Gene Symbol: snf
Description: sans fille
Alias: CG4528, D25, Dmel\CG4528, SNF, SNF/D25, Snf, U1-A, U2 snRNP, U2 snRNP B'' protein, fs(1)1621, fs(1)A16121, fs(1)A1621, liz, snRNP B'', snRNP-U1-A, snf1621, sans fille, CG4528-PA, Sans-fille, simply not fertile, snf-PA, splicing necessary factor
Species: fruit fly
Products:     snf

Top Publications

  1. Chau J, Kulnane L, Salz H. Sex-lethal enables germline stem cell differentiation by down-regulating Nanos protein levels during Drosophila oogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:9465-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings connect sexual identity to the stem cell self-renewal/differentiation decision and highlight the importance of posttranscriptional gene regulatory networks in controlling stem cell behavior. ..
  2. Deshpande G, Samuels M, Schedl P. Sex-lethal interacts with splicing factors in vitro and in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:5036-47 pubmed
    ..Genetic and molecular studies have established that Sxl requires the product of another gene, snf, to autoregulate the splicing of its own transcripts...
  3. Nagengast A, Salz H. The Drosophila U2 snRNP protein U2A' has an essential function that is SNF/U2B" independent. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001;29:3841-7 pubmed
    Recruitment of the U2 snRNP to the pre-mRNA is an essential step in spliceosome assembly. Although the protein components of the U2 snRNP have been identified, their individual contributions to function are poorly defined...
  4. Salz H, Flickinger T. Both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations in snf define a role for snRNP proteins in regulating Sex-lethal pre-mRNA splicing in Drosophila development. Genetics. 1996;144:95-108 pubmed
    ..The other two viable alleles, snf1621 and snfe8H, encode antimorphic proteins...
  5. Gans M, Audit C, Masson M. Isolation and characterization of sex-linked female-sterile mutants in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1975;81:683-704 pubmed
    ..The value of the mutants isolated for analysis of the complex processes leading to egg formation and initiation of development is discussed. ..
  6. Tastan O, Maines J, Li Y, McKearin D, Buszczak M. Drosophila ataxin 2-binding protein 1 marks an intermediate step in the molecular differentiation of female germline cysts. Development. 2010;137:3167-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of A2BP1 is lost in bam, sans-fille (snf) and mei-P26 mutants, but is still present in other mutants such as rbp9 and arrest...
  7. Chau J, Kulnane L, Salz H. Sex-lethal facilitates the transition from germline stem cell to committed daughter cell in the Drosophila ovary. Genetics. 2009;182:121-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we use an allele of sans fille (snf) that specifically eliminates SXL protein in germ cells to carry out a detailed genetic and cell biological ..
  8. Oliver B, Perrimon N, Mahowald A. Genetic evidence that the sans fille locus is involved in Drosophila sex determination. Genetics. 1988;120:159-71 pubmed
  9. Cline T, Meyer B. Vive la différence: males vs females in flies vs worms. Annu Rev Genet. 1996;30:637-702 pubmed
    ..Although no overlap has been found among the molecules used by flies and worms to achieve sex determination, striking similarities have been found in the genetic strategies used by these two species to differentiate their sexes. ..

More Information


  1. Staab S, Heller A, Steinmann Zwicky M. Somatic sex-determining signals act on XX germ cells in Drosophila embryos. Development. 1996;122:4065-71 pubmed
    ..However, XX germ cells that develop in masculinized animals also express mgm1. Therefore, somatic sex-determining signals have already acted on XX germ cells in 10-hour-old embryos. ..
  2. Wei G, Oliver B, Pauli D, Mahowald A. Evidence for sex transformation of germline cells in ovarian tumor mutants of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1994;161:318-20 pubmed
    ..for expression of male germline traits, we determined that partial germline sex transformation occurs in otu, snf, Sxlfs, and bam ovarian tumors...
  3. Labourier E, Rio D. Purification of Drosophila snRNPs and characterization of two populations of functional U1 particles. RNA. 2001;7:457-70 pubmed
    ..On the basis of their antigenicity, apparent molecular weight, and by peptide sequencing, the Drosophila 70K, SNF, B, U1-C, D1, D2, D3, E, F, and G proteins are shown to be integral components of these particles...
