Gene Symbol: sog
Description: short gastrulation
Alias: CG9224, Dm sog, Dmel\CG9224, SOG, Sog, l(1)G0160, l(1)G0395, l(1)G0479, short gastrulation, CG9224-PA, CG9224-PB, CG9224-PE, chordin, short of gastrulation, short-gastrulation, sog-PA, sog-PB, sog-PE
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Ferguson E, Anderson K. Localized enhancement and repression of the activity of the TGF-beta family member, decapentaplegic, is necessary for dorsal-ventral pattern formation in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1992;114:583-97 pubmed
    ..In contrast, increasing the number of copies of the dpp gene enhanced the short gastrulation (sog) mutant phenotype, causing ventrolateral cells to adopt dorsal fates...
  2. Markstein M, Markstein P, Markstein V, Levine M. Genome-wide analysis of clustered Dorsal binding sites identifies putative target genes in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:763-8 pubmed
    ..Three of these regions are associated with known Dorsal target genes: sog, zen, and Brinker...
  3. Umulis D, Serpe M, O Connor M, Othmer H. Robust, bistable patterning of the dorsal surface of the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:11613-8 pubmed
    ..results from interactions between bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), their receptors, the BMP-binding proteins Sog and Tsg, the metalloprotease Tld, and a putative, positively regulated component that locally enhances surface ..
  4. Kosman D, Mizutani C, Lemons D, Cox W, McGinnis W, Bier E. Multiplex detection of RNA expression in Drosophila embryos. Science. 2004;305:846 pubmed
  5. Srinivasan S, Rashka K, Bier E. Creation of a Sog morphogen gradient in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Cell. 2002;2:91-101 pubmed
    ..embryo, and that this gradient may be generated indirectly by an inverse gradient of the BMP antagonist Short gastrulation (Sog)...
  6. Biemar F, Nix D, Piel J, Peterson B, Ronshaugen M, Sementchenko V, et al. Comprehensive identification of Drosophila dorsal-ventral patterning genes using a whole-genome tiling array. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12763-8 pubmed
    ..We discuss the potential functions of these recently identified genes and suggest that intronic enhancers are a common feature of the DV gene network. ..
  7. Ashe H, Mannervik M, Levine M. Dpp signaling thresholds in the dorsal ectoderm of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2000;127:3305-12 pubmed
    ..Patterning responses to this gradient depend on a secreted inhibitor, Short gastrulation (Sog) and a newly identified transcriptional repressor, Brinker (Brk), which are expressed in neurogenic ..
  8. Wang X, Harris R, Bayston L, Ashe H. Type IV collagens regulate BMP signalling in Drosophila. Nature. 2008;455:72-7 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of our findings that human type IV collagen binds BMP4, we predict that this role of type IV collagens will be conserved. ..
  9. Von Ohlen T, Doe C. Convergence of dorsal, dpp, and egfr signaling pathways subdivides the drosophila neuroectoderm into three dorsal-ventral columns. Dev Biol. 2000;224:362-72 pubmed

More Information


  1. Biehs B, Francois V, Bier E. The Drosophila short gastrulation gene prevents Dpp from autoactivating and suppressing neurogenesis in the neuroectoderm. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2922-34 pubmed
    The short gastrulation (sog) gene is expressed in broad lateral stripes comprising the neuroectoderm of the Drosophila blastoderm embryo...
  2. Mizutani C, Nie Q, Wan F, Zhang Y, Vilmos P, Sousa Neves R, et al. Formation of the BMP activity gradient in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Cell. 2005;8:915-24 pubmed
  3. Cornell R, Ohlen T. Vnd/nkx, ind/gsh, and msh/msx: conserved regulators of dorsoventral neural patterning?. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2000;10:63-71 pubmed
    ..The three-column expression pattern may thus represent a developmental mechanism that is more resistant to evolutionary changes than genetic events upstream or downstream of it. ..
  4. Shimmi O, Ralston A, Blair S, O Connor M. The crossveinless gene encodes a new member of the Twisted gastrulation family of BMP-binding proteins which, with Short gastrulation, promotes BMP signaling in the crossveins of the Drosophila wing. Dev Biol. 2005;282:70-83 pubmed
    ..Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) activity is positively and negatively regulated by the BMP-binding proteins Short gastrulation (Sog) and Twisted gastrulation (Tsg)...
