Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: sns
Description: sticks and stones
Alias: 43-49, CG12495, CG13752, CG13753, CG13754, CG13755, CG18464, CG2385, CG33141, CG8278, CT33230, CT33232, Dmel\CG33141, SNS, Sns, rost, sns20, sticks and stones, CG33141-PA, CG33141-PB, CG33141-PC, sns-PA, sns-PB, sns-PC, stick-and-stones, sticks and stone, sticks-and-stones
Species: fruit fly
- Kaipa B, Shao H, Schäfer G, Trinkewitz T, Groth V, Liu J, et al. Dock mediates Scar- and WASp-dependent actin polymerization through interaction with cell adhesion molecules in founder cells and fusion-competent myoblasts. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:360-72 pubmed publisher..We show that Dock is expressed in FCs and FCMs and colocalizes with the cell adhesion proteins Sns and Duf at cell-cell contact points...
- Chen E, Grote E, Mohler W, VIGNERY A. Cell-cell fusion. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:2181-93 pubmed
- Massarwa R, Carmon S, Shilo B, Schejter E. WIP/WASp-based actin-polymerization machinery is essential for myoblast fusion in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2007;12:557-69 pubmed..associates with both the WASp-Arp2/3 system and with the myoblast adhesion molecules Dumbfounded and Sticks and Stones, thereby recruiting the actin-polymerization machinery to sites of myoblast attachment and fusion...
- Martin B, Ruiz Gomez M, Landgraf M, Bate M. A distinct set of founders and fusion-competent myoblasts make visceral muscles in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2001;128:3331-8 pubmed..These specialisations are revealed in mutant embryos where myoblast fusion fails. In the absence of fusion, founders make mononucleate circular or longitudinal fibres, while their fusion-competent neighbours remain undifferentiated. ..
- Menon S, Chia W. Drosophila rolling pebbles: a multidomain protein required for myoblast fusion that recruits D-Titin in response to the myoblast attractant Dumbfounded. Dev Cell. 2001;1:691-703 pubmed..Rols7 integrates the initial event of myoblast attraction with the downstream event of myotube structural organization by linking Duf to D-Titin. ..
- Haralalka S, Shelton C, Cartwright H, Katzfey E, Janzen E, Abmayr S. Asymmetric Mbc, active Rac1 and F-actin foci in the fusion-competent myoblasts during myoblast fusion in Drosophila. Development. 2011;138:1551-62 pubmed publisher..Mbc, active Rac1 and F-actin foci are highly enriched in the FCMs, where they localize to the Sns:Kirre junction...
- Paululat A, Holz A, Renkawitz Pohl R. Essential genes for myoblast fusion in Drosophila embryogenesis. Mech Dev. 1999;83:17-26 pubmed..The molecular characterization of further genes relevant for fusion such as singles bar and sticks and stones will help to elucidate the mechanism of myoblast fusion in Drosophila.
- Doberstein S, Fetter R, Mehta A, Goodman C. Genetic analysis of myoblast fusion: blown fuse is required for progression beyond the prefusion complex. J Cell Biol. 1997;136:1249-61 pubmed..One of these genes, blown fuse, encodes a novel cytoplasmic protein expressed in unfused myoblasts that is essential for progression beyond the prefusion complex stage. ..
- Schröter R, Lier S, Holz A, Bogdan S, Klämbt C, Beck L, et al. kette and blown fuse interact genetically during the second fusion step of myogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:4501-9 pubmed..We propose a model in which Dumbfounded/Sticks and stones-dependent cell adhesion is mediated over Rolling Pebbles, Myoblast city, Crk, Blown fuse and Kette, and thus ..
- Chen E, Olson E. Antisocial, an intracellular adaptor protein, is required for myoblast fusion in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2001;1:705-15 pubmed..These findings suggest that ANTS functions as an intracellular adaptor protein that relays signals from Dumbfounded to the cytoskeleton during myoblast fusion. ..
- Shelton C, Kocherlakota K, Zhuang S, Abmayr S. The immunoglobulin superfamily member Hbs functions redundantly with Sns in interactions between founder and fusion-competent myoblasts. Development. 2009;136:1159-68 pubmed publisher..with Kin-of-IrreC (Kirre) and Roughest (Rst) functioning redundantly in the founder cell and Sticks-and-stones (Sns) serving as their ligand in the FCMs...
- Schäfer G, Weber S, Holz A, Bogdan S, Schumacher S, Muller A, et al. The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is essential for myoblast fusion in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2007;304:664-74 pubmed..Furthermore, we show that the myoblast fusion phenotype of kette mutant embryos can be suppressed by reducing the gene dose of wasp3D3-035. Thus, Kette antagonizes WASP function during myoblast fusion. ..
