Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: sn
Alias: CG15331, CG1536, CG32858, Dmel\CG32858, fs(1)A1057, fs(1)K1421, fs(1)K418, fs(1)K473, fs(1)K743, fs(1)M45, singed, CG32858-PA, CG32858-PB, CG32858-PE, CG32858-PG, fascin, sn-PA, sn-PB, sn-PE, sn-PG
Species: fruit fly
- Zhang J, Fonovic M, Suyama K, Bogyo M, Scott M. Rab35 controls actin bundling by recruiting fascin as an effector protein. Science. 2009;325:1250-4 pubmed publisher..These effects were mediated by the actin-bundling protein fascin, which directly associated with active Rab35...
- Zanet J, Jayo A, Plaza S, Millard T, Parsons M, Stramer B. Fascin promotes filopodia formation independent of its role in actin bundling. J Cell Biol. 2012;197:477-86 pubmed publisherb>Fascin is an evolutionarily conserved actin-binding protein that plays a key role in forming filopodia...
- Cant K, Cooley L. Single amino acid mutations in Drosophila fascin disrupt actin bundling function in vivo. Genetics. 1996;143:249-58 pubmed..In Drosophila, fascin is encoded by the singed locus...
- Zanet J, Stramer B, Millard T, Martin P, Payre F, Plaza S. Fascin is required for blood cell migration during Drosophila embryogenesis. Development. 2009;136:2557-65 pubmed publisherb>Fascin is well characterized in vitro as an actin-bundling protein and its increased expression is correlated with the invasiveness of various cancers. However, the actual roles and regulation of Fascin in vivo remain elusive...
- Paterson J, O Hare K. Structure and transcription of the singed locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1991;129:1073-84 pubmedDevelopmental and genetic studies of the singed gene of Drosophila melanogaster indicate that the gene has a role in somatic cells during the formation of adult bristles and hairs, and in the female germline during oogenesis...
- Tilney L, Connelly P, Vranich K, Shaw M, Guild G. Why are two different cross-linkers necessary for actin bundle formation in vivo and what does each cross-link contribute?. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:121-33 pubmedIn developing Drosophila bristles two species of cross-linker, the forked proteins and fascin, connect adjacent actin filaments into bundles...
- Tilney L, Tilney M, Guild G. F actin bundles in Drosophila bristles. I. Two filament cross-links are involved in bundling. J Cell Biol. 1995;130:629-38 pubmed..We consider that the forked proteins may be necessary early in development to tie the filaments together in a bundle so that they can be subsequently zippered together by fascin (the singed gene product).
- Kraft R, Escobar M, Narro M, Kurtis J, Efrat A, Barnard K, et al. Phenotypes of Drosophila brain neurons in primary culture reveal a role for fascin in neurite shape and trajectory. J Neurosci. 2006;26:8734-47 pubmed..recessive, pan-neuronal "filagree" phenotype maps to singed, which encodes the actin-bundling protein fascin. Fascin deficiency does not impair the 20E response, but neurites fail to maintain their normal, nearly straight ..
- Kureishy N, Sapountzi V, Prag S, Anilkumar N, Adams J. Fascins, and their roles in cell structure and function. Bioessays. 2002;24:350-61 pubmed..We discuss the current understanding of the cellular mechanisms that regulate the binding of fascin to actin and how these processes contribute to the organisation or disassembly of cell protrusions...
- Mahajan Miklos S, Cooley L. Intercellular cytoplasm transport during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Biol. 1994;165:336-51 pubmed
- Tilney L, Connelly P, Vranich K, Shaw M, Guild G. Regulation of actin filament cross-linking and bundle shape in Drosophila bristles. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:87-100 pubmed..The forked protein initiates the process and facilitates subsequent cross-linking by fascin. Using cross-linker-specific antibodies, mutants, and drugs we show that fascin and actin are present in excessive ..
- DeRosier D, Tilney L. F-actin bundles are derivatives of microvilli: What does this tell us about how bundles might form?. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:1-6 pubmed
- Starz Gaiano M, Melani M, Wang X, Meinhardt H, Montell D. Feedback inhibition of Jak/STAT signaling by apontic is required to limit an invasive cell population. Dev Cell. 2008;14:726-38 pubmed publisher..These findings are supported by a mathematical model, which accurately simulates wild-type and mutant phenotypes. ..