  5. Lilja T, Qi D, Stabell M, Mannervik M. The CBP coactivator functions both upstream and downstream of Dpp/Screw signaling in the early Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 2003;262:294-302 pubmed
    ..These results highlight the exceptional sensitivity of components in the TGF-beta signaling pathway to a decline in CBP concentration. ..
  6. Serpe M, Umulis D, Ralston A, Chen J, Olson D, Avanesov A, et al. The BMP-binding protein Crossveinless 2 is a short-range, concentration-dependent, biphasic modulator of BMP signaling in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2008;14:940-53 pubmed publisher
    In Drosophila, the secreted BMP-binding protein Short gastrulation (Sog) inhibits signaling by sequestering BMPs from receptors, but enhances signaling by transporting BMPs through tissues...
  7. Ashe H, Levine M. Local inhibition and long-range enhancement of Dpp signal transduction by Sog. Nature. 1999;398:427-31 pubmed
    ..The proteins Short gastrulation (Sog) and Tolloid (Tld) are required to shape this gradient...
  8. Cande J, Goltsev Y, Levine M. Conservation of enhancer location in divergent insects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14414-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this enhancer constancy might be a general property of regulatory evolution, and should facilitate enhancer discovery in nonmodel organisms. ..
  9. Eldar A, Dorfman R, Weiss D, Ashe H, Shilo B, Barkai N. Robustness of the BMP morphogen gradient in Drosophila embryonic patterning. Nature. 2002;419:304-8 pubmed
    ..robustness shows that transport of the BMP class ligands (Scw and Dpp) into the dorsal midline by the BMP inhibitor Sog is the key event in this patterning process...
  10. Bier E. Anti-neural-inhibition: a conserved mechanism for neural induction. Cell. 1997;89:681-4 pubmed
  11. Yu K, Srinivasan S, Shimmi O, Biehs B, Rashka K, Kimelman D, et al. Processing of the Drosophila Sog protein creates a novel BMP inhibitory activity. Development. 2000;127:2143-54 pubmed
    ..We find that misexpression of Drosophila Sog, or its vertebrate counterpart Chordin, generates a very limited vein-loss phenotype...
  12. Serpe M, Ralston A, Blair S, O Connor M. Matching catalytic activity to developmental function: tolloid-related processes Sog in order to help specify the posterior crossvein in the Drosophila wing. Development. 2005;132:2645-56 pubmed
    ..and Screw (Scw), two members of the Bmp subgroup of the Tgf beta superfamily, by cleaving the Bmp inhibitor Short gastrulation (Sog). In this study, we provide evidence that Tlr also contributes to Sog processing...
  13. Hong J, Hendrix D, Levine M. Shadow enhancers as a source of evolutionary novelty. Science. 2008;321:1314 pubmed publisher
  14. Matsuda S, Shimmi O. Directional transport and active retention of Dpp/BMP create wing vein patterns in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2012;366:153-62 pubmed publisher
    ..veins (LVs) into the posterior crossvein (PCV) primordial region by the extracellular BMP-binding proteins, short gastrulation (Sog) and crossveinless (Cv)...
  15. Mizutani C, Meyer N, Roelink H, Bier E. Threshold-dependent BMP-mediated repression: a model for a conserved mechanism that patterns the neuroectoderm. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e313 pubmed
    ..We propose that BMPs played an ancestral role in patterning the metazoan neuroectoderm by threshold-dependent repression of neural identity genes. ..
  16. Wang Y, Ferguson E. Spatial bistability of Dpp-receptor interactions during Drosophila dorsal-ventral patterning. Nature. 2005;434:229-34 pubmed
  17. D Alessio M, Frasch M. msh may play a conserved role in dorsoventral patterning of the neuroectoderm and mesoderm. Mech Dev. 1996;58:217-31 pubmed
  18. Cowden J, Levine M. Ventral dominance governs sequential patterns of gene expression across the dorsal-ventral axis of the neuroectoderm in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 2003;262:335-49 pubmed
  19. Araujo H, Negreiros E, Bier E. Integrins modulate Sog activity in the Drosophila wing. Development. 2003;130:3851-64 pubmed
    ..During pupal wing development, two secreted proteins, encoded by the short gastrulation (sog) and decapentaplegic (dpp) genes, vie to position wing veins in the center of broad provein territories...
