Gene Symbol: SP
Description: Sex Peptide
Alias: ACP, ACP70A, Acp-70A, Acp70, Acp70A, Acp70a, Apc70A, CG17673, Dmel\CG17673, DrmSP, PapB, Spg70, sex peptide, Sex peptide, CG17673-PA, DrmSP, Paragonial-peptide-B, SP-PA, Sex-Peptide, accessory gland peptide 70A, accessory gland protein 70A, accessory protein 70A, sex peptide gene in 70, sexpeptide
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Gioti A, Wigby S, Wertheim B, Schuster E, Martinez P, Pennington C, et al. Sex peptide of Drosophila melanogaster males is a global regulator of reproductive processes in females. Proc Biol Sci. 2012;279:4423-32 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila melanogaster, a single Sfp, the sex peptide (SP), triggers remarkable post-mating responses in females, including altered fecundity, feeding, immunity and ..
  2. Rezaval C, Pavlou H, Dornan A, Chan Y, Kravitz E, Goodwin S. Neural circuitry underlying Drosophila female postmating behavioral responses. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1155-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Transfer of male sex peptide (SP) during copulation mediates these postmating responses via sensory neurons that coexpress the sex-..
  3. Moshitzky P, Fleischmann I, Chaimov N, Saudan P, Klauser S, Kubli E, et al. Sex-peptide activates juvenile hormone biosynthesis in the Drosophila melanogaster corpus allatum. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 1996;32:363-74 pubmed
    ..One of these factors, named sex-peptide (SP), has been identified in Drosophila melanogaster...
  4. Kubli E. The sex-peptide. Bioessays. 1992;14:779-84 pubmed
    ..The sex-peptide, therefore, can be considered as a pheromone. In this review, I shall limit my discussion to Drosophila melanogaster. ..
  5. Fricke C, Wigby S, Hobbs R, Chapman T. The benefits of male ejaculate sex peptide transfer in Drosophila melanogaster. J Evol Biol. 2009;22:275-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we measured the fitness benefits to males of ejaculate sex peptide (SP) transfer...
  6. Häsemeyer M, Yapici N, Heberlein U, Dickson B. Sensory neurons in the Drosophila genital tract regulate female reproductive behavior. Neuron. 2009;61:511-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila melanogaster, changes in female behavior upon mating are triggered by the sex peptide (SP), a small peptide present in the male's seminal fluid...
  7. Peng J, Zipperlen P, Kubli E. Drosophila sex-peptide stimulates female innate immune system after mating via the Toll and Imd pathways. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1690-4 pubmed
    ..Metchnikowin (Mtk) expression is strongly stimulated in the first 6 hr after mating. Sex-peptide (SP), a male seminal peptide transferred during copulation, is the major agent eliciting transcription of Mtk and of ..
  8. Findlay G, Yi X, MacCoss M, Swanson W. Proteomics reveals novel Drosophila seminal fluid proteins transferred at mating. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e178 pubmed publisher
  9. Feng K, Palfreyman M, Häsemeyer M, Talsma A, Dickson B. Ascending SAG neurons control sexual receptivity of Drosophila females. Neuron. 2014;83:135-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, postmating behavioral changes are triggered by sex peptide (SP), a male seminal fluid peptide that acts via a receptor (SPR) expressed in sensory neurons (SPSNs) of the ..

More Information


  1. Pilpel N, Nezer I, Applebaum S, Heifetz Y. Mating-increases trypsin in female Drosophila hemolymph. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;38:320-30 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this hypothesis we examined the fate of one Acp, Drosophila melanogaster Sex Peptide (Acp70A, DrmSP), which possesses several putative serine-protease cleavage sites, in hemolymph of unmated and ..
  2. Haussmann I, Hemani Y, Wijesekera T, Dauwalder B, Soller M. Multiple pathways mediate the sex-peptide-regulated switch in female Drosophila reproductive behaviours. Proc Biol Sci. 2013;280:20131938 pubmed publisher
    Male-derived sex-peptide (SP) induces profound changes in the behaviour of Drosophila females, resulting in decreased receptivity to further mating and increased egg laying...