  4. Flickinger T, Salz H. The Drosophila sex determination gene snf encodes a nuclear protein with sequence and functional similarity to the mammalian U1A snRNP protein. Genes Dev. 1994;8:914-25 pubmed
    ..Previous studies have suggested that snf plays a role in regulating Sex-lethal splicing...
  5. Nagengast A, Stitzinger S, Tseng C, Mount S, Salz H. Sex-lethal splicing autoregulation in vivo: interactions between SEX-LETHAL, the U1 snRNP and U2AF underlie male exon skipping. Development. 2003;130:463-71 pubmed
    ..which there is in vivo evidence for a regulatory role in the pathway leading to male-exon skipping is sans-fille (snf), a protein component of the spliceosomal U1 and U2 snRNPs...
  6. Samuels M, Bopp D, Colvin R, Roscigno R, Garcia Blanco M, Schedl P. RNA binding by Sxl proteins in vitro and in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:4975-90 pubmed
    ..After prolonged heat shock, all Sxl protein was restricted to the heat-induced puff at the hs93D locus. In contrast, a presumptive small nuclear RNP protein was observed at several heat puffs following shock. ..
  7. Salz H. The genetic analysis of snf: a Drosophila sex determination gene required for activation of Sex-lethal in both the germline and the soma. Genetics. 1992;130:547-54 pubmed
    Our analysis demonstrates that snf is a positive regulator of Sex-lethal in both the germline and the soma...
  8. Casper A, Van Doren M. The control of sexual identity in the Drosophila germline. Development. 2006;133:2783-91 pubmed
    ..Here, we explore how sexual identity is established in the Drosophila germline, how this affects other aspects of germ cell development and what studies in Drosophila can teach us about mammalian germ cells. ..
  9. Zimowska G, Paddy M. Structures and dynamics of Drosophila Tpr inconsistent with a static, filamentous structure. Exp Cell Res. 2002;276:223-32 pubmed
  10. Chaouki A, Salz H. Drosophila SPF45: a bifunctional protein with roles in both splicing and DNA repair. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e178 pubmed
    ..We find that SPF45 associates with the U2 snRNP and that mutations that remove the C-terminal end of the protein disrupt this interaction...
  11. Polycarpou Schwarz M, Gunderson S, Kandels Lewis S, Seraphin B, Mattaj I. Drosophila SNF/D25 combines the functions of the two snRNP proteins U1A and U2B' that are encoded separately in human, potato, and yeast. RNA. 1996;2:11-23 pubmed the fact that the protein encoded by YIB9w bindsto stem-loop IV of yeast U2 snRNA in vitro and is part of the U2 snRNP in vivo...
  12. Wang J, Dong Z, Bell L. Sex-lethal interactions with protein and RNA. Roles of glycine-rich and RNA binding domains. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:22227-35 pubmed
    ..Finally, selection of the Sxl optimal binding site (SELEX) confirms the importance of U-runs in the Sxl binding site and suggests a second type of non-U-run target that may be associated with RNA secondary structure. ..
  13. Penn J, Graham P, Deshpande G, Calhoun G, Chaouki A, Salz H, et al. Functioning of the Drosophila Wilms'-tumor-1-associated protein homolog, Fl(2)d, in Sex-lethal-dependent alternative splicing. Genetics. 2008;178:737-48 pubmed publisher
    ..with early acting general splicing regulators and that Fl(2)d is present in immunoprecipitable complexes with Snf, U2AF50, U2AF38, and U1-70K...
  14. Steinmann Zwicky M. Sex determination in Drosophila: the X-chromosomal gene liz is required for Sxl activity. EMBO J. 1988;7:3889-98 pubmed
    ..I show here that the X-chromosomal gene liz, located in 4F1 to 4F11 and previously called fs(1)1621, provides maternal and zygotic functions necessary for Sxl ..
  15. Horabin J, Schedl P. Splicing of the drosophila Sex-lethal early transcripts involves exon skipping that is independent of Sex-lethal protein. RNA. 1996;2:1-10 pubmed
    ..We also found that none of the three genes, snf, virilizer, and fl(2)d, which when mutated alter the female-specific processing of Sxl-Pm transcripts, alter the ..
