Gene Symbol: spd-2
Description: spindle defective 2
Alias: BcDNA:LD24702, CEP192, CG17286, CG17286-PA, Cep192, D-SPD2, D-Spd2, DSPD-2, DSpd-2, DSpd2, Dmel\CG17286, Dspd-2, Dspd2, SPD-2, SPD2, Spd-2, Spd2, anon-73Ba, dSpd2, spd2, spindle defective 2, CG17286-PA, spd-2-PA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Przewloka M, Venkei Z, Bolanos Garcia V, Debski J, Dadlez M, Glover D. CENP-C is a structural platform for kinetochore assembly. Curr Biol. 2011;21:399-405 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the N-terminal part of Drosophila CENP-C is sufficient to recruit core kinetochore components and acts as the principal linkage between centromere and kinetochore during mitosis. ..
  2. Riparbelli M, Callaini G. Male gametogenesis without centrioles. Dev Biol. 2011;349:427-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Spindle formation during germ cell mitosis may be successfully supported by an acentrosomal pathway that is inadequate to warrant the proper execution of meiosis...
  3. Fu J, Glover D. Structured illumination of the interface between centriole and peri-centriolar material. Open Biol. 2012;2:120104 pubmed publisher
    ..Although they occupy different spatial compartments on the G2 centriole, Cnn, Spd-2 and ?-tubulin become diminished at the centriole upon entry into meiosis to become part of PCM clouds...
  4. Dix C, Raff J. Drosophila Spd-2 recruits PCM to the sperm centriole, but is dispensable for centriole duplication. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1759-64 pubmed
    ..We speculate that the SPD-2 family of proteins might only be absolutely essential for the recruitment of centriole duplication factors and PCM to the centriole(s) that enter the egg with the fertilizing sperm...
  5. Riparbelli M, Callaini G. Detachment of the basal body from the sperm tail is not required to organize functional centrosomes during Drosophila embryogenesis. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2010;67:251-8 pubmed publisher
    ..If the sperm centriole is a true basal body, then the widespread idea that cells with a primary cilium must resorb the axoneme and transform the basal body into a centriole to enable proper mitosis will have to be re-examined...
  6. Carvalho Santos Z, Machado P, Branco P, Tavares Cadete F, Rodrigues Martins A, Pereira Leal J, et al. Stepwise evolution of the centriole-assembly pathway. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:1414-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpectedly, other players (SAK/PLK4, SPD2/CEP192 and CP110) emerged in a taxon-specific manner...
  7. Conduit P, Feng Z, Richens J, Baumbach J, Wainman A, Bakshi S, et al. The centrosome-specific phosphorylation of Cnn by Polo/Plk1 drives Cnn scaffold assembly and centrosome maturation. Dev Cell. 2014;28:659-69 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Polo/Plk1 initiates the phosphorylation-dependent assembly of a Cnn scaffold around centrioles that is essential for efficient centrosome maturation in flies. ..
  8. Conduit P, Brunk K, Dobbelaere J, Dix C, Lucas E, Raff J. Centrioles regulate centrosome size by controlling the rate of Cnn incorporation into the PCM. Curr Biol. 2010;20:2178-86 pubmed publisher
    ..into the PCM is driven by an interaction with the conserved centriolar proteins Asl (Cep152 in humans) and DSpd-2 (Cep192 in humans)...
  9. Bucciarelli E, Pellacani C, Naim V, Palena A, Gatti M, Somma M. Drosophila Dgt6 interacts with Ndc80, Msps/XMAP215, and gamma-tubulin to promote kinetochore-driven MT formation. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1839-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Dgt6 may also promote elongation of kinetochore-driven k-fibers through its interaction with gamma-tubulin and Msps. ..

More Information


  1. Mottier Pavie V, Megraw T. Drosophila bld10 is a centriolar protein that regulates centriole, basal body, and motile cilium assembly. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2605-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that Drosophila Bld10 is required for centriole and axoneme assembly to confer cilium motility. ..
  2. Giansanti M, Bucciarelli E, Bonaccorsi S, Gatti M. Drosophila SPD-2 is an essential centriole component required for PCM recruitment and astral-microtubule nucleation. Curr Biol. 2008;18:303-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that DSpd-2 functions in a very early step of the PCM recruitment pathway. ..
  3. Rodrigues Martins A, Bettencourt Dias M, Riparbelli M, Ferreira C, Ferreira I, Callaini G, et al. DSAS-6 organizes a tube-like centriole precursor, and its absence suggests modularity in centriole assembly. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1465-72 pubmed
    ..We propose that the tube is built from nine subunits fitting together laterally and longitudinally in a modular and sequential fashion, like pieces of a layered "hollow" cake. ..