  3. Chapman T, Bangham J, Vinti G, Seifried B, Lung O, Wolfner M, et al. The sex peptide of Drosophila melanogaster: female post-mating responses analyzed by using RNA interference. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9923-8 pubmed
    ..Injection of the seminal fluid sex peptide (SP) induces both responses in virgin females, but only for 1-2 days...
  4. Xue L, Noll M. Drosophila female sexual behavior induced by sterile males showing copulation complementation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:3272-5 pubmed
    ..Our observations may have important implications for the role of sexual behavior in evolution and for the treatment of male sexual dysfunction in humans. ..
  5. Liu H, Kubli E. Sex-peptide is the molecular basis of the sperm effect in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9929-33 pubmed
    ..Three seminal fluid peptides elicit postmating responses: ovulin, sex-peptide (SP), and DUP99B...
  6. LaFlamme B, Ram K, Wolfner M. The Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid protease "seminase" regulates proteolytic and post-mating reproductive processes. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002435 pubmed publisher
    ..phenotypes of females mated to CG10586 knockdown males are similar to those of females that fail to store sex peptide, an important elicitor of long-term post-mating responses, and indicate a role for CG10586 in regulating sex ..
  7. Yang C, Rumpf S, Xiang Y, Gordon M, Song W, Jan L, et al. Control of the postmating behavioral switch in Drosophila females by internal sensory neurons. Neuron. 2009;61:519-26 pubmed publisher
    ..in the receptivity and egg-laying behavior in Drosophila females, primarily due to a peptide pheromone called sex peptide which is transferred with the sperm into the female reproductive tract during copulation...
  8. Wolfner M. Tokens of love: functions and regulation of Drosophila male accessory gland products. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 1997;27:179-92 pubmed
    ..Further dissection of accessory gland function has defined several molecules that cause these effects. A "sex peptide" and a prohormone-like molecule (Accessory gland protein 26Aa) stimulate the female's egg-laying rate; the ..
  9. Ribeiro C, Dickson B. Sex peptide receptor and neuronal TOR/S6K signaling modulate nutrient balancing in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1000-5 pubmed publisher
    ..is a critical modulator of this decision-making process in females and that it relies on the action of the sex peptide receptor in internal ppk(+) sensory neurons...
  10. Carvalho G, Kapahi P, Anderson D, Benzer S. Allocrine modulation of feeding behavior by the Sex Peptide of Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2006;16:692-6 pubmed
    ..Remarkably, this change is abolished if the males lack a single, small seminal protein, the Sex Peptide (SP)...
  11. Isaac R, Li C, Leedale A, Shirras A. Drosophila male sex peptide inhibits siesta sleep and promotes locomotor activity in the post-mated female. Proc Biol Sci. 2010;277:65-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This behaviour lasts for at least 8 days after copulation and is abolished if the mating males lack sex peptide (SP), normally present in the seminal fluid...
  12. Fricke C, Bretman A, Chapman T. Female nutritional status determines the magnitude and sign of responses to a male ejaculate signal in Drosophila melanogaster. J Evol Biol. 2010;23:157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..adult female nutrition on the response of female Drosophila melanogaster to a specific ejaculate component, the sex peptide (SP), which is of interest because of its effects on female egg laying, sexual receptivity, feeding rate, ..
  13. Sirot L, Wolfner M, Wigby S. Protein-specific manipulation of ejaculate composition in response to female mating status in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9922-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the levels of a key receptivity-inhibiting Sfp (sex peptide) were the same in M and V females...
  14. Kalb J, Dibenedetto A, Wolfner M. Probing the function of Drosophila melanogaster accessory glands by directed cell ablation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:8093-7 pubmed
    ..These transgenic strains that express diphtheria toxins of different strengths in accessory-gland main cells will be useful in further defining the role of these cells. ..
  15. Kubli E. Sex-peptides: seminal peptides of the Drosophila male. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2003;60:1689-704 pubmed publisher
    ..Sps bind to sperm. Together with sperm they are responsible for the persistence of the two post-mating responses. But Sps are the molecular basis of the sperm effect; sperm is merely the carrier...