- Jin P, Duan R, Luo F, Zhang G, Hong S, Chen E. Competition between Blown fuse and WASP for WIP binding regulates the dynamics of WASP-dependent actin polymerization in vivo. Dev Cell. 2011;20:623-38 pubmed publisher..These studies identify a regulatory protein that modulates the actin cytoskeletal dynamics by controlling the stability of the WASP-WIP complex. ..
- Zhuang S, Shao H, Guo F, Trimble R, Pearce E, Abmayr S. Sns and Kirre, the Drosophila orthologs of Nephrin and Neph1, direct adhesion, fusion and formation of a slit diaphragm-like structure in insect nephrocytes. Development. 2009;136:2335-44 pubmed publisher..Herein, we demonstrate that their Drosophila orthologs Kirre (Duf) and Sns are co-expressed within binucleate garland cell nephrocytes (GCNs) that contribute to detoxification of the insect ..
- Berger S, Schäfer G, Kesper D, Holz A, Eriksson T, Palmer R, et al. WASP and SCAR have distinct roles in activating the Arp2/3 complex during myoblast fusion. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:1303-13 pubmed publisher..From these findings we derived a new model for actin regulation during myoblast fusion. ..
- Bao S, Fischbach K, CORBIN V, Cagan R. Preferential adhesion maintains separation of ommatidia in the Drosophila eye. Dev Biol. 2010;344:948-56 pubmed publisher..The four IRM proteins are divided into two groups: Kirre and Rst are expressed in IOCs, and Hbs and Sns in primary pigment cells (1 degrees s). Kirre binds Hbs and Sns in vivo and in vitro...
- Chen E, Pryce B, Tzeng J, Gonzalez G, Olson E. Control of myoblast fusion by a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, loner, and its effector ARF6. Cell. 2003;114:751-62 pubmed..In muscle cells, this fusigenic mechanism is coupled to fusion receptors; in other fusion-competent cell types it may be triggered by different upstream signals. ..
- Galletta B, Chakravarti M, Banerjee R, Abmayr S. SNS: Adhesive properties, localization requirements and ectodomain dependence in S2 cells and embryonic myoblasts. Mech Dev. 2004;121:1455-68 pubmed..between Duf/Kirre and Irregular chiasm C-roughest (IrreC-rst)-expressing founder myoblasts and sticks-and-stones (SNS)-expressing fusion competent myoblasts in the embryo...
- Dworak H, Charles M, Pellerano L, Sink H. Characterization of Drosophila hibris, a gene related to human nephrin. Development. 2001;128:4265-76 pubmed..We propose that Hibris is an extracellular partner for Dumbfounded and potentially mediates the response of myoblasts to this attractant. ..
- Ruiz Gomez M, Coutts N, Suster M, Landgraf M, Bate M. myoblasts incompetent encodes a zinc finger transcription factor required to specify fusion-competent myoblasts in Drosophila. Development. 2002;129:133-41 pubmed..Thus myoblasts incompetent appears to function specifically in the general pathway of myogenesis to control the differentiation of fusion-competent myoblasts. ..
- Bour B, Chakravarti M, West J, Abmayr S. Drosophila SNS, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is essential for myoblast fusion. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1498-511 pubmedThe Drosophila sticks-and-stones (sns) locus was identified on the basis of its mutant phenotype, the complete absence of body wall muscles and corresponding presence of unfused myoblasts...
- Menon S, Osman Z, Chenchill K, Chia W. A positive feedback loop between Dumbfounded and Rolling pebbles leads to myotube enlargement in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:909-20 pubmed..Duf and rolling pebbles 7 (Rols7; also known as antisocial) are expressed in founders, whereas sticks and stones (SNS) is present in fcm...
- Sens K, Zhang S, Jin P, Duan R, Zhang G, Luo F, et al. An invasive podosome-like structure promotes fusion pore formation during myoblast fusion. J Cell Biol. 2010;191:1013-27 pubmed publisher..Our studies uncover a novel invasive podosome-like structure (PLS) in a developing tissue and reveal a previously unrecognized function of PLSs in facilitating cell membrane juxtaposition and fusion...
- Hornbruch Freitag C, Griemert B, Buttgereit D, Renkawitz Pohl R. Drosophila Swiprosin-1/EFHD2 accumulates at the prefusion complex stage during Drosophila myoblast fusion. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:3266-78 pubmed publisher..Therefore, we hypothesise that Drosophila Swip-1 participates in the breakdown of the prefusion complex during the progression of myoblast fusion. ..