  16. Cline T, Rudner D, Barbash D, Bell M, Vutien R. Functioning of the Drosophila integral U1/U2 protein Snf independent of U1 and U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles is revealed by snf(+) gene dose effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:14451-8 pubmed
    Snf, encoded by sans fille, is the Drosophila homolog of mammalian U1A and U2B" and is an integral component of U1 and U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs)...
  17. Harper D, Fresco L, Keene J. RNA binding specificity of a Drosophila snRNP protein that shares sequence homology with mammalian U1-A and U2-B" proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992;20:3645-50 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis revealed that D25 bears strong similarity to both the human U1 snRNP-A (U1-A) and U2 snRNP-B" (U2-B") proteins...
  18. Albrecht E, Salz H. The Drosophila sex determination gene snf is utilized for the establishment of the female-specific splicing pattern of Sex-lethal. Genetics. 1993;134:801-7 pubmed
    The Drosophila snf gene is a positive regulator of the sex determination gene Sex-lethal in both the germline and the soma. Its role in the soma is only evident when the probability of Sex-lethal activation has been reduced...
  19. Larochelle S, Pandur J, Fisher R, Salz H, Suter B. Cdk7 is essential for mitosis and for in vivo Cdk-activating kinase activity. Genes Dev. 1998;12:370-81 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that there may be a fundamental difference in the way metazoans and budding yeast effect a key modification of Cdks. ..
  20. Cline T. Evidence that sisterless-a and sisterless-b are two of several discrete "numerator elements" of the X/A sex determination signal in Drosophila that switch Sxl between two alternative stable expression states. Genetics. 1988;119:829-62 pubmed
    ..In that same study it was concluded that region 3E8-4F11 of the X chromosome contained especially potent X/A numerator elements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  21. Mahowald A, Wei G. Sex determination of germ cells in Drosophila. Ciba Found Symp. 1994;182:193-202; discussion 202-9 pubmed
    ..A number of genes have been identified that are essential either for survival (e.g. ovo, otu) or differentiation (snf, Sxl, fl(2)d, bgcn) of female germ cells. ovo is required during embryogenesis for survival of pole cells...
  22. Huang D, Amero S. Measurement of antigen by enhanced chemiluminescent western blot. Biotechniques. 1997;22:454-6, 458 pubmed
  23. Parkhurst S, Meneely P. Sex determination and dosage compensation: lessons from flies and worms. Science. 1994;264:924-32 pubmed
    ..Instead, the study of sex determination and dosage compensation is providing more general lessons about different types of signaling pathways used to control alternative developmental states of cells and organisms. ..
  24. Bernstein M, Cline T. Differential effects of Sex-lethal mutations on dosage compensation early in Drosophila development. Genetics. 1994;136:1051-61 pubmed
  25. Svensson M, Chen J, Pirrotta V, Larsson J. The ThioredoxinT and deadhead gene pair encode testis- and ovary-specific thioredoxins in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 2003;112:133-43 pubmed
    ..The association is lost in the absence of the Y chromosome. Our results suggest that nuclear thioredoxins may have regulatory functions in the germline. ..
  26. Perrimon N, Gans M. Clonal analysis of the tissue specificity of recessive female-sterile mutations of Drosophila melanogaster using a dominant female-sterile mutation Fs(1)K1237. Dev Biol. 1983;100:365-73 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in terms of a coincident production of clones in the follicle cells. ..
  27. Jolly C, Lakhotia S. Human sat III and Drosophila hsr omega transcripts: a common paradigm for regulation of nuclear RNA processing in stressed cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:5508-14 pubmed
  28. Hodgkin J. Sex determination compared in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis. Nature. 1990;344:721-8 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the underlying molecular mechanisms appear to be very different in these two species. Developmental processes such as sex determination need not be strongly conserved in evolution. ..
  29. Steinmann Zwicky M. How do germ cells choose their sex? Drosophila as a paradigm. Bioessays. 1992;14:513-8 pubmed
    ..Some of the genes that are involved in germ line sex determination have been identified. In other species, including vertebrates, inductive signals are commonly used to determine the sex of germ cells. ..