  16. Avila F, Ravi Ram K, Bloch Qazi M, Wolfner M. Sex peptide is required for the efficient release of stored sperm in mated Drosophila females. Genetics. 2010;186:595-600 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila seminal fluid protein (SFP) sex peptide (SP) elicits numerous post-mating responses, including increased egg laying and decreased sexual receptivity, in the mated female...
  17. Soller M, Bownes M, Kubli E. Mating and sex peptide stimulate the accumulation of yolk in oocytes of Drosophila melanogaster. Eur J Biochem. 1997;243:732-8 pubmed
    ..Central to the control of receptivity and oviposition in Drosophila melanogaster is the sex peptide (SP), a 36-amino-acid peptide sex pheromone synthesized in the male accessory glands and transferred to the ..
  18. Kim Y, Bartalska K, Audsley N, Yamanaka N, Yapici N, Lee J, et al. MIPs are ancestral ligands for the sex peptide receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:6520-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila melanogaster, postmating behaviors are triggered by sex peptide (SP), which is produced in the male seminal fluid and transferred to female during copulation...
  19. Soller M, Bownes M, Kubli E. Control of oocyte maturation in sexually mature Drosophila females. Dev Biol. 1999;208:337-51 pubmed
    ..Since juvenile hormone analogue does not elicit increased oviposition and reduced receptivity, Sex-Peptide must have an additional, separate effect on these two postmating responses. ..
  20. Chow C, Wolfner M, Clark A. The genetic basis for male x female interactions underlying variation in reproductive phenotypes of Drosophila. Genetics. 2010;186:1355-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Encoded on these chromosomes are, respectively, sex peptide (SP) and sex peptide receptor (SPR), the only pair of physically interacting male Acp and female receptor known...
  21. Aigaki T, Fleischmann I, Chen P, Kubli E. Ectopic expression of sex peptide alters reproductive behavior of female D. melanogaster. Neuron. 1991;7:557-63 pubmed
    b>Sex peptide, a secreted component of the male accessory glands, has been shown to induce behavioral and physiological changes in mated Drosophila...
  22. Gligorov D, Sitnik J, Maeda R, Wolfner M, Karch F. A novel function for the Hox gene Abd-B in the male accessory gland regulates the long-term female post-mating response in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003395 pubmed publisher
    ..Many of these phenotypes seem to be caused by a defect in the storage and gradual release of sex peptide in female mates of iab-6 mutant males...
  23. Peng J, Chen S, Büsser S, Liu H, Honegger T, Kubli E. Gradual release of sperm bound sex-peptide controls female postmating behavior in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2005;15:207-13 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila melanogaster, sex-peptide (SP) elicits short- and long-term PMR, but only the latter in the presence of stored sperm (sperm effect)...
  24. Barnes A, Wigby S, Boone J, Partridge L, Chapman T. Feeding, fecundity and lifespan in female Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Biol Sci. 2008;275:1675-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila melanogaster, these effects can be mediated by an ejaculate 'sex peptide' (SP), which, in addition, contributes significantly to the cost of mating in females...
  25. Minami R, Wakabayashi M, Sugimori S, Taniguchi K, Kokuryo A, Imano T, et al. The homeodomain protein defective proventriculus is essential for male accessory gland development to enhance fecundity in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32302 pubmed publisher
    ..A well-known accessory gland protein, sex peptide, is secreted from the main cells and induces female postmating response to increase progeny production, whereas ..
  26. Wigby S, Sirot L, Linklater J, Buehner N, Calboli F, Bretman A, et al. Seminal fluid protein allocation and male reproductive success. Curr Biol. 2009;19:751-7 pubmed publisher
    ..When males were exposed to a competitor male, matings were longer and more of two key Sfps, sex peptide [8] and ovulin [9], were transferred, indicating strategic allocation of Sfps...
  27. Cognigni P, Bailey A, Miguel Aliaga I. Enteric neurons and systemic signals couple nutritional and reproductive status with intestinal homeostasis. Cell Metab. 2011;13:92-104 pubmed publisher
    ..modulating appetite, a vasopressin-like system essential for fluid homeostasis, and enteric neurons mediating sex peptide-induced changes in intestinal physiology...