- Kesper D, Stute C, Buttgereit D, Kreisköther N, Vishnu S, Fischbach K, et al. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila melanogaster is mediated through a fusion-restricted myogenic-adhesive structure (FuRMAS). Dev Dyn. 2007;236:404-15 pubmed..we show that Duf/Kirre and its interaction partners Rols7 (found in founder myoblasts and growing myotubes) and Sns (found in fcms) are organized in a ring-structure at the contact points of fcms with precursor cells, while ..
- Frasch M, Leptin M. Mergers and acquisitions: unequal partnerships in Drosophila myoblast fusion. Cell. 2000;102:127-9 pubmed
- Stute C, Schimmelpfeng K, Renkawitz Pohl R, Palmer R, Holz A. Myoblast determination in the somatic and visceral mesoderm depends on Notch signalling as well as on milliways(mili(Alk)) as receptor for Jeb signalling. Development. 2004;131:743-54 pubmed..This novel mechanism uncovers a crosstalk between somatic and visceral mesoderm leading not only to the determination of different cell types but also maintains the separation of mesodermal tissues, the somatic and splanchnic mesoderm. ..
- Lee H, Norris A, Weiss J, Frasch M. Jelly belly protein activates the receptor tyrosine kinase Alk to specify visceral muscle pioneers. Nature. 2003;425:507-12 pubmed..Jeb/Alk signalling induces the myoblast fusion gene dumbfounded (duf; also known as kirre) as well as org-1, a Drosophila homologue of mammalian TBX1, in these cells. ..
- Bothe I, Deng S, Baylies M. PI(4,5)P2 regulates myoblast fusion through Arp2/3 regulator localization at the fusion site. Development. 2014;141:2289-301 pubmed publisher..Thus, PI(4,5)P2 enrichment at the fusion site encodes spatial and temporal information that regulates fusion progression through the localization of activators of actin polymerization. ..
- Artero R, Castanon I, Baylies M. The immunoglobulin-like protein Hibris functions as a dose-dependent regulator of myoblast fusion and is differentially controlled by Ras and Notch signaling. Development. 2001;128:4251-64 pubmedHibris (Hbs) is a transmembrane immunoglobulin-like protein that shows extensive homology to Drosophila Sticks and stones (Sns) and human kidney protein Nephrin...
- Duan H, Skeath J, Nguyen H. Drosophila Lame duck, a novel member of the Gli superfamily, acts as a key regulator of myogenesis by controlling fusion-competent myoblast development. Development. 2001;128:4489-500 pubmed..Results from an independent molecular screen for binding factors to a myoblast-specific Mef2 enhancer further demonstrate that Lmd is a direct transcriptional regulator of Mef2 in fusion-competent myoblasts. ..
- Baylies M, Michelson A. Invertebrate myogenesis: looking back to the future of muscle development. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2001;11:431-9 pubmed..Drosophila myogenesis has become a highly informative model for understanding the interplay between the signaling and transcriptional networks that underlie cell-fate specification during embryonic development. ..
- Kim S, Shilagardi K, Zhang S, Hong S, Sens K, Bo J, et al. A critical function for the actin cytoskeleton in targeted exocytosis of prefusion vesicles during myoblast fusion. Dev Cell. 2007;12:571-86 pubmed..Sltr is recruited to sites of fusion by the fusion-competent cell-specific receptor Sns and acts as a positive regulator for actin polymerization at these sites...
- Kuckwa J, Fritzen K, Buttgereit D, Rothenbusch Fender S, Renkawitz Pohl R. A new level of plasticity: Drosophila smooth-like testes muscles compensate failure of myoblast fusion. Development. 2016;143:329-38 pubmed publisher..express Dumbfounded (Duf) and Roughest (Rst), and fusion-competent myoblast (FCM)-like cells mainly express Sticks and stones (Sns). The smooth but multinuclear myotubes of the testes arose by myoblast fusion...
- Jakobsen J, Braun M, Astorga J, Gustafson E, Sandmann T, Karzynski M, et al. Temporal ChIP-on-chip reveals Biniou as a universal regulator of the visceral muscle transcriptional network. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2448-60 pubmed..The regulatory connection of a number of Biniou target genes is conserved in mice, suggesting an ancient wiring of this developmental program. ..
- Enright A, John B, Gaul U, Tuschl T, Sander C, Marks D. MicroRNA targets in Drosophila. Genome Biol. 2003;5:R1 pubmed..The target prediction algorithm is freely available and can be applied to whole genome sequences using identified miRNA sequences. ..