  30. Gellon G, McGinnis W. Shaping animal body plans in development and evolution by modulation of Hox expression patterns. Bioessays. 1998;20:116-25 pubmed
  31. Cairns B. Chromatin remodeling machines: similar motors, ulterior motives. Trends Biochem Sci. 1998;23:20-5 pubmed
    ..Although all contain the ATPase ISWI, their properties in vitro are markedly different, distinct from SWI-SNF and reveal intriguing connections to both transcription and chromatin assembly.
  32. Pauli D, Oliver B, Mahowald A. Identification of regions interacting with ovoD mutations: potential new genes involved in germline sex determination or differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1995;139:713-32 pubmed flies with altered doses of other loci involved in germline sex determination in Drosophila (Sex-lethal+, sans fille+ and ovarian tumor+)...
  33. Wieschaus E, Audit C, Masson M. A clonal analysis of the roles of somatic cells and germ line during oogenesis in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1981;88:92-103 pubmed
  34. Steinmann Zwicky M. Sxl in the germline of Drosophila: a target for somatic late induction. Dev Genet. 1994;15:265-74 pubmed
    ..Other genes must therefore control the early sexual dimorphism of larval germ cells. ..
  35. Paterson T, Beggs J, Finnegan D, Luhrmann R. Polypeptide components of Drosophila small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:5877-82 pubmed
  36. Pauli D, Oliver B, Mahowald A. The role of the ovarian tumor locus in Drosophila melanogaster germ line sex determination. Development. 1993;119:123-34 pubmed
    ..These interactions are similar to those observed between ovoD and one allele of the sans fille (snf) locus...
  37. Kalifa Y, Armenti S, Gavis E. Glorund interactions in the regulation of gurken and oskar mRNAs. Dev Biol. 2009;326:68-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Glorund is a component of multiple protein complexes and functions both as a translational repressor and splicing regulator for anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral patterning. ..
  38. Johnson M, Nagengast A, Salz H. PPS, a large multidomain protein, functions with sex-lethal to regulate alternative splicing in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000872 pubmed publisher
    ..exon inclusion by interacting with core spliceosomal proteins, including the U1 snRNP protein Sans-fille (SNF)...
  39. Emberly E, Blattes R, Schuettengruber B, Hennion M, Jiang N, Hart C, et al. BEAF regulates cell-cycle genes through the controlled deposition of H3K9 methylation marks into its conserved dual-core binding sites. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:2896-910 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a novel role for BEAF chromatin dual-cores in regulating a distinct set of genes involved in chromosome organization/segregation and the cell cycle. ..
  40. Vied C, Halachmi N, Salzberg A, Horabin J. Antizyme is a target of sex-lethal in the Drosophila germline and appears to act downstream of hedgehog to regulate sex-lethal and cyclin B. Dev Biol. 2003;253:214-29 pubmed
    ..This regulation of Sex-lethal by gutfeeling appears to occur downstream of the Hedgehog signal. We also show that Hedgehog, Gutfeeling, and Sex-lethal function to regulate Cyclin B, providing a link between Sex-lethal and mitosis. ..
  41. Mechler B. The fruit fly Drosophila and the fish Xiphophorus as model systems for cancer studies. Cancer Surv. 1990;9:505-27 pubmed
    ..This gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase related to the EGF-receptor, and its activation and overexpression are thought to play a critical part in melanoma formation. ..
  42. Cline T. A lesson from flex: consider the Y chromosome when assessing Drosophila sex-specific lethals. Development. 2001;128:1015-8 pubmed
    ..flex lethality is caused by a defect in the functioning of the X-linked rDNA locus called bobbed, since this defect is complemented by the corresponding wild-type rDNA complex on the Y. ..
  43. Williams S, Harms M, Hall K. Resurrection of an Urbilaterian U1A/U2B?/SNF protein. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:3846-62 pubmed publisher
    The U1A/U2B?/SNF family of proteins found in the U1 and U2 spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins is highly conserved...
  44. Williams S, Hall K. Linkage and allostery in snRNP protein/RNA complexes. Biochemistry. 2014;53:3529-39 pubmed publisher
    ..SNF also binds to the U2A' protein, but only in the U2 snRNP. Although previous reports have implicated U2A' as a necessary auxiliary protein for the binding of SNF to ..
