizations, but at two distinct stages of development. ..
  16. Liu R, Abreu Blanco M, Barry K, Linardopoulou E, Osborn G, Parkhurst S. Wash functions downstream of Rho and links linear and branched actin nucleation factors. Development. 2009;136:2849-60 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, linear actin nucleators, such as Spire and formins, are regulated by the GTPase Rho...
  17. Li M, McGrail M, Serr M, Hays T. Drosophila cytoplasmic dynein, a microtubule motor that is asymmetrically localized in the oocyte. J Cell Biol. 1994;126:1475-94 pubmed
    ..This distribution and its disruption by specific maternal effect mutations lends support to recent models suggesting that microtubule motors participate in the transport of these morphogens from the nurse cell cytoplasm to the oocyte. ..
  18. Lehmann R. Germ-plasm formation and germ-cell determination in Drosophila. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1992;2:543-9 pubmed
    ..Several genes involved in this process have been identified. By studying the temporal and functional sequence of interactions between their products, these genes can be ordered into a pathway for germ-plasm formation. ..
  19. Djagaeva I, Doronkin S, Beckendorf S. Src64 is involved in fusome development and karyosome formation during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Biol. 2005;284:143-56 pubmed
    ..oocyte chromatin into a compact karyosome is also defective in Src64, Tec29, and kelch mutants and in mutants for spire and chickadee (profilin), genes that regulate actin polymerization...
  20. Roth Johnson E, Vizcarra C, Bois J, Quinlan M. Interaction between microtubules and the Drosophila formin Cappuccino and its effect on actin assembly. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:4395-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Because Capu does not simultaneously bind microtubules and assemble actin filaments in vitro, its actin assembly and microtubule binding activities likely require spatial and/or temporal regulation within the Drosophila oocyte. ..
  21. Doronkin S, Djagaeva I, Beckendorf S. CSN5/Jab1 mutations affect axis formation in the Drosophila oocyte by activating a meiotic checkpoint. Development. 2002;129:5053-64 pubmed
    ..They also reveal a link between DNA repair, axis formation and the COP9 signalosome, a protein complex that acts in multiple signaling pathways by regulating protein stability. ..
  22. Robinson D, Cooley L. Genetic analysis of the actin cytoskeleton in the Drosophila ovary. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1997;13:147-70 pubmed
    ..We discuss many of the recent genetic and cell biological studies that have led to insights into how the actin cytoskeleton is assembled and regulated during the morphogenesis of the Drosophila egg. ..
  23. Potier D, Seyres D, Guichard C, Iché Torres M, Aerts S, Herrmann C, et al. Identification of cis-regulatory modules encoding temporal dynamics during development. BMC Genomics. 2014;15:534 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our results suggest a modular architecture of the regulatory machinery, in which the temporal and spatial regulation can be uncoupled and encoded by distinct CRMs. ..
  24. Capri M, Santoni M, Thomas Delaage M, Ait Ahmed O. Implication of a 5' coding sequence in targeting maternal mRNA to the Drosophila oocyte. Mech Dev. 1997;68:91-100 pubmed
    ..We show that the 5' coding sequence is necessary for the early accumulation of yem-alpha RNA in the oocyte and for its localization pattern during oogenesis. ..
  25. Rongo C, Gavis E, Lehmann R. Localization of oskar RNA regulates oskar translation and requires Oskar protein. Development. 1995;121:2737-46 pubmed
    ..We propose that initially localization of oskar RNA permits translation into Oskar protein and that subsequently Oskar protein regulates its own RNA localization through a positive feedback mechanism. ..