  28. Keleman K, Vrontou E, Krüttner S, Yu J, Kurtovic Kozaric A, Dickson B. Dopamine neurons modulate pheromone responses in Drosophila courtship learning. Nature. 2012;489:145-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work thus reveals critical behavioural, cellular and molecular components of the learning rule by which Drosophila adjusts its innate mating strategy according to experience. ..
  29. Chen P, Stumm Zollinger E, Aigaki T, Balmer J, Bienz M, Bohlen P. A male accessory gland peptide that regulates reproductive behavior of female D. melanogaster. Cell. 1988;54:291-8 pubmed
    ..The precursor peptide is encoded by a short mRNA that accumulates exclusively in the male accessory gland. The gene has been localized by in situ hybridization to polytene chromosomes at 70A. ..
  30. Chen P. The accessory gland proteins in male Drosophila: structural, reproductive, and evolutionary aspects. Experientia. 1996;52:503-10 pubmed
    ..The most prominent feature is the species-specific variability. However, the analysis of the sex peptide in D...
  31. Rogina B. The effect of sex peptide and calorie intake on fecundity in female Drosophila melanogaster. ScientificWorldJournal. 2009;9:1178-89 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Sex peptide (SP) is one of the Acps that initiates many changes, including an increase in egg production...
  32. Wigby S, Chapman T. Sex peptide causes mating costs in female Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2005;15:316-21 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate here that a single Acp, the sex peptide (SP or Acp70A), which decreases female receptivity and stimulates egg production in the first matings of virgin ..
  33. Nakayama S, Kaiser K, Aigaki T. Ectopic expression of sex-peptide in a variety of tissues in Drosophila females using the P[GAL4] enhancer-trap system. Mol Gen Genet. 1997;254:449-55 pubmed
    Sex-peptide (SP), which is secreted by the accessory gland of Drosophila males, is transferred to the female during copulation, thereby reducing her sexual appetite (receptivity to males) and stimulating ovulation/oviposition...
  34. Domanitskaya E, Liu H, Chen S, Kubli E. The hydroxyproline motif of male sex peptide elicits the innate immune response in Drosophila females. FEBS J. 2007;274:5659-68 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila melanogaster females, sex peptide (SP) is the major seminal agent eliciting oviposition and reduction of receptivity...
  35. Ram K, Wolfner M. A network of interactions among seminal proteins underlies the long-term postmating response in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:15384-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Drosophila seminal fluid also contains a "sex peptide" (SP, Acp70A) that plays a major role in regulating egg production and mating behavior in females for ..
  36. Fiumera A, Dumont B, Clark A. Associations between sperm competition and natural variation in male reproductive genes on the third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2007;176:1245-60 pubmed
    ..Several associations were consistent with previous findings [Acp70A with the male's influence on the female's refractoriness to remating (refractory), Esterase-6 with a male's ..
  37. Fricke C, Green D, Mills W, Chapman T. Age-dependent female responses to a male ejaculate signal alter demographic opportunities for selection. Proc Biol Sci. 2013;280:20130428 pubmed publisher
    ..this by using as a model the responses of Drosophila melanogaster females of different ages to receipt of sex peptide (SP), a seminal fluid protein transferred with sperm during mating...
  38. Saudan P, Hauck K, Soller M, Choffat Y, Ottiger M, Spörri M, et al. Ductus ejaculatorius peptide 99B (DUP99B), a novel Drosophila melanogaster sex-peptide pheromone. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:989-97 pubmed
    ..The C-terminal parts of mature DUP99B and D. melanogaster sex-peptide (ACP70A) are highly homologous...
  39. Chapman T. Seminal fluid-mediated fitness traits in Drosophila. Heredity (Edinb). 2001;87:511-21 pubmed
    ..In this review I address these issues by bringing together evidence for the function, evolution, diversification, and maintenance of variation in, seminal fluid-mediated traits...
  40. Wolfner M. The gifts that keep on giving: physiological functions and evolutionary dynamics of male seminal proteins in Drosophila. Heredity (Edinb). 2002;88:85-93 pubmed
    ..An apparent prohormonal Acp, ovulin (Acp26Aa) stimulates ovulation in mated Drosophila females...