  20. Dubnicoff T, Valentine S, Chen G, Shi T, Lengyel J, Paroush Z, et al. Conversion of dorsal from an activator to a repressor by the global corepressor Groucho. Genes Dev. 1997;11:2952-7 pubmed
    ..Groucho is therefore a critical component of the dorsal/ventral patterning system. ..
  21. Jazwinska A, Rushlow C, Roth S. The role of brinker in mediating the graded response to Dpp in early Drosophila embryos. Development. 1999;126:3323-34 pubmed
    ..brk is expressed like short gastrulation (sog) in ventrolateral regions of the embryo abutting the dpp domain...
  22. Evans T, Haridas H, Duffy J. Kekkon5 is an extracellular regulator of BMP signaling. Dev Biol. 2009;326:36-46 pubmed publisher
    ..kek5 phenotypic effects closely mimic those observed with Short gastrulation (Sog), but do not completely recapitulate the effects of dominant negative BMP receptors...
  23. Shimmi O, Umulis D, Othmer H, O Connor M. Facilitated transport of a Dpp/Scw heterodimer by Sog/Tsg leads to robust patterning of the Drosophila blastoderm embryo. Cell. 2005;120:873-86 pubmed
    ..Signaling by these ligands is regulated at the extracellular level by the BMP binding proteins Sog and Tsg. We demonstrate that Tsg and Sog play essential roles in transporting Dpp to the dorsal-most cells...
  24. Ralston A, Blair S. Long-range Dpp signaling is regulated to restrict BMP signaling to a crossvein competent zone. Dev Biol. 2005;280:187-200 pubmed
    ..We investigated the roles of the BMP receptor Thickveins (Tkv) and the BMP inhibitor Short gastrulation (Sog) in allowing this long-range signaling...
  25. Umulis D, Shimmi O, O Connor M, Othmer H. Organism-scale modeling of early Drosophila patterning via bone morphogenetic proteins. Dev Cell. 2010;18:260-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that using bioimages to build and optimize a three-dimensional model provides significant insights into mechanisms that guide tissue patterning. ..
  26. Araujo H, Bier E. sog and dpp exert opposing maternal functions to modify toll signaling and pattern the dorsoventral axis of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2000;127:3631-44 pubmed
    The short gastrulation (sog) and decapentaplegic (dpp) genes function antagonistically in the early Drosophila zygote to pattern the dorsoventral (DV) axis of the embryo...
  27. Francois V, Solloway M, O Neill J, Emery J, Bier E. Dorsal-ventral patterning of the Drosophila embryo depends on a putative negative growth factor encoded by the short gastrulation gene. Genes Dev. 1994;8:2602-16 pubmed
    ..The short gastrulation gene also contributes to patterning the dorsal region, but unlike the other genes involved in this process, ..
  28. Liberman L, Stathopoulos A. Design flexibility in cis-regulatory control of gene expression: synthetic and comparative evidence. Dev Biol. 2009;327:578-89 pubmed publisher
    ..we examined divergence and function of an embryonic cis-regulatory element controlling the gene short gastrulation (sog)...
  29. Chen J, Honeyager S, Schleede J, Avanesov A, Laughon A, Blair S. Crossveinless d is a vitellogenin-like lipoprotein that binds BMPs and HSPGs, and is required for normal BMP signaling in the Drosophila wing. Development. 2012;139:2170-6 pubmed publisher
  30. Markstein M, Zinzen R, Markstein P, Yee K, Erives A, Stathopoulos A, et al. A regulatory code for neurogenic gene expression in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2004;131:2387-94 pubmed
    ..We discuss the prospects for deciphering regulatory codes that link primary DNA sequence information with predicted patterns of gene expression. ..