  26. Gottlieb E. Messenger RNA transport and localization. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1990;2:1080-6 pubmed
  27. Lesch C, Jo J, Wu Y, Fish G, Galko M. A targeted UAS-RNAi screen in Drosophila larvae identifies wound closure genes regulating distinct cellular processes. Genetics. 2010;186:943-57 pubmed publisher
  28. Lee S, Bagley J, Lee H, Jan L, Jan Y. Pathogenic polyglutamine proteins cause dendrite defects associated with specific actin cytoskeletal alterations in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:16795-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings suggest that specific actin cytoskeletal alterations that alter dendrite morphology and function may contribute to the pathogenesis of at least a subset of polyQ disorders, including SCA3 and SCA1. ..
  29. Wilsch Bräuninger M, Schwarz H, Nusslein Volhard C. A sponge-like structure involved in the association and transport of maternal products during Drosophila oogenesis. J Cell Biol. 1997;139:817-29 pubmed
    ..We propose that the sponge bodies are structures that, by assembly and transport of included molecules or associated structures, are involved in localization of mRNAs in Drosophila oocytes. ..
  30. Mahone M, Saffman E, Lasko P. Localized Bicaudal-C RNA encodes a protein containing a KH domain, the RNA binding motif of FMR1. EMBO J. 1995;14:2043-55 pubmed
    ..Alteration of a highly conserved KH domain codon by mutation abrogates in vivo Bic-C function. These results suggest roles for the Bic-C protein in localizing RNAs and in intercellular signaling. ..
  31. Webster P, Suen J, Macdonald P. Drosophila virilis oskar transgenes direct body patterning but not pole cell formation or maintenance of mRNA localization in D. melanogaster. Development. 1994;120:2027-37 pubmed
  32. Smith J, Wilson J, Macdonald P. Overexpression of oskar directs ectopic activation of nanos and presumptive pole cell formation in Drosophila embryos. Cell. 1992;70:849-59 pubmed
    ..Strikingly, formation of these ectopic pole cells is enhanced in nanos mutants. This observation may reflect competition between nanos and the germ cell determinant for a shared and limiting precursor. ..
  33. Dahlgaard K, Raposo A, Niccoli T, St Johnston D. Capu and Spire assemble a cytoplasmic actin mesh that maintains microtubule organization in the Drosophila oocyte. Dev Cell. 2007;13:539-53 pubmed
    Mutants in the actin nucleators Cappuccino and Spire disrupt the polarized microtubule network in the Drosophila oocyte that defines the anterior-posterior axis, suggesting that microtubule organization depends on actin...
  34. Chang C, Nashchekin D, Wheatley L, Irion U, Dahlgaard K, Montague T, et al. Anterior-posterior axis specification in Drosophila oocytes: identification of novel bicoid and oskar mRNA localization factors. Genetics. 2011;188:883-96 pubmed publisher
  35. Xu P, Johnson T, Stoller Conrad J, Schulz R. Spire, an actin nucleation factor, regulates cell division during Drosophila heart development. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30565 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila dorsal vessel is a beneficial model system for studying the regulation of early heart development. Spire (Spir), an actin-nucleation factor, regulates actin dynamics in many developmental processes, such as cell shape ..
  36. St Johnston D. RNA localization. Getting to the top. Curr Biol. 1994;4:54-6 pubmed
    ..Localizing gurken mRNA dorsally in Drosophila oocytes seems to be the first step in dorsoventral polarity establishment. Gurken, which resembles TGF alpha, may signal directly to dorsal follicle cells through the receptor Top. ..
  37. Wang Y, Riechmann V. Microtubule anchoring by cortical actin bundles prevents streaming of the oocyte cytoplasm. Mech Dev. 2008;125:142-52 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the actin binding proteins Profilin, Cappuccino (Capu) and Spire result in premature streaming of the cytoplasm and a reorganisation of the oocyte MT network...
  38. Liu J, Ghanim M, Xue L, Brown C, Iossifov I, Angeletti C, et al. Analysis of Drosophila segmentation network identifies a JNK pathway factor overexpressed in kidney cancer. Science. 2009;323:1218-22 pubmed publisher
    ..SPOP expression distinguished histological subtypes of RCC and facilitated identification of clear cell RCC as the primary tumor for metastatic lesions. ..
