Gene Symbol: so
Description: sine oculis
Alias: CG11121, Dmel\CG11121, Drl, ami, mda, med, old, somda, sine oculis, CG11121-PA, absent minded, droplet, medusa, optic lobe defective, sine oculus, sinus oculis, so-PA
Species: fruit fly
Products:     so

Top Publications

  1. Toy J, Yang J, Leppert G, Sundin O. The optx2 homeobox gene is expressed in early precursors of the eye and activates retina-specific genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:10643-8 pubmed
    ..Optx2, a homeobox gene of the sine oculis-Six family, is selectively expressed in this early eye field and later in the lens placode and optic vesicle...
  2. Hsiao F, Williams A, Davies E, Rebay I. Eyes absent mediates cross-talk between retinal determination genes and the receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway. Dev Cell. 2001;1:51-61 pubmed
    ..Thus, phosphorylation of Eya appears to provide a direct regulatory link between the RTK/Ras/MAPK signaling cascade and the retinal determination gene network. ..
  3. Czerny T, Halder G, Kloter U, Souabni A, Gehring W, Busslinger M. twin of eyeless, a second Pax-6 gene of Drosophila, acts upstream of eyeless in the control of eye development. Mol Cell. 1999;3:297-307 pubmed
    ..Toy is therefore required for initiation of ey expression in the embryo and acts through Ey to activate the eye developmental program. ..
  4. Suzuki T, Saigo K. Transcriptional regulation of atonal required for Drosophila larval eye development by concerted action of eyes absent, sine oculis and hedgehog signaling independent of fused kinase and cubitus interruptus. Development. 2000;127:1531-40 pubmed
    ..organ formation and atonal expression are controlled by the concerted function of hedgehog, eyes absent and sine oculis. Bolwig's organ primordium was first detected as a cluster of about 14 Atonal-positive cells at the posterior ..
  5. Curtiss J, Mlodzik M. Morphogenetic furrow initiation and progression during eye development in Drosophila: the roles of decapentaplegic, hedgehog and eyes absent. Development. 2000;127:1325-36 pubmed
    ..In the eye disc, the transcription factors eyeless (ey), eyes absent (eya), sine oculis (so) and dachshund (dac) participate with these signaling molecules in a complex regulatory network that ..
  6. Niimi T, Seimiya M, Kloter U, Flister S, Gehring W. Direct regulatory interaction of the eyeless protein with an eye-specific enhancer in the sine oculis gene during eye induction in Drosophila. Development. 1999;126:2253-60 pubmed
    ..Previously we have shown that expression of two genes, sine oculis (so) and eyes absent (eya), is induced by eyeless (ey), the Pax-6 homolog of Drosophila...
  7. Halder G, Callaerts P, Flister S, Walldorf U, Kloter U, Gehring W. Eyeless initiates the expression of both sine oculis and eyes absent during Drosophila compound eye development. Development. 1998;125:2181-91 pubmed
    ..Here we identify sine oculis and eyes absent as two mediators of the eye-inducing activity of eyeless...
  8. Pappu K, Chen R, Middlebrooks B, Woo C, Heberlein U, Mardon G. Mechanism of hedgehog signaling during Drosophila eye development. Development. 2003;130:3053-62 pubmed
    ..Moreover, while the effects of Hh are primarily concentration dependent in other tissues, hh signaling in the eye acts as a binary switch to initiate retinal morphogenesis by inducing expression of the tissue-specific factor Eya. ..
  9. Seimiya M, Gehring W. The Drosophila homeobox gene optix is capable of inducing ectopic eyes by an eyeless-independent mechanism. Development. 2000;127:1879-86 pubmed
    ..similarity with the mouse Six3 gene, optix is considered to be the orthologous gene from Drosophila rather than sine oculis, as previously believed. optix expression was detected in the eye, wing and haltere imaginal discs...

More Information


  1. Chen R, Halder G, Zhang Z, Mardon G. Signaling by the TGF-beta homolog decapentaplegic functions reiteratively within the network of genes controlling retinal cell fate determination in Drosophila. Development. 1999;126:935-43 pubmed
    ..determination in Drosophila is controlled by an interactive network of genes, including eyeless, eyes absent, sine oculis and dachshund. We have investigated the role of the TGF-beta homolog decapentaplegic in this pathway...