  4. Hayward D, Metz J, Pellacani C, Wakefield J. Synergy between multiple microtubule-generating pathways confers robustness to centrosome-driven mitotic spindle formation. Dev Cell. 2014;28:81-93 pubmed publisher
    ..It also demonstrates that the contributions of each pathway to spindle formation are integrated, highlighting the remarkable flexibility with which cells can respond to perturbations that limit their capacity to generate microtubules. ..
  5. Roque H, Wainman A, Richens J, Kozyrska K, Franz A, Raff J. Drosophila Cep135/Bld10 maintains proper centriole structure but is dispensable for cartwheel formation. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:5881-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in flies, Cep135/Bld10 is not essential for cartwheel assembly or for establishing the ninefold symmetry of centrioles; rather, it appears to stabilize the connection between inner and outer centriole components. ..
  6. Galletta B, Jacobs K, Fagerstrom C, Rusan N. Asterless is required for centriole length control and sperm development. J Cell Biol. 2016;213:435-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Insights into the role of Asl/Cep152 beyond centriole duplication could help shed light on how Cep152 mutations lead to the development of microcephaly. ..
  7. Baumbach J, Novak Z, Raff J, Wainman A. Dissecting the function and assembly of acentriolar microtubule organizing centers in Drosophila cells in vivo. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005261 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose an updated model for acentriolar spindle pole coalescence by the molecular motors Ncd/HSET and dynein in conjunction with aMTOCs. ..
  8. Meghini F, Martins T, Tait X, Fujimitsu K, Yamano H, Glover D, et al. Targeting of Fzr/Cdh1 for timely activation of the APC/C at the centrosome during mitotic exit. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12607 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identify the centrosome component Spd2 as a major partner of Fzr in Drosophila...
  9. Belote J, McKeown M, Boggs R, Ohkawa R, Sosnowski B. Molecular genetics of transformer, a genetic switch controlling sexual differentiation in Drosophila. Dev Genet. 1989;10:143-54 pubmed
    ..The mechanism by which Sex lethal regulates transformer splicing appears to be a repression of the use of one of a pair of splice acceptor sites. ..
  10. Gottardo M, Callaini G, Riparbelli M. Klp10A modulates the localization of centriole-associated proteins during Drosophila male gametogenesis. Cell Cycle. 2016;15:3432-3441 pubmed publisher
    ..Daughter centrioles have often an ectopic position with respect to the proximal end of the mothers and failed to recruit Dplp. ..
  11. Venkei Z, Yamashita Y. The centrosome orientation checkpoint is germline stem cell specific and operates prior to the spindle assembly checkpoint in Drosophila testis. Development. 2015;142:62-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study may provide a framework for identifying and understanding similar mechanisms that might be in place in other asymmetrically dividing cell types. ..
  12. Anderson M, Jodoin J, Lee E, Hales K, Hays T, Lee L. Asunder is a critical regulator of dynein-dynactin localization during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2709-21 pubmed publisher
  13. Riparbelli M, Callaini G, Megraw T. Assembly and persistence of primary cilia in dividing Drosophila spermatocytes. Dev Cell. 2012;23:425-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings challenge the prevailing view that cilia antagonize cell-cycle progression and raise the possibility that cilium retention at cell division may occur in diverse organisms and cell types...
  14. Yuan H, Chiang C, Cheng J, Salzmann V, Yamashita Y. Regulation of cyclin A localization downstream of Par-1 function is critical for the centrosome orientation checkpoint in Drosophila male germline stem cells. Dev Biol. 2012;361:57-67 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the regulation of cyclin A localization via Par-1 function plays a critical role in the centrosome orientation checkpoint. ..
  15. Lipinszki Z, Lefevre S, Savoian M, Singleton M, Glover D, Przewloka M. Centromeric binding and activity of Protein Phosphatase 4. Nat Commun. 2015;6:5894 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that binding of Flfl to CENP-C is required to bring PP4 activity to centromeres to maintain CENP-C and attached core kinetochore proteins at chromosomes during mitosis. ..
  16. Conduit P, Wainman A, Novak Z, Weil T, Raff J. Re-examining the role of Drosophila Sas-4 in centrosome assembly using two-colour-3D-SIM FRAP. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..We show here, however, that Cnn, Spd-2 and Asl are not recruited to the mother centriole as part of a complex with Sas-4. Thus, PCM recruitment in fly embryos does not appear to require cytosolic S-CAP complexes. ..
  17. Chen J, Kao L, Jana S, Sivan Loukianova E, Mendonça S, Cabrera O, et al. Rootletin organizes the ciliary rootlet to achieve neuron sensory function in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2015;211:435-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Ectopically expressed Root resides at the base of mother centrioles in spermatocytes and localizes asymmetrically to mother centrosomes in neuroblasts, both requiring Bld10, a basal body protein with varied functions. ..