  41. Short S, Wolfner M, Lazzaro B. Female Drosophila melanogaster suffer reduced defense against infection due to seminal fluid components. J Insect Physiol. 2012;58:1192-201 pubmed publisher
    ..on male transfer of sperm and seminal fluid proteins, including the accessory gland protein known as "sex peptide." However, the effect of these male factors is dependent on the presence of the female germline...
  42. Wigby S, Perry J, Kim Y, Sirot L. Developmental environment mediates male seminal protein investment in Drosophila melanogaster. Funct Ecol. 2016;30:410-419 pubmed
    ..As predicted, large males produced more of two key seminal proteins, sex peptide (SP) and ovulin, and were more successful at obtaining matings with both virgin and previously mated females...
  43. Fedorka K, Winterhalter W, Ware B. Perceived sperm competition intensity influences seminal fluid protein production prior to courtship and mating. Evolution. 2011;65:584-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that perceived competition in the pre-mating environment places a significant influence on Sfp allocation, which may be a general trend in promiscuous animal systems with internal fertilization...
  44. Birse R, Johnson E, Taghert P, Nassel D. Widely distributed Drosophila G-protein-coupled receptor (CG7887) is activated by endogenous tachykinin-related peptides. J Neurobiol. 2006;66:33-46 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that DTKR is a DTK receptor in Drosophila and that this ligand-receptor system plays multiple functional roles. ..
  45. Yuan Q, Song Y, Yang C, Jan L, Jan Y. Female contact modulates male aggression via a sexually dimorphic GABAergic circuit in Drosophila. Nat Neurosci. 2014;17:81-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the GABAergic inhibition represents a critical cellular mechanism that enables prior experience to modulate aggression. ..
  46. Miller P, Obrik Uloho O, Phan M, Medrano C, Renier J, Thayer J, et al. The song of the old mother: reproductive senescence in female drosophila. Fly (Austin). 2014;8:127-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the genetic basis of reproductive senescence clarifies the nature of life-history trade-offs as well as potential ways to augment and/or limit female fertility in a variety of organisms. ..
  47. Bontonou G, Shaik H, Denis B, Wicker Thomas C. Acp70A regulates Drosophila pheromones through juvenile hormone induction. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;56:36-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Components in the male seminal fluid, especially the sex peptide ACP70A stimulate these responses in females...
  48. Fricke C, Green D, Smith D, Dalmay T, Chapman T. MicroRNAs influence reproductive responses by females to male sex peptide in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2014;198:1603-19 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, receipt of sex peptide (SP) in female Drosophila melanogaster significantly alters female receptivity, egg production, lifespan, ..
  49. Wong A, Wolfner M. Sexual behavior: a seminal peptide stimulates appetites. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R256-7 pubmed
    ..These findings contribute significantly to our understanding of mating behaviors and resource allocation, and may provide insights useful for controlling the reproduction of insect pests. ..
  50. Isaac R, Kim Y, Audsley N. The degradome and the evolution of Drosophila sex peptide as a ligand for the MIP receptor. Peptides. 2014;53:258-64 pubmed publisher
    The male sex peptide (SP) of Drosophila melanogaster has wide ranging effects on females, including rejection of courting males, increased egg production, changes to the feeding habit, increased synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and ..
  51. Gou B, Liu Y, Guntur A, Stern U, Yang C. Mechanosensitive neurons on the internal reproductive tract contribute to egg-laying-induced acetic acid attraction in Drosophila. Cell Rep. 2014;9:522-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work uncovers the circuit basis of an important reproductive need of Drosophila females and provides a simple model for dissecting the neural mechanism that underlies a reproductive need-induced behavioral modification. ..
  52. Poels J, Van Loy T, Vandersmissen H, Van Hiel B, Van Soest S, Nachman R, et al. Myoinhibiting peptides are the ancestral ligands of the promiscuous Drosophila sex peptide receptor. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:3511-22 pubmed publisher
    Male insects change behaviors of female partners by co-transferring accessory gland proteins (Acps) like sex peptide (SP), with their sperm...
  53. Moehle K, Freund A, Kubli E, Robinson J. NMR studies of the solution conformation of the sex peptide from Drosophila melanogaster. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:1197-202 pubmed publisher
    The insect sex peptide (SP) elicits a variety of biological responses upon transfer to the mated female...