- Tilney L, Connelly P, Smith S, Guild G. F-actin bundles in Drosophila bristles are assembled from modules composed of short filaments. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:1291-308 pubmed
- Klemenz R, Weber U, Gehring W. The white gene as a marker in a new P-element vector for gene transfer in Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987;15:3947-59 pubmed..Cloning into these P-element vectors is facilitated by the presence of polylinkers with 8 and 12 unique restriction sites. ..
- Yukuhiro K, Mukai T. A type of incompatibility between genes and their genetic background inducing decrease in heterozygote viability approximately equal to that of homozygotes, found in a natural population of Drosophila. Heredity (Edinb). 1993;71 ( Pt 1):74-80 pubmed
- Andrews J, Gloor G. A role for the KP leucine zipper in regulating P element transposition in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1995;141:587-94 pubmed..The wild-type control construct strongly repressed P element mobility, measured by the GD sterility and sn(w) mutability assays, in a position-independent manner...
- Tilney L, Connelly P, Ruggiero L, Vranich K, Guild G. Actin filament turnover regulated by cross-linking accounts for the size, shape, location, and number of actin bundles in Drosophila bristles. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:3953-66 pubmed..As a result, filament turnover plays an important role in regulating cytoskeleton assembly and consequently cell shape. ..
- Ladvishchenko A, Mogila V, Georgiev P, Simonova O, Buff E, Gerasimova T. [Superunstable systems in Drosophila melanogaster. Analysis of mutations in signed and cut loci]. Genetika. 1990;26:1133-43 pubmed..This resulted in the appearance of a number of superunstable mutations at the yellow, white, singed, ocelliless and some other loci...
- Okenve Ramos P, Llimargas M. Fascin links Btl/FGFR signalling to the actin cytoskeleton during Drosophila tracheal morphogenesis. Development. 2014;141:929-39 pubmed publisher..We find that the Breathless pathway upregulates singed at the tip of tracheal branches, and that this regulation is functionally relevant...
- Groen C, Jayo A, Parsons M, Tootle T. Prostaglandins regulate nuclear localization of Fascin and its function in nucleolar architecture. Mol Biol Cell. 2015;26:1901-17 pubmed publisherb>Fascin, a highly conserved actin-bundling protein, localizes and functions at new cellular sites in both Drosophila and multiple mammalian cell types...
- He B, Adler P. The genetic control of arista lateral morphogenesis in Drosophila. Dev Genes Evol. 2002;212:218-29 pubmed..We also found that mutations that lead to lateral splitting typically alter the stereotypic arrangement of actin filament bundles and microtubules in laterals. ..
- Haley K, Stuart J, Raymond J, Niemi J, Simmons M. Impairment of cytotype regulation of P-element activity in Drosophila melanogaster by mutations in the Su(var)205 gene. Genetics. 2005;171:583-95 pubmed..The regulatory abilities of the TP5 and TP6 elements are therefore not equally susceptible to the effects of elongated telomeres in the mutant Su(var)205 and Gaiano stocks. ..
- Johnson T, Judd B. Analysis of the Cut Locus of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. Genetics. 1979;92:485-502 pubmed
- Kutach A, Kadonaga J. The downstream promoter element DPE appears to be as widely used as the TATA box in Drosophila core promoters. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4754-64 pubmed..Thus, these data reveal that the DPE exhibits a strict spacing requirement yet some sequence flexibility and appears to be as widely used as the TATA box in Drosophila...
- Bender H. Studies on the Expression of Various Singed Alleles in Drosophila Melanogaster. Genetics. 1960;45:867-83 pubmed
- Lefevre G, Johnson T. Evidence for a Sex-Linked Haplo-Inviable Locus in the Cut-Singed Region of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. Genetics. 1973;74:633-45 pubmed..and rearranged cut mutants have been reported, but no known deficiency involves both ct and its close neighbor, singed. This fact prompted an investigation of the mutational response of the ct-sn interval...
- Robinson D, Cooley L. Genetic analysis of the actin cytoskeleton in the Drosophila ovary. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1997;13:147-70 pubmed..We discuss many of the recent genetic and cell biological studies that have led to insights into how the actin cytoskeleton is assembled and regulated during the morphogenesis of the Drosophila egg. ..