  18. Volpi S, Bongiorni S, Fabbretti F, Wakimoto B, Prantera G. Drosophila rae1 is required for male meiosis and spermatogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:3541-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies in Drosophila provide the first evidence for an essential meiotic role of RAE1, and thus define RAE1 as a protein required for both meiotic and mitotic cell cycles. ..
  19. Delgehyr N, Wieland U, Rangone H, Pinson X, Mao G, Dzhindzhev N, et al. Drosophila Mgr, a Prefoldin subunit cooperating with von Hippel Lindau to regulate tubulin stability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:5729-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Vhl may play a pivotal role: promoting microtubule stabilization when tubulins are correctly folded by Prefoldin and tubulin destruction when they are not. ..
  20. Reschen R, Colombié N, Wheatley L, Dobbelaere J, St Johnston D, Ohkura H, et al. Dgp71WD is required for the assembly of the acentrosomal Meiosis I spindle, and is not a general targeting factor for the γ-TuRC. Biol Open. 2012;1:422-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Dgp71WD is not simply a general cofactor required for γ-TuRC and/or Augmin targeting, and it appears to have a crucial role independent of these complexes in the acentrosomal Meiosis I spindle. ..
  21. Blachon S, Khire A, Avidor Reiss T. The origin of the second centriole in the zygote of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2014;197:199-205 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations demonstrate that the PCL is the origin for the second centriole in the Drosophila zygote and that a paternal centriole precursor, without centriolar proteins, is transmitted to the egg during fertilization. ..
  22. Martins A, Machado P, Callaini G, Bettencourt Dias M. Microscopy methods for the study of centriole biogenesis and function in Drosophila. Methods Cell Biol. 2010;97:223-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These methods have been widely used to study centriole assembly and its function as a centrosome organizer during mitotic and meiotic cell divisions and as an axoneme nucleator in the formation of flagella...
  23. Vernì F, Cenci G. The Drosophila histone variant H2A.V works in concert with HP1 to promote kinetochore-driven microtubule formation. Cell Cycle. 2015;14:577-88 pubmed publisher
    ..V mutants indicating that both phenotypes are influenced by unbalanced levels of HP1. Collectively, our results suggest that H2A.V and HP1 work in concert to ensure kinetochore-driven MT growth. ..
  24. Galletta B, Fagerstrom C, Schoborg T, McLamarrah T, Ryniawec J, Buster D, et al. A centrosome interactome provides insight into organelle assembly and reveals a non-duplication role for Plk4. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12476 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Plk4 phosphorylates Cep135 to properly position the essential centriole component Asterless. This interaction landscape affords a critical framework for research of normal and aberrant centrosomes. ..
  25. Wainman A, Creque J, Williams B, Williams E, Bonaccorsi S, Gatti M, et al. Roles of the Drosophila NudE protein in kinetochore function and centrosome migration. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:1747-58 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in the absence of NudE, the 'shedding' of proteins off the kinetochore is abrogated and the SAC cannot be turned off, implying that NudE regulates dynein function at the kinetochore. ..
  26. Richens J, Barros T, Lucas E, Peel N, Pinto D, Wainman A, et al. The Drosophila Pericentrin-like-protein (PLP) cooperates with Cnn to maintain the integrity of the outer PCM. Biol Open. 2015;4:1052-61 pubmed publisher
    ..A deletion analysis suggests that PLP participates in a complex network of interactions that ultimately help to strengthen the PCM. ..
  27. Lerit D, Rusan N. PLP inhibits the activity of interphase centrosomes to ensure their proper segregation in stem cells. J Cell Biol. 2013;202:1013-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we conclude that, although asymmetric centrosome maturation is not required for asymmetric cell division, it is required for proper centrosome segregation to the two daughter cells. ..
  28. Klebba J, Galletta B, Nye J, Plevock K, Buster D, Hollingsworth N, et al. Two Polo-like kinase 4 binding domains in Asterless perform distinct roles in regulating kinase stability. J Cell Biol. 2015;208:401-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Asl not only targets Plk4 to centrioles but also modulates Plk4 stability and activity, explaining the ability of overexpressed Asl to drive centriole amplification. ..
  29. Conduit P, Richens J, Wainman A, Holder J, Vicente C, Pratt M, et al. A molecular mechanism of mitotic centrosome assembly in Drosophila. elife. 2014;3:e03399 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest a surprisingly simple mechanism of mitotic PCM assembly in flies. ..
  30. McKeown M, Belote J, Baker B. A molecular analysis of transformer, a gene in Drosophila melanogaster that controls female sexual differentiation. Cell. 1987;48:489-99 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that tra+ function is regulated at the level of production of the female-specific tra RNA. The fact that a tra transcript is found in males raises interesting possibilities for how tra expression is controlled. ..