  2. Tootle T, Silver S, Davies E, Newman V, Latek R, Mills I, et al. The transcription factor Eyes absent is a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Nature. 2003;426:299-302 pubmed
  3. Salzer C, Kumar J. Identification of retinal transformation hot spots in developing Drosophila epithelia. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8510 pubmed publisher
  4. Atkins M, Jiang Y, Sansores Garcia L, Jusiak B, Halder G, Mardon G. Dynamic rewiring of the Drosophila retinal determination network switches its function from selector to differentiation. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003731 pubmed publisher," composed of approximately 20 factors, whose core comprises twin of eyeless (toy), eyeless (ey), sine oculis (so), dachshund (dac), and eyes absent (eya)...
  5. Li Y, Jiang Y, Chen Y, Karandikar U, Hoffman K, Chattopadhyay A, et al. optix functions as a link between the retinal determination network and the dpp pathway to control morphogenetic furrow progression in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2013;381:50-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In parallel, we find that optix is regulated by sine oculis and eyes absent, key members of the RD network...
  6. Anderson A, Weasner B, Weasner B, Kumar J. Dual transcriptional activities of SIX proteins define their roles in normal and ectopic eye development. Development. 2012;139:991-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..In flies, three such family members exist, but only two, Sine oculis (So) and Optix, are expressed and function within the eye...
  7. Jemc J, Rebay I. Identification of transcriptional targets of the dual-function transcription factor/phosphatase eyes absent. Dev Biol. 2007;310:416-29 pubmed
    ..Two members of this network, Eyes absent (EYA) and Sine oculis (SO), form a transcriptional complex in which EYA provides the transactivation function while SO provides the ..
  8. Punzo C, Seimiya M, Flister S, Gehring W, Plaza S. Differential interactions of eyeless and twin of eyeless with the sine oculis enhancer. Development. 2002;129:625-34 pubmed
    ..eye specifying genes including eyeless (ey), twin of eyeless (toy), eyes absent (eya), dachshund (dac) and sine oculis (so)...
  9. Pan D, Rubin G. Targeted expression of teashirt induces ectopic eyes in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:15508-12 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, teashirt and eyeless induce the expression of each other, suggesting that teashirt is part of the gene network that functions to specify eye identity. ..
  10. Kenyon K, Yang Zhou D, Cai C, Tran S, Clouser C, Decene G, et al. Partner specificity is essential for proper function of the SIX-type homeodomain proteins Sine oculis and Optix during fly eye development. Dev Biol. 2005;286:158-68 pubmed
    ..visual system utilizes two members of the highly conserved Six-Homeobox family of transcription factor, Sine oculis and Optix...
  11. Kenyon K, Li D, Clouser C, Tran S, Pignoni F. Fly SIX-type homeodomain proteins Sine oculis and Optix partner with different cofactors during eye development. Dev Dyn. 2005;234:497-504 pubmed publisher
    Two members from the Six class of homeobox transcription factors, Sine oculis (SO) and Optix, function during development of the fly visual system...
  12. Pignoni F, Hu B, Zavitz K, Xiao J, Garrity P, Zipursky S. The eye-specification proteins So and Eya form a complex and regulate multiple steps in Drosophila eye development. Cell. 1997;91:881-91 pubmed
    b>Sine oculis (so) and eyes absent (eya) are required for Drosophila eye development and are founding members of the mammalian Six and Eya gene families...
  13. Pignoni F, Zipursky S. Induction of Drosophila eye development by decapentaplegic. Development. 1997;124:271-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, Dpp positively controls its own expression and suppresses wingless transcription. In contrast to the wing disc, Dpp does not appear to be the principal mediator of Hedgehog function in the eye. ..
  14. Zhou Q, Zhang T, Jemc J, Chen Y, Chen R, Rebay I, et al. Onset of atonal expression in Drosophila retinal progenitors involves redundant and synergistic contributions of Ey/Pax6 and So binding sites within two distant enhancers. Dev Biol. 2014;386:152-64 pubmed publisher
    ..identifies a critical role for three binding sites for the Retinal Determination factors Eyeless (Ey) and Sine oculis (So)...
  15. Zhang T, Ranade S, Cai C, Clouser C, Pignoni F. Direct control of neurogenesis by selector factors in the fly eye: regulation of atonal by Ey and So. Development. 2006;133:4881-9 pubmed
    ..cis-regulatory elements control atonal expression specifically in the eye and that the RD factors Eyeless and Sine oculis function as direct regulators...