- Sugie A, Umetsu D, Yasugi T, Fischbach K, Tabata T. Recognition of pre- and postsynaptic neurons via nephrin/NEPH1 homologs is a basis for the formation of the Drosophila retinotopic map. Development. 2010;137:3303-13 pubmed publisher..Postsynaptic partners then recognize the presynaptic axons to make ensembles, thus establishing a topographic map along the anterior/posterior axis. ..
- Estrada B, Choe S, Gisselbrecht S, Michaud S, Raj L, Busser B, et al. An integrated strategy for analyzing the unique developmental programs of different myoblast subtypes. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e16 pubmed..This integrated strategy for examining embryonic gene expression and function provides a substantially expanded framework for further studies of this model developmental system. ..
- Ivy J, Drechsler M, Catterson J, Bodmer R, Ocorr K, Paululat A, et al. Klf15 Is Critical for the Development and Differentiation of Drosophila Nephrocytes. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0134620 pubmed publisher..loss of function mutants were specified during embryogenesis, they failed to express the slit diaphragm gene sticks and stones and did not form slit diaphragms...
- Taylor M. Muscle differentiation: how two cells become one. Curr Biol. 2002;12:R224-8 pubmed..Future studies will establish the extent to which the molecular mechanisms of myoblast fusion are conserved between Drosophila and other animals, as found in other aspects of myogenesis. ..
- Zhang F, Zhao Y, Han Z. An in vivo functional analysis system for renal gene discovery in Drosophila pericardial nephrocytes. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;24:191-7 pubmed publisher..To validate this system, we examined the effects of knocking down sns and duf, the Drosophila homologs of nephrin and Neph1, respectively, in pericardial nephrocytes...
- Johnson R, Bao S, Cagan R. Interactions between Drosophila IgCAM adhesion receptors and cindr, the Cd2ap/Cin85 ortholog. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:1933-43 pubmed publisher..This regulation likely does not extend to IgCAMs Kin of irre (Kirre) and Sticks and stones (Sns) in the pupal eye; neither interacted with Cindr in in vitro assays...
- Segal D, Dhanyasi N, Schejter E, Shilo B. Adhesion and Fusion of Muscle Cells Are Promoted by Filopodia. Dev Cell. 2016;38:291-304 pubmed publisher..We therefore propose that the filopodia are necessary to prime the heterotypic adhesion process between the two cell types, possibly by recruiting the cell-adhesion molecule Sns to discrete patches on the myoblast cell surface.
- Rotkopf S, Hamberg Y, Aigaki T, Snapper S, Shilo B, Schejter E. The WASp-based actin polymerization machinery is required in somatic support cells for spermatid maturation and release. Development. 2011;138:2729-39 pubmed publisher..Wsp activity in this context is mediated by the small GTPase Cdc42. Involvement of the cell surface protein Sticks and stones and the Wsp adapter protein D-WIP (Vrp1) is also crucial...
- Chen D, Ahlford A, Schnorrer F, Kalchhauser I, Fellner M, Viragh E, et al. High-resolution, high-throughput SNP mapping in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Methods. 2008;5:323-9 pubmed publisher..3 kb, and demonstrated the utility of these tools by rapidly mapping 14 mutations that disrupt embryonic muscle patterning. These resources enable high-resolution high-throughput genetic mapping in Drosophila. ..
- Taylor M. Muscle development: molecules of myoblast fusion. Curr Biol. 2000;10:R646-8 pubmed..Recent work on Drosophila has identified two members of the immunoglobulin superfamily that have key roles in controlling the specificity of myoblast fusion. ..
- Deng S, Bothe I, Baylies M. The Formin Diaphanous Regulates Myoblast Fusion through Actin Polymerization and Arp2/3 Regulation. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005381 pubmed publisher..These studies provide new insight to the mechanisms of cell-cell fusion, the relationship between different regulators of actin polymerization, and invasive podosome formation that occurs in normal development and in disease. ..
- Taylor M. Muscle differentiation: signalling cell fusion. Curr Biol. 2003;13:R964-6 pubmed
- Hoehne M, de Couet H, Stuermer C, Fischbach K. Loss- and gain-of-function analysis of the lipid raft proteins Reggie/Flotillin in Drosophila: they are posttranslationally regulated, and misexpression interferes with wing and eye development. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2005;30:326-38 pubmed..Our data support the notion that Reggie/Flotillin proteins are implicated in signaling processes at cellular contact sites. ..