  39. Ding D, Whittaker K, Lipshitz H. Mitochondrially encoded 16S large ribosomal RNA is concentrated in the posterior polar plasm of early Drosophila embryos but is not required for pole cell formation. Dev Biol. 1994;163:503-15 pubmed
    ..These data argue against previous hypotheses that the 16S RNA serves an obligatory function in pole cell formation. ..
  40. Yassin A, Lienau E, Narechania A, DeSalle R. Catching the phylogenic history through the ontogenic hourglass: a phylogenomic analysis of Drosophila body segmentation genes. Evol Dev. 2010;12:288-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that simultaneous character-based analyses give better macroevolutionary support to the hourglass model of the developmental constraints on genome evolution than pairwise phenetic comparisons. ..
  41. Jordan K, Craver K, Magwire M, Cubilla C, Mackay T, Anholt R. Genome-wide association for sensitivity to chronic oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38722 pubmed publisher
    ..Many of these genes have human orthologs, highlighting the utility of genome-wide association in Drosophila for studying complex human disease. ..
  42. Tanaka T, Kato Y, Matsuda K, Hanyu Nakamura K, Nakamura A. Drosophila Mon2 couples Oskar-induced endocytosis with actin remodeling for cortical anchorage of the germ plasm. Development. 2011;138:2523-32 pubmed publisher
    ..with two actin nucleators known to be involved in osk RNA localization in the oocyte, Cappuccino (Capu) and Spire (Spir), and promotes the accumulation of the small GTPase Rho1 at the oocyte posterior...
  43. Ferreira T, Ou Y, Li S, Giniger E, van Meyel D. Dendrite architecture organized by transcriptional control of the F-actin nucleator Spire. Development. 2014;141:650-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Longitudinals Lacking (Lola), a BTB/POZ transcription factor, and its control of the F-actin cytoskeleton through Spire (Spir), an actin nucleation protein...
  44. Shulman J, St Johnston D. Pattern formation in single cells. Trends Cell Biol. 1999;9:M60-4 pubmed
    ..Unlike yeast, however, more complex eukaryotic cells can manifest multiple axes of polarity, suggesting that additional mechanisms have evolved to generate more elaborate patterns. ..
  45. Kobayashi S, Amikura R, Okada M. Localization of mitochondrial large rRNA in germinal granules and the consequent segregation of germ line. Int J Dev Biol. 1994;38:193-9 pubmed
  46. Serano T, Cohen R. Gratuitous mRNA localization in the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 1995;121:3013-21 pubmed
    ..We show that mutations in cappuccino and spire, which permit K10 mRNA transport, but prevent subsequent anterior localization, do not disrupt the synthesis or ..
  47. Rongo C, Lehmann R. Regulated synthesis, transport and assembly of the Drosophila germ plasm. Trends Genet. 1996;12:102-9 pubmed
    ..These results imply that the limiting steps in the assembly of the germ plasm are localization of the OSK RNA and regulated synthesis of the OSK protein, encoded by oskar, which are components of the germ plasm. ..
  48. Rasson A, Bois J, Pham D, Yoo H, Quinlan M. Filament assembly by Spire: key residues and concerted actin binding. J Mol Biol. 2015;427:824-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the discovery of their role in nucleation was surprising. Here we use Drosophila Spire (Spir) as a model system to investigate both how tandem WH2 domains can nucleate actin and what differentiates ..
  49. Kim Ha J, Kerr K, Macdonald P. Translational regulation of oskar mRNA by bruno, an ovarian RNA-binding protein, is essential. Cell. 1995;81:403-12 pubmed
    ..Addition of BREs to a heterologous mRNA renders it sensitive to translational repression in the ovary. ..