  16. Jusiak B, Karandikar U, Kwak S, Wang F, Wang H, Chen R, et al. Regulation of Drosophila eye development by the transcription factor Sine oculis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e89695 pubmed publisher
    Homeodomain transcription factors of the Sine oculis (SIX) family direct multiple regulatory processes throughout the metazoans...
  17. Halder G, Callaerts P, Gehring W. Induction of ectopic eyes by targeted expression of the eyeless gene in Drosophila. Science. 1995;267:1788-92 pubmed
    ..Because homologous genes are present in vertebrates, ascidians, insects, cephalopods, and nemerteans, ey may function as a master control gene throughout the metazoa. ..
  18. Cheyette B, Green P, Martin K, Garren H, Hartenstein V, Zipursky S. The Drosophila sine oculis locus encodes a homeodomain-containing protein required for the development of the entire visual system. Neuron. 1994;12:977-96 pubmed
    ..Molecular and developmental analyses reveals that the sine oculis (so) locus encodes a homeodomain-containing protein that is expressed and required in the unpatterned ..
  19. Silver S, Davies E, Doyon L, Rebay I. Functional dissection of eyes absent reveals new modes of regulation within the retinal determination gene network. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:5989-99 pubmed
    ..that the conserved C-terminal EYA domain negatively regulates EYA transactivation potential, and that GROUCHO-SINE OCULIS (SO) interactions provide another mechanism for negative regulation of EYA-SO target genes...
  20. Salzer C, Kumar J. Position dependent responses to discontinuities in the retinal determination network. Dev Biol. 2009;326:121-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This sub circuit is comprised of three genes, two (sine oculis and dachshund) of which code for DNA binding proteins and one (eyes absent) that encodes a transcriptional co-..
  21. Punzo C, Kurata S, Gehring W. The eyeless homeodomain is dispensable for eye development in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1716-23 pubmed
    ..This result suggests distinct functions mediated differentially by the two DNA-binding domains of eyeless. ..
  22. Yan H, Canon J, Banerjee U. A transcriptional chain linking eye specification to terminal determination of cone cells in the Drosophila eye. Dev Biol. 2003;263:323-9 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence that Sine oculis and Glass are the two major activators of Lz expression during eye development...
  23. Pauli T, Seimiya M, Blanco J, Gehring W. Identification of functional sine oculis motifs in the autoregulatory element of its own gene, in the eyeless enhancer and in the signalling gene hedgehog. Development. 2005;132:2771-82 pubmed
    In Drosophila, the sine oculis (so) gene is important for the development of the entire visual system, including Bolwig's organ, compound eyes and ocelli...
  24. Tanaka Matakatsu M, Du W. Direct control of the proneural gene atonal by retinal determination factors during Drosophila eye development. Dev Biol. 2008;313:787-801 pubmed
    ..8 PB enhancer contains a highly conserved consensus binding site for the retinal determination (RD) factor Sine oculis (So). Mutation of this So binding site abolishes 2.8 PB enhancer activity...
  25. Weasner B, Salzer C, Kumar J. Sine oculis, a member of the SIX family of transcription factors, directs eye formation. Dev Biol. 2007;303:756-71 pubmed
    ..A particularly enigmatic observation has been that one member of the cascade, sine oculis (so), which is a member of the SIX family of homeobox transcription factors, is unable to initiate eye ..
  26. Ostrin E, Li Y, Hoffman K, Liu J, Wang K, Zhang L, et al. Genome-wide identification of direct targets of the Drosophila retinal determination protein Eyeless. Genome Res. 2006;16:466-76 pubmed
    ..the lack of high-quality consensus binding site sequences, phylogenetic shadowing of known Ey binding sites in sine oculis (so) was used to construct a position weight matrix (PWM) of the Ey protein...
  27. Mutsuddi M, Chaffee B, Cassidy J, Silver S, Tootle T, Rebay I. Using Drosophila to decipher how mutations associated with human branchio-oto-renal syndrome and optical defects compromise the protein tyrosine phosphatase and transcriptional functions of eyes absent. Genetics. 2005;170:687-95 pubmed
    ..Protein-protein interactions, either with its partner transcription factor Sine oculis or with EYA itself, were not significantly compromised...
  28. Pappu K, Ostrin E, Middlebrooks B, Sili B, Chen R, Atkins M, et al. Dual regulation and redundant function of two eye-specific enhancers of the Drosophila retinal determination gene dachshund. Development. 2005;132:2895-905 pubmed
    ..and gain-of-function analyses suggest that the 3' eye enhancer is synergistically activated by a combination of eya, so and dpp signaling, and only indirectly activated by ey, whereas the 5' eye enhancer is primarily regulated by ey, ..