- Nguyen H, Frasch M. MicroRNAs in muscle differentiation: lessons from Drosophila and beyond. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:533-9 pubmed..Other miRNAs might promote specific developmental switches during the development and regeneration of muscles. ..
- Carrasco Rando M, Atienza Manuel A, Martin P, Burke R, Ruiz Gomez M. Fear-of-intimacy-mediated zinc transport controls the function of zinc-finger transcription factors involved in myogenesis. Development. 2016;143:1948-57 pubmed publisher..Our results additionally suggest a possible explanation for the presence of large numbers of zinc transporters in organisms based on differences in ion transport specificity and/or degrees of activity among transporters. ..
- Na J, Sweetwyne M, Park A, Susztak K, Cagan R. Diet-Induced Podocyte Dysfunction in Drosophila and Mammals. Cell Rep. 2015;12:636-47 pubmed publisher..Through functional studies, we identify an OGT-Polycomb-Knot-Sns pathway that links dietary sucrose to loss of the Nephrin ortholog Sns...
- Helmstädter M, Lüthy K, Gödel M, Simons M, Ashish -, Nihalani D, et al. Functional study of mammalian Neph proteins in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40300 pubmed publisher..Hereby, we establish D. melanogaster as a genetic system to specifically model molecular Neph1 functions in vivo and identify a conserved amino acid motif linking Neph1 to Drosophila Kirre function. ..
- Cooper E. A new role for ion channels in myoblast fusion. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:F9-12 pubmed
- Gaertner B, Johnston J, Chen K, Wallaschek N, Paulson A, Garruss A, et al. Poised RNA polymerase II changes over developmental time and prepares genes for future expression. Cell Rep. 2012;2:1670-83 pubmed publisher..We compare our data with findings in mammalian embryonic stem cells and discuss a framework for predicting developmental programs on the basis of the chromatin state. ..
- Bao S. Notch controls cell adhesion in the Drosophila eye. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004087 pubmed publisher..In the absence of Notch, emerging PPCs failed to enwrap cone cells, and hibris (hbs) and sns, two genes coding for adhesion molecules of the Nephrin group that mediate preferential adhesion, were not ..
- Helmstädter M, Höhne M, Huber T. A brief overview on IRM function across evolution. J Neurogenet. 2014;28:264-9 pubmed publisher..This review briefly summarizes the fundamental role of IRM proteins for neuronal wiring and filtration in organisms spanning the evolutionary distance from Drosophila (nephrocyte diaphragm) to humans (slit diaphragm). ..
- Sala A, Toto M, Pinello L, Gabriele A, Di Benedetto V, Ingrassia A, et al. Genome-wide characterization of chromatin binding and nucleosome spacing activity of the nucleosome remodelling ATPase ISWI. EMBO J. 2011;30:1766-77 pubmed publisher..Our study shows how in higher eukaryotes the activity of the evolutionarily conserved nucleosome remodelling factor ISWI regulates gene expression and chromosome organization genome-wide. ..
- Popichenko D, Sellin J, Bartkuhn M, Paululat A. Hand is a direct target of the forkhead transcription factor Biniou during Drosophila visceral mesoderm differentiation. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:49 pubmed..Combining functional dissection experiments in vivo and protein/DNA binding studies we identified hand as a direct target of Biniou in the circular visceral muscles. ..
- Hossain M, Kurokawa K, Sekimizu K. Induction of fusion-competent myoblast-specific gene expression during myogenic differentiation of Drosophila Schneider cells by DNA double-strand breaks or replication inhibition. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1743:176-86 pubmed..RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expressions of fusion-competent myoblast-specific genes lmd, sns, and del were induced in Schneider cells upon treatment with NCS or HU, whereas expressions of three founder cell-..
- Haralalka S, Shelton C, Cartwright H, Guo F, Trimble R, Kumar R, et al. Live imaging provides new insights on dynamic F-actin filopodia and differential endocytosis during myoblast fusion in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e114126 pubmed publisher..and Fusion-Competent Myoblasts (FCMs), and cell adhesion molecules Kin-of-IrreC (Kirre) and Sticks-and-stones (Sns) on their respective surfaces...
- Linneweber G, Winking M, Fischbach K. The Cell Adhesion Molecules Roughest, Hibris, Kin of Irre and Sticks and Stones Are Required for Long Range Spacing of the Drosophila Wing Disc Sensory Sensilla. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0128490 pubmed publisher..Module, consisting of the Neph-like proteins: Roughest, Kin of irre and of the Nephrin-like proteins: Sticks and Stones, Hibris, plays key roles in the recognition events of different cell types throughout development...