  45. Oas S, Bryantsev A, Cripps R. Arrest is a regulator of fiber-specific alternative splicing in the indirect flight muscles of Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2014;206:895-908 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations provide insight into a transcriptional and splicing regulatory network for muscle fiber specification. ..
  46. McKeown M, Madigan S. Sex determination and differentiation in invertebrates: Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1992;4:948-54 pubmed
    ..We are now gaining an understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing the largely post-transcriptional regulation of the intermediate steps in these cascades. ..
  47. Svensson M, Stenberg P, Larsson J. Organization and regulation of sex-specific thioredoxin encoding genes in the genus Drosophila. Dev Genes Evol. 2007;217:639-50 pubmed
    ..In addition, we show that the 50-70 C terminal amino acids of TrxT constitute a hyper-variable domain, which could play a role in sexual conflict and male-female co-evolution. ..
  48. Gonsalvez G, Rajendra T, Tian L, Matera A. The Sm-protein methyltransferase, dart5, is essential for germ-cell specification and maintenance. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1077-89 pubmed
    ..elegans show that Sm proteins are required for germ-granule localization, we propose that Sm protein methylation is a pivotal event in germ-cell development. ..
  49. Horabin J, Bopp D, Waterbury J, Schedl P. Selection and maintenance of sexual identity in the Drosophila germline. Genetics. 1995;141:1521-35 pubmed
    ..We also show that the primary target for the somatic signaling pathway in germ cells can not be the Sex-lethal gene. ..
  50. Salz H, Mancebo R, Nagengast A, Speck O, Psotka M, Mount S. The Drosophila U1-70K protein is required for viability, but its arginine-rich domain is dispensable. Genetics. 2004;168:2059-65 pubmed
    ..Together our studies demonstrate that while the protein interactions mediated by the U1-70K RS domain are not essential for viability, they nevertheless contribute to an essential U1 snRNP function. ..
  51. Lopez A. Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA: developmental consequences and mechanisms of regulation. Annu Rev Genet. 1998;32:279-305 pubmed
    ..Cooperative and antagonistic effects integrated at regulatory elements are likely to be important for specificity and for finely tuned differences in cell-type-specific alternative splicing patterns. ..
  52. Bopp D, Horabin J, Lersch R, Cline T, Schedl P. Expression of the Sex-lethal gene is controlled at multiple levels during Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 1993;118:797-812 pubmed
    ..Conceivably, this regulation safeguards the inadvertent activation of the Sxl autoregulatory feedback loop in the male zygote. ..
  53. Niessen M, Schneiter R, Nothiger R. Molecular identification of virilizer, a gene required for the expression of the sex-determining gene Sex-lethal in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2001;157:679-88 pubmed
  54. Deshpande G, Calhoun G, Schedl P. The N-terminal domain of Sxl protein disrupts Sxl autoregulation in females and promotes female-specific splicing of tra in males. Development. 1999;126:2841-53 pubmed
    ..This dominant negative activity can be attributed to the recruitment of the fusion protein into the large Sxl:Snf splicing complexes that are found in vivo and the consequent disruption of these complexes...
  55. Samuels M, Deshpande G, Schedl P. Activities of the Sex-lethal protein in RNA binding and protein:protein interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:2625-37 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that the interaction of Sxl with the snRNP protein Snf is mediated by the R1 RRM domain.
  56. Price S, Evans P, Nagai K. Crystal structure of the spliceosomal U2B"-U2A' protein complex bound to a fragment of U2 small nuclear RNA. Nature. 1998;394:645-50 pubmed
  57. Li Y, Zhang Q, Carreira Rosario A, Maines J, McKearin D, Buszczak M. Mei-p26 cooperates with Bam, Bgcn and Sxl to promote early germline development in the Drosophila ovary. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58301 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with recently published studies, these data suggest that Mei-P26 mediates both GSC self-renewal and germline differentiation through distinct modes of translational repression depending on the presence of Bam...