  54. Sackton K, Lopez J, Berman C, Wolfner M. YA is needed for proper nuclear organization to transition between meiosis and mitosis in Drosophila. BMC Dev Biol. 2009;9:43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest YA function is needed at a control point, following meiosis II and the initiation of the first postmeiotic S phase, which is sensitive to the chromatin condensation state of the haploid meiotic products. ..
  55. Smith D, Hosken D, ffrench Constant R, Wedell N. Variation in sex peptide expression in D. melanogaster. Genet Res (Camb). 2009;91:237-42 pubmed publisher
    Male Drosophila melanogaster transfers many accessory-gland proteins to females during copulation. Sex peptide (SP) is one of these and one of its main effects is to decrease female remating propensity...
  56. Ameku T, Niwa R. Mating-Induced Increase in Germline Stem Cells via the Neuroendocrine System in Female Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006123 pubmed publisher
    ..not simply owing to the indirect effect of emission of stored eggs, but rather is stimulated by a male-derived Sex Peptide (SP) and its receptor SPR, the components of a canonical neuronal pathway that induces a post-mating behavioral ..
  57. Ottiger M, Soller M, Stocker R, Kubli E. Binding sites of Drosophila melanogaster sex peptide pheromones. J Neurobiol. 2000;44:57-71 pubmed
    Drosophila melanogaster sex peptide (SP) and Ductus ejaculatorius peptide (DUP99B) are male pheromones transferred in the seminal fluid to the female during copulation. Both reduce sexual receptivity and stimulate oviposition in females...
  58. Pavlou H, Goodwin S. Courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster: towards a 'courtship connectome'. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2013;23:76-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss recent studies aimed at identifying the cellular components of courtship neural circuits, mapping function in these circuits and defining causal relationships between neural activity and behavior. ..
  59. Nagalakshmi V, Applebaum S, Kubli E, Choffat Y, Rafaeli A. The presence of Drosophila melanogaster sex peptide-like immunoreactivity in the accessory glands of male Helicoverpa armigera. J Insect Physiol. 2004;50:241-8 pubmed
    In this study a highly specific polyclonal antibody to DrmSP was produced and used to develop and standardize a sensitive direct ELISA. Structure-activity studies revealed that the antiserum is specific to the N-terminal of DrmSP...
  60. Lopez P, Santaren J, Ruiz M, Esponda P, Sanchez L. The Drosophila melanogaster X-linked mfs(1)6E locus is required for production of normal seminal fluid by the male accessory glands. Exp Cell Res. 2001;267:1-12 pubmed
    ..Mutant male accessory glands show notable abnormalities, connected with glandular secretion as well as qualitative and quantitative differences in their protein content. ..
  61. Tsuda M, Peyre J, Asano T, Aigaki T. Visualizing Molecular Functions and Cross-Species Activity of Sex-Peptide in Drosophila. Genetics. 2015;200:1161-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although SP orthologs are found in many Drosophila species, their functions remain poorly characterized...
  62. Hussain A, Üçpunar H, Zhang M, Loschek L, Grunwald Kadow I. Neuropeptides Modulate Female Chemosensory Processing upon Mating in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2016;14:e1002455 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that polyamine attraction is modulated in gravid females through a G-protein coupled receptor, the sex peptide receptor (SPR), and its neuropeptide ligands, MIPs (myoinhibitory peptides), which act directly in the ..
  63. Apger McGlaughon J, Wolfner M. Post-mating change in excretion by mated Drosophila melanogaster females is a long-term response that depends on sex peptide and sperm. J Insect Physiol. 2013;59:1024-30 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, the seminal protein sex peptide (SP) causes females to lay more eggs, reduce receptivity to re-mating, consume more food and produce more ..
  64. Bloch Qazi M, Heifetz Y, Wolfner M. The developments between gametogenesis and fertilization: ovulation and female sperm storage in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2003;256:195-211 pubmed
    ..melanogaster, both processes are triggered by male factors during and after mating, including sperm and seminal fluid proteins. Therefore, an interplay of male and female factors coordinates the gametes for fertilization. ..