- Steller H, Pirrotta V. P transposons controlled by the heat shock promoter. Mol Cell Biol. 1986;6:1640-9 pubmed..Our results suggest that the regulation of P-element transposition occurs at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. ..
- Lozovskaya E, Petrov D, Hartl D. A combined molecular and cytogenetic approach to genome evolution in Drosophila using large-fragment DNA cloning. Chromosoma. 1993;102:253-66 pubmed..melanogaster. The materials and methods described will make it possible to carry out a direct study of molecular evolution at the level of chromosome structure and organization as well as at the level of individual genes. ..
- Schottenfeld Roames J, Ghabrial A. Whacked and Rab35 polarize dynein-motor-complex-dependent seamless tube growth. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:386-93 pubmed publisher..Thus, vesicle trafficking has key roles in making and shaping seamless tubes...
- Engels W, Preston C. Formation of chromosome rearrangements by P factors in Drosophila. Genetics. 1984;107:657-78 pubmed..The data provide a general picture of the rearrangement process and its possible relationship to transposition. ..
- Rayle R, Green M. A contribution to the genetic fine structure of the region adjacent to white in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetica. 1968;39:497-507 pubmed
- Ortori C, Chambers D, Brookfield J. The molecular basis of instability of the singed(very weak) mutation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genet Res. 1994;63:19-26 pubmedThe singed(very weak) mutation was created by the sequential addition of two P transposable elements to the singed gene...
- Niemi J, Raymond J, Patrek R, Simmons M. Establishment and maintenance of the P cytotype associated with telomeric P elements in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2004;166:255-64 pubmed..However, some of the stocks do not attain the regulatory ability of the original population. ..
- Paterson J, Simmons M, O Hare K. Transcription of the singed-weak mutation of Drosophila melanogaster: elimination of P-element sequences by RNA splicing and repression of singed transcription in a P genetic background. Mol Genet Genomics. 2007;278:53-64 pubmedThe dysgenesis-induced, hypermutable singed-weak allele has two incomplete P-elements inserted in a head-to-head configuration in the 5' non-coding exon of the singed bristle locus of Drosophila melanogaster...
- Burke T, Kadonaga J. Drosophila TFIID binds to a conserved downstream basal promoter element that is present in many TATA-box-deficient promoters. Genes Dev. 1996;10:711-24 pubmed..These results suggest that the DPE acts in conjunction with the initiation site sequence to provide a binding site for TFIID in the absence of a TATA box to mediate transcription of TATA-less promoters. ..
- Mogila V, Ladvishenko A, Simonova O, Gerasimova T. Intragenic suppression: Stalker, a retrovirus-like transposable element, can compensate for a deficiency at the cut locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetica. 1992;86:305-11 pubmed..3 kb deletion. Thus an insertion of a retrovirus-like mobile element can suppress the deficiency at the regulatory region of a gene. ..
- Rasmusson K, Raymond J, Simmons M. Repression of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster by individual naturally occurring P elements. Genetics. 1993;133:605-22 pubmed..two aspects of hybrid dysgenesis: gonadal dysgenesis and mutability of a double-P element-insertion allele of the singed locus (snw)...
- Jang A, Chang Y, Bai J, Montell D. Border-cell migration requires integration of spatial and temporal signals by the BTB protein Abrupt. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:569-79 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these findings provide a molecular mechanism by which spatial and temporal cues are integrated. ..
- Ayyub C, Paranjape J, Rodrigues V, Siddiqi O. Genetics of olfactory behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurogenet. 1990;6:243-62 pubmed..The alleles at the olfC locus fall into two phenotypic classes according to their responses to different acetate esters. The two groups of olfC alleles interact in-trans. ..
- Gans M, Audit C, Masson M. Isolation and characterization of sex-linked female-sterile mutants in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1975;81:683-704 pubmed..The value of the mutants isolated for analysis of the complex processes leading to egg formation and initiation of development is discussed. ..
- Norris E, Woodruff R. Visible mutations induced by P-M hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster result predominantly from P element insertions. Mutat Res. 1992;269:63-72 pubmed..Newly induced mutations (23 singed, three yellow, and one white) were generated by hybrid dysgenesis and were molecularly analyzed for the presence ..