  58. Gonsalvez G, Rajendra T, Wen Y, Praveen K, Matera A. Sm proteins specify germ cell fate by facilitating oskar mRNA localization. Development. 2010;137:2341-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Sm proteins function to establish the germline in Drosophila, at least in part by mediating oskar mRNA localization. ..
  59. Merino C, Reynaud E, Vázquez M, Zurita M. DNA repair and transcriptional effects of mutations in TFIIH in Drosophila development. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:3246-56 pubmed
    ..In addition the apoptosis induced by p53 Drosophila homolog (Dmp53) is suppressed in heterozygous hay flies. ..
  60. Andrews J, Oliver B. Sex determination signals control ovo-B transcription in Drosophila melanogaster germ cells. Genetics. 2002;160:537-45 pubmed
    ..Thus, while somatic inductive signals and chromosome karyotype have overlapping regulatory influences, a 2X karyotype is a critical germline autonomous determinant of ovo-B function in the germline. ..
  61. Gateff E, Mechler B. Tumor-suppressor genes of Drosophila melanogaster. Crit Rev Oncog. 1989;1:221-45 pubmed
  62. Steinmann Zwicky M, Nothiger R. A small region on the X chromosome of Drosophila regulates a key gene that controls sex determination and dosage compensation. Cell. 1985;42:877-87 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Sxl can be activated to intermediate levels. ..
  63. Oliver B, Kim Y, Baker B. Sex-lethal, master and slave: a hierarchy of germ-line sex determination in Drosophila. Development. 1993;119:897-908 pubmed
    ..for female germ-line sex determination, and the germ-line ovarian tumor genes fused+, ovarian tumor+, ovo+, sans fille+, and Sex-lethal+, which are involved in either the reception or interpretation of this somatic sex ..
  64. Hu J, Cui G, Li C, Liu C, Shang E, Lai L, et al. Structure and novel functional mechanism of Drosophila SNF in sex-lethal splicing. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6890 pubmed publisher
    Sans-fille (SNF) is the Drosophila homologue of mammalian general splicing factors U1A and U2B'', and it is essential in Drosophila sex determination...
  65. Granadino B, San Juan A, Santamaria P, Sanchez L. Evidence of a dual function in fl(2)d, a gene needed for Sex-lethal expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1992;130:597-612 pubmed
    ..Females double heterozygous for fl(2)d and snf1621 are fully viable and fertile...
  66. Starr D, Cline T. A host parasite interaction rescues Drosophila oogenesis defects. Nature. 2002;418:76-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, demonstration that a parasite infection can counteract the deleterious effects of mutations in host genes illustrates how hosts might become dependent on parasites. ..
  67. Stitzinger S, Pellicena Palle A, Albrecht E, Gajewski K, Beckingham K, Salz H. Mutations in the predicted aspartyl tRNA synthetase of Drosophila are lethal and function as dosage-sensitive maternal modifiers of the sex determination gene Sex-lethal. Mol Gen Genet. 1999;261:142-51 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that stable activation of Sex-lethal in the embryo may be particularly sensitive to perturbation of the translational machinery. ..
  68. Oliver B, Pauli D, Mahowald A. Genetic evidence that the ovo locus is involved in Drosophila germ line sex determination. Genetics. 1990;125:535-50 pubmed
    ..The germ line dependent sex determination mutation, sans fille, and ovoD mutations show a dominant synergistic interaction resulting in partial transformation of germ line ..
  69. Oliver B, Singer J, Laget V, Pennetta G, Pauli D. Function of Drosophila ovo+ in germ-line sex determination depends on X-chromosome number. Development. 1994;120:3185-95 pubmed
  70. Parsch J, Stephan W, Tanda S. Long-range base pairing in Drosophila and human mRNA sequences. Mol Biol Evol. 1998;15:820-6 pubmed
    ..The human pairings appear to be stronger and localized to more specific regions near the ends of the mRNA sequence than those of Drosophila. ..
  71. Dekoster G, Delaney K, Hall K. A compare-and-contrast NMR dynamics study of two related RRMs: U1A and SNF. Biophys J. 2014;107:208-19 pubmed publisher
    The U1A/U2B?/SNF family of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins uses a phylogenetically conserved RNA recognition motif (RRM1) to bind RNA stemloops in U1 and/or U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA)...