  31. O Connor M, Umulis D, Othmer H, Blair S. Shaping BMP morphogen gradients in the Drosophila embryo and pupal wing. Development. 2006;133:183-93 pubmed
    ..Because these signaling pathway components are all conserved, these observations should shed light on how BMP signaling is modulated in vertebrate development. ..
  32. Zinzen R, Cande J, Ronshaugen M, Papatsenko D, Levine M. Evolution of the ventral midline in insect embryos. Dev Cell. 2006;11:895-902 pubmed publisher
    ..mel., but it is activated solely by Twi in A. mel. We suggest that the Twi-only mode of regulation--and the broad ventral midline--represents the ancestral form of CNS patterning in Holometabolous insects...
  33. Papatsenko D, Goltsev Y, Levine M. Organization of developmental enhancers in the Drosophila embryo. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:5665-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that grammar of gene control regions is pervasively used in the patterning of the Drosophila embryo. ..
  34. Boettiger A, Levine M. Synchronous and stochastic patterns of gene activation in the Drosophila embryo. Science. 2009;325:471-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcriptional synchrony might ensure the orderly deployment of the complex gene regulatory networks that control embryogenesis. ..
  35. Holmqvist P, Boija A, Philip P, Crona F, Stenberg P, Mannervik M. Preferential genome targeting of the CBP co-activator by Rel and Smad proteins in early Drosophila melanogaster embryos. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002769 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that CBP occupancy in Drosophila embryos preferentially overlaps factors controlling dorso-ventral patterning and that CBP binds silent genes without causing histone hyperacetylation. ..
  36. Suryamohan K, Hanson C, Andrews E, Sinha S, SCHEEL M, Halfon M. Redeployment of a conserved gene regulatory network during Aedes aegypti development. Dev Biol. 2016;416:402-13 pubmed publisher
    ..central nervous system, including the master regulator single minded and downstream genes including short gastrulation, Star, and NetrinA...
  37. Sasai Y, Lu B, Steinbeisser H, De Robertis E. Regulation of neural induction by the Chd and Bmp-4 antagonistic patterning signals in Xenopus. Nature. 1995;376:333-6 pubmed
    ..The vertebrate homologue of dpp is either bmp-4 or bmp-2 (ref. 5), and the homologue os sog is chd (s-chordin)...
  38. Nilson L, Schupbach T. Localized requirements for windbeutel and pipe reveal a dorsoventral prepattern within the follicular epithelium of the Drosophila ovary. Cell. 1998;93:253-62 pubmed
  39. Lammel U, Meadows L, Saumweber H. Analysis of Drosophila salivary gland, epidermis and CNS development suggests an additional function of brinker in anterior-posterior cell fate specification. Mech Dev. 2000;92:179-91 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we observed a preferential loss of lateral neuroblasts in the anterior parasegment. Together, these phenotypes suggest that brinker not only plays a role in dorso-ventral but also in anterior-posterior axis patterning. ..
  40. Rushlow C, Colosimo P, Lin M, Xu M, Kirov N. Transcriptional regulation of the Drosophila gene zen by competing Smad and Brinker inputs. Genes Dev. 2001;15:340-51 pubmed
    ..We propose a model whereby competition between Mad and Brk determines spatially restricted domains of expression of Dpp target genes. ..
  41. Dorfman R, Shilo B. Biphasic activation of the BMP pathway patterns the Drosophila embryonic dorsal region. Development. 2001;128:965-72 pubmed
    ..This accumulation of pMad requires the ligand Screw (Scw), the Short gastrulation (Sog) protein, and cleavage of their complex by Tolloid (Tld)...
  42. Doe C, Skeath J. Neurogenesis in the insect central nervous system. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1996;6:18-24 pubmed
    ..And finally, new cell-lineage methods are being used to determine the entire lineage of identified neuroblasts, including axon projections and synaptic contacts. ..
  43. Ferguson E. Conservation of dorsal-ventral patterning in arthropods and chordates. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1996;6:424-31 pubmed
    ..In both organisms, the activity of the TGF-beta family member DPP/BMP4 is antagonized by SOG/CHORDIN. A second Xenopus gene, noggin, has a similar biological activity to chordin...