  50. Jackson S, Berg C. Soma-to-germline interactions during Drosophila oogenesis are influenced by dose-sensitive interactions between cut and the genes cappuccino, ovarian tumor and agnostic. Genetics. 1999;153:289-303 pubmed
    ..with chickadee or other genes that regulate cytoskeletal function, including armadillo, spaghetti squash, quail, spire, Src64B, and Tec29A...
  51. Sitar T, Gallinger J, Ducka A, Ikonen T, Wohlhoefler M, Schmoller K, et al. Molecular architecture of the Spire-actin nucleus and its implication for actin filament assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19575-80 pubmed publisher
    The Spire protein is a multifunctional regulator of actin assembly...
  52. Wolfgang W, Forte M. Posterior localization of the Drosophila Gi alpha protein during early embryogenesis requires a subset of the posterior group genes. Int J Dev Biol. 1995;39:581-6 pubmed
    ..By contrast, a subset of mutations which eliminate posterior structures, cappuccino, spire, staufen, mago nashi, valois, and oskar, prevented the posterior accumulation of Gi alpha...
  53. Gavis E. Expeditions to the pole: RNA localization in Xenopus and Drosophila. Trends Cell Biol. 1997;7:485-92 pubmed
    ..While specific aspects of localization differ among RNAs, similarities between pathways used by Xenopus and Drosophila suggest that common themes have been conserved among localization mechanisms. ..
  54. Huynh J, Munro T, Smith Litière K, Lepesant J, St Johnston D. The Drosophila hnRNPA/B homolog, Hrp48, is specifically required for a distinct step in osk mRNA localization. Dev Cell. 2004;6:625-35 pubmed
    ..This suggests a new step in the localization pathway, which may correspond to the assembly of Staufen/oskar mRNA transport particles. ..
  55. Chen C, Sawaya M, Phillips M, Reisler E, Quinlan M. Multiple forms of Spire-actin complexes and their functional consequences. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:10684-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Spire is a WH2 domain-containing actin nucleator essential for establishing an actin mesh during oogenesis. In vitro, in addition to nucleating filaments, Spire can sever them and sequester actin monomers...
  56. Bai C, Tolias P. Genetic analysis of a La homolog in Drosophila melanogaster. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:1078-84 pubmed
    ..Our results support the hypothesis that D-La provides essential functions for proper Drosophila development and imply that the conserved La family of proteins may perform critical developmental functions in higher eukaryotes. ..
  57. Ducka A, Joel P, Popowicz G, Trybus K, Schleicher M, Noegel A, et al. Structures of actin-bound Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein homology 2 (WH2) domains of Spire and the implication for filament nucleation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11757-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Crystal structures of the complexes between the actin-binding WH2 repeats of the Spire protein and actin were determined for the Spire single WH2 domain D, the double (SpirCD), triple (SpirBCD), ..
  58. Newmark P, Mohr S, Gong L, Boswell R. mago nashi mediates the posterior follicle cell-to-oocyte signal to organize axis formation in Drosophila. Development. 1997;124:3197-207 pubmed
    ..In the absence of mago+ function during oogenesis, the anteroposterior and dorsoventral coordinates of the oocyte are not specified and the germ plasm fails to assemble. ..
  59. Stroupe M, Xu C, Goode B, Grigorieff N. Actin filament labels for localizing protein components in large complexes viewed by electron microscopy. RNA. 2009;15:244-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To bypass this step, we generated a cloneable tag from the actin-nucleating protein Spire that produces a directly visible "pointer" to the subunit after actin polymerization...
  60. Lasko P. Molecular movements in oocyte patterning and pole cell differentiation. Bioessays. 1992;14:507-12 pubmed
    ..This work is considered in the context of the classical model of the germ plasm as a cytoplasmic determinant for germ cell formation. ..
  61. Schupbach T, Roth S. Dorsoventral patterning in Drosophila oogenesis. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1994;4:502-7 pubmed
    ..This localized signal from the oocyte to the follicle cells appears to initiate a cascade of events leading to dorsal follicle cell differentiation, and delimiting and orienting the future dorsoventral axis of the embryo. ..