  29. Firth L, Baker N. Retinal determination genes as targets and possible effectors of extracellular signals. Dev Biol. 2009;327:366-75 pubmed publisher
    ..establish that expression of the retinal determination genes eyeless, teashirt, homothorax, eyes absent, sine oculis, and dachshund are each regulated by combinations of Dpp, Hh, N, Wg, and Ras signals in Drosophila...
  30. Serikaku M, O Tousa J. sine oculis is a homeobox gene required for Drosophila visual system development. Genetics. 1994;138:1137-50 pubmed
    The somda (sine oculis-medusa) mutant is the result of a P element insertion at position 43C on the second chromosome...
  31. Hayashi T, Xu C, Carthew R. Cell-type-specific transcription of prospero is controlled by combinatorial signaling in the Drosophila eye. Development. 2008;135:2787-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the transcription of pros is activated by two visual-specific transcription selectors, Glass and Sine Oculis, that bind to an enhancer and promote its activation...
  32. Braid L, Verheyen E. Drosophila nemo promotes eye specification directed by the retinal determination gene network. Genetics. 2008;180:283-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our genetic analyses reveal that nmo promotes normal and ectopic eye development directed by the RDGN. ..
  33. Curtiss J, Burnett M, Mlodzik M. distal antenna and distal antenna-related function in the retinal determination network during eye development in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2007;306:685-702 pubmed
    ..the activity of the retinal determination (RD) network, which includes the Eyeless (Ey), Eyes absent (Eya), Sine oculis (So) and Dachshund (Dac) transcription factors...
  34. Bui Q, Zimmerman J, Liu H, Bonini N. Molecular analysis of Drosophila eyes absent mutants reveals features of the conserved Eya domain. Genetics. 2000;155:709-20 pubmed
    ..eya functionally synergizes in vivo and physically interacts in vitro with two other genes of eye development, sine oculis and dachshund. The Eya protein sequence, while highly conserved to vertebrates, is novel...
  35. Bui Q, Zimmerman J, Liu H, Gray Board G, Bonini N. Functional analysis of an eye enhancer of the Drosophila eyes absent gene: differential regulation by eye specification genes. Dev Biol. 2000;221:355-64 pubmed
    ..of the eye specification genes eyeless and dachshund, but does not respond to ectopic expression of eya or sine oculis. The differential regulation of this element by genes involved during early retinal formation reveals new ..
  36. Wang C, Sun Y. Segregation of eye and antenna fates maintained by mutual antagonism in Drosophila. Development. 2012;139:3413-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, the Ct and Hth expression in the eye disc was suppressed by the homeodomain transcription factor Sine oculis (So), a direct target of Ey. Loss of So in the eye disc caused ectopic antenna development in the eye...
  37. Wang T, Wang X, Xie Q, Montell C. The SOCS box protein STOPS is required for phototransduction through its effects on phospholipase C. Neuron. 2008;57:56-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, this work demonstrates that a PLCbeta derivative that does not promote TRP channel activation, still contributes to signaling in vivo. ..
  38. Curtiss J, Halder G, Mlodzik M. Selector and signalling molecules cooperate in organ patterning. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:E48-51 pubmed
    ..Such enhancers include autoregulatory enhancers of the selector genes themselves, which drive the refinement of expression patterns of selector genes. ..
  39. Dearborn R, Kunes S. An axon scaffold induced by retinal axons directs glia to destinations in the Drosophila optic lobe. Development. 2004;131:2291-303 pubmed
    ..These observations reveal a mechanism for coordinating photoreceptor axon arrival in the brain with the distribution of glia to multiple target destinations, where they are required for axon guidance and neuronal survival. ..
  40. Hassan J, Busto M, Iyengar B, Campos A. Behavioral characterization and genetic analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster larval response to light as revealed by a novel individual assay. Behav Genet. 2000;30:59-69 pubmed
    ..visual system (photoreceptors and target area) was disrupted by a mutation in the homeobox containing gene sine oculis (so) gene...
  41. Cutforth T, Gaul U. The genetics of visual system development in Drosophila: specification, connectivity and asymmetry. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1997;7:48-54 pubmed
    ..The insights gained from studying visual system development in flies promise to inform our understanding of similar processes in vertebrates. ..