  44. Chanut F. BMPs: conserved morphogens in neural patterning. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e346 pubmed publisher
  45. Lander A, Nie Q, Wan F, Zhang Y. Localized Ectopic Expression of Dpp Receptors in a Drosophila Embryo. Stud Appl Math. 2009;123:175-214 pubmed
    ..The steady state signaling morphogen gradient is investigated by the method of matched asymptotic expansions and by numerical simulations. ..
  46. Shimmi O, O Connor M. Physical properties of Tld, Sog, Tsg and Dpp protein interactions are predicted to help create a sharp boundary in Bmp signals during dorsoventral patterning of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2003;130:4673-82 pubmed
    ..Previous genetic and biochemical studies have revealed that the Sog, Tsg and Tld proteins modify Dpp activity at the post-transcriptional level...
  47. Roth S. Mathematics and biology: a Kantian view on the history of pattern formation theory. Dev Genes Evol. 2011;221:255-79 pubmed publisher
  48. Held L. Axes, boundaries and coordinates: the ABCs of fly leg development. Bioessays. 1995;17:721-32 pubmed
  49. Muzzopappa M, Wappner P. Multiple roles of the F-box protein Slimb in Drosophila egg chamber development. Development. 2005;132:2561-71 pubmed
  50. Bothma J, Magliocco J, Levine M. The snail repressor inhibits release, not elongation, of paused Pol II in the Drosophila embryo. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1571-7 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, moderately sized genes (e.g., the 22 kb sog locus) are fully silenced only after tens of minutes of repression...
  51. Mizuseki K, Kishi M, Matsui M, Nakanishi S, Sasai Y. Xenopus Zic-related-1 and Sox-2, two factors induced by chordin, have distinct activities in the initiation of neural induction. Development. 1998;125:579-87 pubmed
    ..screen for downstream genes of the neural inducers, we identified two extremely early neural genes induced by Chordin and suppressed by BMP-4: Zic-related-1 (Zic-r1), a zinc finger factor related to the Drosophila pair-rule gene ..
  52. Yagi Y, Hayashi S. Role of the Drosophila EGF receptor in determination of the dorsoventral domains of escargot expression during primary neurogenesis. Genes Cells. 1997;2:41-53 pubmed
    ..These two kinds of regulation establish the early esg expression that prefigures the neuroectoderm patterning. ..
  53. Hamaguchi T, Yabe S, Uchiyama H, Murakami R. Drosophila Tbx6-related gene, Dorsocross, mediates high levels of Dpp and Scw signal required for the development of amnioserosa and wing disc primordium. Dev Biol. 2004;265:355-68 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the Tbx6 subfamily act in the BMP signaling pathway required for embryonic patterning in both animals. ..
  54. Dale L. Pattern formation: a new twist to BMP signalling. Curr Biol. 2000;10:R671-3 pubmed
    ..Twisted Gastrulation has now been added to the list of proteins that regulate the activity of these molecules, providing new insights into how BMPs are made available to their signalling receptors. ..
  55. Decotto E, Ferguson E. A positive role for Short gastrulation in modulating BMP signaling during dorsoventral patterning in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2001;128:3831-41 pubmed
    ..b>short gastrulation (sog), which is functionally homologous to Xenopus Chordin, is expressed in the ventrolateral regions of the ..
  56. Conley C, Silburn R, Singer M, Ralston A, Rohwer Nutter D, Olson D, et al. Crossveinless 2 contains cysteine-rich domains and is required for high levels of BMP-like activity during the formation of the cross veins in Drosophila. Development. 2000;127:3947-59 pubmed
    ..It also contains five cysteine-rich domains, similar to the cysteine-rich domains found in Chordin, Short Gastrulation and Procollagen that are known to bind BMP-like ligands...
  57. Schmidt J, Francois V, Bier E, Kimelman D. Drosophila short gastrulation induces an ectopic axis in Xenopus: evidence for conserved mechanisms of dorsal-ventral patterning. Development. 1995;121:4319-28 pubmed
    ..To further test this hypothesis, RNA of the Drosophila short gastrulation (sog) gene was injected into Xenopus embryos, since sog has been shown genetically to be an antagonist of ..