  62. Stebbings H, Lane J, Talbot N. mRNA translocation and microtubules: insect ovary models. Trends Cell Biol. 1995;5:361-5 pubmed
    ..This article explores the evidence supportive of a role for microtubules and motor proteins in these processes. ..
  63. Clifford R, Schupbach T. Coordinately and differentially mutable activities of torpedo, the Drosophila melanogaster homolog of the vertebrate EGF receptor gene. Genetics. 1989;123:771-87 pubmed
    ..Correlations observed between the various developmental defects produced by top lesions suggest that the gene possesses several differentially, though not independently, mutable activities. ..
  64. Paunola E, Mattila P, Lappalainen P. WH2 domain: a small, versatile adapter for actin monomers. FEBS Lett. 2002;513:92-7 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the WH2 domain is an ancient actin monomer-binding motif that existed before the divergence of fungal and animal lineages. ..
  65. Neuman Silberberg F. Drosophila female sterile mutation spoonbill interferes with multiple pathways in oogenesis. Genesis. 2007;45:369-81 pubmed
    ..Based on the previous data and the results presented here, it is anticipated that spoonbill may encode a multifunctional protein that perhaps coordinately regulated the activity of multiple signaling pathways during oogenesis. ..
  66. Stabell M, Bjørkmo M, Aalen R, Lambertsson A. The Drosophila SET domain encoding gene dEset is essential for proper development. Hereditas. 2006;143:177-88 pubmed
    ..Several interacting partners, for example USP, spire, and cut up were identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen...
  67. Tanaka T, Nakamura A. The endocytic pathway acts downstream of Oskar in Drosophila germ plasm assembly. Development. 2008;135:1107-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Osk stimulates endosomal cycling, which in turn promotes F-actin reorganization to anchor the pole plasm components to the oocyte cortex. ..
  68. Gates M, Kannan R, Giniger E. A genome-wide analysis reveals that the Drosophila transcription factor Lola promotes axon growth in part by suppressing expression of the actin nucleation factor Spire. Neural Dev. 2011;6:37 pubmed publisher
    ..Among other loci, we find lola to be a negative regulator of spire, an actin nucleation factor that has been studied for its essential role in oogenesis...
  69. Ephrussi A, Lehmann R. Induction of germ cell formation by oskar. Nature. 1992;358:387-92 pubmed
    ..Of the eight genes necessary for germ cell formation at the posterior, only three, oskar, vasa and tudor, are essential at an ectopic site. ..
  70. Markussen F, Michon A, Breitwieser W, Ephrussi A. Translational control of oskar generates short OSK, the isoform that induces pole plasma assembly. Development. 1995;121:3723-32 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that when oskar RNA is localized, accumulation of Oskar protein requires the functions of vasa and tudor, as well as oskar itself, suggesting a positive feedback mechanism in the induction of pole plasm by oskar. ..
  71. McGrail M, Gepner J, Silvanovich A, Ludmann S, Serr M, Hays T. Regulation of cytoplasmic dynein function in vivo by the Drosophila Glued complex. J Cell Biol. 1995;131:411-25 pubmed
    ..Together with the observed dependency of Glued localization on dynein function, these genetic interactions demonstrate a functional association between the Drosophila dynein motor and Glued complexes. ..
  72. Quinlan M. Direct interaction between two actin nucleators is required in Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 2013;140:4417-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic experiments indicate that at least two proteins, Spire (Spir) and Cappuccino (Capu), are required to build this mesh...
  73. Girardot F, Lasbleiz C, Monnier V, Tricoire H. Specific age-related signatures in Drosophila body parts transcriptome. BMC Genomics. 2006;7:69 pubmed
    ..This work also emphasizes the need for such experiments to reveal in greater detail the consequences of the transcriptional modifications induced by aging regulatory pathways. ..