  42. Yarfitz S, Niemi G, McConnell J, Fitch C, Hurley J. A G beta protein in the Drosophila compound eye is different from that in the brain. Neuron. 1991;7:429-38 pubmed
    ..The Gbe product is approximately 45% identical to previously identified G beta subunits and defines a new G beta class. Its localization suggests a possible role in phototransduction. ..
  43. Jin M, Mardon G. Distinct Biochemical Activities of Eyes absent During Drosophila Eye Development. Sci Rep. 2016;6:23228 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, this work is the first report of an Eya-Ey physical interaction. These findings are particularly important because they highlight the need for an in vivo approach that accurately dissects protein function. ..
  44. Treisman J, Heberlein U. Eye development in Drosophila: formation of the eye field and control of differentiation. Curr Top Dev Biol. 1998;39:119-58 pubmed
  45. Yang Z, Emerson M, Su H, Sehgal A. Response of the timeless protein to light correlates with behavioral entrainment and suggests a nonvisual pathway for circadian photoreception. Neuron. 1998;21:215-23 pubmed
    ..These results support the hypothesis that circadian entrainment does not rely on the visual system and likely involves a dedicated pathway for photoreception. ..
  46. Silver S, Rebay I. Signaling circuitries in development: insights from the retinal determination gene network. Development. 2005;132:3-13 pubmed
    ..Further study of the RDGN may provide insights into how common cues can generate context-specific responses, a key aspect of developmental regulation that remains poorly understood. ..
  47. Xu X, Chien F, Butler A, Salkoff L, Montell C. TRPgamma, a drosophila TRP-related subunit, forms a regulated cation channel with TRPL. Neuron. 2000;26:647-57 pubmed
    ..While TRPL and TRPgamma homomultimers are constitutively active, we demonstrate that TRPL-TRPgamma heteromultimers form a regulated phospholipase C- (PLC-) stimulated channel. ..
  48. Benassayag C, Plaza S, Callaerts P, Clements J, Romeo Y, Gehring W, et al. Evidence for a direct functional antagonism of the selector genes proboscipedia and eyeless in Drosophila head development. Development. 2003;130:575-86 pubmed
    ..The direct functional antagonism between PB and EY proteins suggests a novel crosstalk mechanism integrating known selector functions in Drosophila head morphogenesis. ..
  49. Hassan B, Bermingham N, He Y, Sun Y, Jan Y, Zoghbi H, et al. atonal regulates neurite arborization but does not act as a proneural gene in the Drosophila brain. Neuron. 2000;25:549-61 pubmed
    ..In contrast to its function in the PNS, ato does not act as a proneural gene in the embryonic brain. Instead, ato performs a novel function, regulating arborization during larval and pupal development by interacting with Notch. ..
  50. Sarthy P. Histamine: a neurotransmitter candidate for Drosophila photoreceptors. J Neurochem. 1991;57:1757-68 pubmed
    ..of histamine are synthesized by wild-type heads, whereas heads from the eye-deficient mutants, eyes absent and sine oculis, show reduced histamine synthesis...
  51. Jusiak B, Wang F, Karandikar U, Kwak S, Wang H, Chen R, et al. Genome-wide DNA binding pattern of the homeodomain transcription factor Sine oculis (So) in the developing eye of Drosophila melanogaster. Genom Data. 2014;2:153-155 pubmed
    ..Among these is the homeobox gene sine oculis (so), which encodes a homeodomain transcription factor (TF) that is both necessary for eye ..
  52. Zhu C, Dyer M, Uchikawa M, Kondoh H, Lagutin O, Oliver G. Six3-mediated auto repression and eye development requires its interaction with members of the Groucho-related family of co-repressors. Development. 2002;129:2835-49 pubmed
    Recent findings suggest that Six3, a member of the evolutionarily conserved So/Six homeodomain family, plays an important role in vertebrate visual system development...
  53. Heitzler P, Coulson D, Saenz Robles M, Ashburner M, Roote J, Simpson P, et al. Genetic and cytogenetic analysis of the 43A-E region containing the segment polarity gene costa and the cellular polarity genes prickle and spiny-legs in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1993;135:105-15 pubmed
    ..cellular polarity genes prickle and spiny-legs, the segmentation genes costa and torso, the morphogenetic locus sine oculis and is bounded on its distal side by the eye-color gene cinnabar...
  54. Hsia C, McGinnis W. Evolution of transcription factor function. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2003;13:199-206 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, recent studies provide evidence that changes in transcription factor protein sequence can affect the regulation of only a subset of target genes, even in the same cells of a developing animal. ..