  58. Kanodia J, Liang H, Kim Y, Lim B, Zhan M, Lu H, et al. Pattern formation by graded and uniform signals in the early Drosophila embryo. Biophys J. 2012;102:427-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This model makes a number of predictions, which we confirm experimentally by analyzing the expression of short gastrulation (sog), a gene that is controlled by a combination of the Dorsal morphogen gradient and Zelda...
  59. Busch S, Selcho M, Ito K, Tanimoto H. A map of octopaminergic neurons in the Drosophila brain. J Comp Neurol. 2009;513:643-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The map may provide an anatomical framework for the functional constitution of the octopaminergic system. It also serves as a model for the single-cell organization of a particular neurotransmitter in the brain. ..
  60. Vilmos P, Sousa Neves R, Lukacsovich T, Marsh J. crossveinless defines a new family of Twisted-gastrulation-like modulators of bone morphogenetic protein signalling. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:262-7 pubmed
    ..Genetic experiments show that cv, similarly to tsg, interacts with short gastrulation (sog) to modulate BMP signalling...
  61. Chang A, Morisato D. Regulation of Easter activity is required for shaping the Dorsal gradient in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2002;129:5635-45 pubmed
    ..By examining the expression domains of the zygotic genes zen, sog, rho and twist, which are targets of nuclear Dorsal, we show that the slope of the Dorsal gradient is progressively ..
  62. Oh C, Kwon S, Jeon K, Han P, Kim S, Jeon S. Local inhibition of Drosophila homeobox-containing neural dorsoventral patterning genes by Dpp. FEBS Lett. 2002;531:427-31 pubmed
  63. Mrinal N, Tomar A, Nagaraju J. Role of sequence encoded ?B DNA geometry in gene regulation by Dorsal. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:9574-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we identified and characterized putative repressor motifs in Dl-target genes, which can potentially aid in functional annotation of Dorsal gene regulatory network. ..
  64. Massague J, Chen Y. Controlling TGF-beta signaling. Genes Dev. 2000;14:627-44 pubmed
  65. Rushlow C, Levine M. Role of the zerkn├╝llt gene in dorsal-ventral pattern formation in Drosophila. Adv Genet. 1990;27:277-307 pubmed
  66. Raftery L, Sutherland D. Gradients and thresholds: BMP response gradients unveiled in Drosophila embryos. Trends Genet. 2003;19:701-8 pubmed
    ..The transition between two gradients of different shape yields new insights into the progression of Drosophila dorsal-ventral patterning and raises new issues about the mechanisms of gradient formation. ..
  67. Meyerowitz E. Plants compared to animals: the broadest comparative study of development. Science. 2002;295:1482-5 pubmed
    ..Evidence from studies of developmental mechanisms in both kingdoms, and data from genome-sequencing projects, indicate that development evolved independently in the lineages leading to plants and to animals. ..
  68. Huang F. Syntagms in development and evolution. Int J Dev Biol. 1998;42:487-94 pubmed
    ..In this review, we will describe a series of developmental syntagms, and explore the consequences of this discontinuous organization of the developmental program on evolution. ..
  69. Kanodia J, Kim Y, Tomer R, Khan Z, Chung K, Storey J, et al. A computational statistics approach for estimating the spatial range of morphogen gradients. Development. 2011;138:4867-74 pubmed publisher
  70. Sutherland D, Li M, Liu X, Stefancsik R, Raftery L. Stepwise formation of a SMAD activity gradient during dorsal-ventral patterning of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2003;130:5705-16 pubmed
    ..The BMP antagonist Short gastrulation (SOG) is required to elevate peak responses at the dorsal midline as well as to depress responses in ..
  71. Yu K, Kang K, Heine P, Pyati U, Srinivasan S, Biehs B, et al. Cysteine repeat domains and adjacent sequences determine distinct bone morphogenetic protein modulatory activities of the Drosophila Sog protein. Genetics. 2004;166:1323-36 pubmed
    The Drosophila short gastrulation gene (sog) encodes a large extracellular protein (Sog) that inhibits signaling by BMP-related ligands...