  55. Levine A, Weiss C, Wides R. Expression of the pair-rule gene odd Oz (odz) in imaginal tissues. Dev Dyn. 1997;209:1-14 pubmed
    ..odz must be involved in cellular signalling in pleiotropic roles in varied pathway contexts. ..
  56. Fischbach K, Heisenberg M. Structural brain mutant of Drosophila melanogaster with reduced cell number in the medulla cortex and with normal optomotor yaw response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981;78:1105-9 pubmed
    ..The fate mapping of the KS58 focus reveals a location ventral to the head bristles and in sine oculis (so) flies the mutation further reduces the rudiments of the optic lobes normally seen...
  57. Matsumoto A, Matsumoto N, Harui Y, Sakamoto M, Tomioka K. Light and temperature cooperate to regulate the circadian locomotor rhythm of wild type and period mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. J Insect Physiol. 1998;44:587-596 pubmed
  58. Lee S, Montell C. Regulation of the rhodopsin protein phosphatase, RDGC, through interaction with calmodulin. Neuron. 2001;32:1097-106 pubmed
  59. Toyoshima S, Matsumoto N, Wang P, Inoue H, Yoshioka T, Hotta Y, et al. Purification and partial amino acid sequences of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C of Drosophila eye. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:14842-8 pubmed
    ..The obtained sequences were found to be a part of the deduced amino acid sequences of cDNA which was suggested to be norpA gene. ..
  60. Chang S, Mandalaywala N, Snyder R, Levendusky M, DEARBORN R. Hedgehog-dependent down-regulation of the tumor suppressor, vitamin D3 up-regulated protein 1 (VDUP1), precedes lamina development in Drosophila. Brain Res. 2010;1324:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This putative coupling of VDUP1 to the Hh signaling pathway may provide novel insights into the mechanisms controlling brain growth and development. ..
  61. Wang S, Tulina N, Carlin D, Rulifson E. The origin of islet-like cells in Drosophila identifies parallels to the vertebrate endocrine axis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:19873-8 pubmed
    ..This ontogenic-molecular concordance suggests that a rudimentary brain endocrine axis was present in the common ancestor of humans and flies, where it orchestrated the islet-like endocrine functions of insulin and glucagon biology. ..
  62. Liu X, Sano T, Guan Y, Nagata S, Hoffmann J, Fukuyama H. Drosophila EYA regulates the immune response against DNA through an evolutionarily conserved threonine phosphatase motif. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42725 pubmed publisher
    ..and full-length RELISH, and the induction of the IMD pathway-dependent antimicrobial peptide gene is independent of SO. Our data provide the first in vivo demonstration for the immune function of EYA and point to their conserved immune ..
  63. Weasner B, Kumar J. Competition among gene regulatory networks imposes order within the eye-antennal disc of Drosophila. Development. 2013;140:205-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that GRNs simultaneously promote primary fates, inhibit alternative fates and establish cell proliferation states. ..
  64. Rodrigues A, Moses K. Growth and specification: fly Pax6 homologs eyegone and eyeless have distinct functions. Bioessays. 2004;26:600-3 pubmed
    ..1 show that Notch signaling controls eye growth through a second Pax6 protein (Eyegone). In mice and humans the single Pax6 gene appears to encode both specification and growth controlling proteins through alternative mRNA splicing. ..
  65. Blaquiere J, Lee W, Verheyen E. Hipk promotes photoreceptor differentiation through the repression of Twin of eyeless and Eyeless expression. Dev Biol. 2014;390:14-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Decapentaplegic (Dpp), and more recently downstream components of the retinal determination gene network (RDGN) Sine oculis (So), Eyes absent (Eya), and Dachshund (Dac)...
  66. Punzo C, Plaza S, Seimiya M, Schnupf P, Kurata S, Jaeger J, et al. Functional divergence between eyeless and twin of eyeless in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2004;131:3943-53 pubmed
    ..These results suggest distinct functions of the two DNA-binding domains of TOY and EY, and significant evolutionary divergence between the two Drosophila Pax6 genes. ..
  67. Campbell J, Nash H. Volatile general anesthetics reveal a neurobiological role for the white and brown genes of Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurobiol. 2001;49:339-49 pubmed
    ..This hypothesis is supported by the detection of white message in heads of flies that are genetically altered so as to lack pigment-producing cells...
  68. Davies S. Nitric oxide signalling in insects. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2000;30:1123-38 pubmed