- Tardi N, Cook M, Edwards K. Rapid phenotypic analysis of uncoated Drosophila samples with low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy. Fly (Austin). 2012;6:184-92 pubmed publisher..The chief difficulties were charging, beam damage, and sample movement. We conclude that our optimized protocol is well suited to large-scale ultrastructural phenotypic analysis in insects. ..
- Nagel J, Delandre C, Zhang Y, Forstner F, Moore A, Tavosanis G. Fascin controls neuronal class-specific dendrite arbor morphology. Development. 2012;139:2999-3009 pubmed publisher..We addressed the function of fascin, a conserved actin-bundling protein involved in filopodium formation, in class III and class IV sensory neurons...
- Simmons M, Haley K, Grimes C, Raymond J, Niemi J. A hobo transgene that encodes the P-element transposase in Drosophila melanogaster: autoregulation and cytotype control of transposase activity. Genetics. 2002;161:195-204 pubmed..However, this ability and the ability to induce P-element excisions are repressed by the P cytotype, a chromosomal/cytoplasmic state that regulates P elements in the germline. ..
- Spradling A. Germline cysts: communes that work. Cell. 1993;72:649-51 pubmed
- Brookfield J. Genetic evidence for repression of somatic P element movements in Drosophila melanogaster consistent with a role for the KP element. Heredity (Edinb). 1996;76 ( Pt 4):384-91 pubmed..signed(very weak) (snVW), in which a KP element is one of two P elements inserted into the 5' exon of the X-linked singed gene...
- Iurchenko N, O Hare K, Zakharov I. [The unstable system sn(49) in Drosophila melanogaster: results of blot-hybridization and polymerase chain reaction]. Genetika. 1996;32:614-20 pubmed..A mutation in the singed gene or the formation of a visible de novo mutation in the studied X chromosome served as the criterion for strain ..
- Chain A, Zollman S, Tseng J, Laski F. Identification of a cis-acting sequence required for germ line-specific splicing of the P element ORF2-ORF3 intron. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:1538-46 pubmed..Our data show that this cis-acting regulatory sequence is required to inhibit the splicing of the ORF2-ORF3 intron in somatic cells. ..
- Robertson H, Engels W. Modified P elements that mimic the P cytotype in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1989;123:815-24 pubmed..One assay makes use of cytotype-dependent gene expression of certain P element insertion mutations at the singed bristle locus...
- Laski F, Rio D, Rubin G. Tissue specificity of Drosophila P element transposition is regulated at the level of mRNA splicing. Cell. 1986;44:7-19 pubmed..We propose that this intron is only removed in the germline and that its removal is the sole basis for the germline restriction of P element transposition. ..
- Sentry J, Kaiser K. Application of inverse PCR to site-selected mutagenesis of Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:3429-30 pubmed
- Margulies L, Griffith C. The synergistic effect of X-rays and deficiencies in DNA repair in P-M hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Genet Res. 1991;58:15-26 pubmed..The exacerbation by X-rays of the effects of DNA repair deficiencies on genetic damage indicates that both repair mechanisms are required for processing DNA lesions induced by the combined effect of P activity and ionizing radiation. ..
- Mason J, Green M, Shaw K, Boyd J. Genetic analysis of X-linked mutagen-sensitive mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1981;81:329-43 pubmed..Cytogenetically mus(1)101D1 is between salivary chromosome bands 12A6,7 and 12D3, mus(1)103D1 is between bands 12A1,2 and 12A6,7 and mus(1)109A1 is in section 8F3--9A2. ..
- Wang X, Adam J, Montell D. Spatially localized Kuzbanian required for specific activation of Notch during border cell migration. Dev Biol. 2007;301:532-40 pubmed..This represents a previously unrecognized mechanism for achieving spatial restriction of Notch signaling. ..
- Ilius M, Wolf R, Heisenberg M. The central complex of Drosophila melanogaster is involved in flight control: studies on mutants and mosaics of the gene ellipsoid body open. J Neurogenet. 2007;21:321-38 pubmed..The results support the hypothesis that the central complex is involved in the control of flight behavior. ..
- Noguchi T, Lenartowska M, Rogat A, Frank D, Miller K. Proper cellular reorganization during Drosophila spermatid individualization depends on actin structures composed of two domains, bundles and meshwork, that are differentially regulated and have different functions. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2363-72 pubmed publisher..Polarized distributions of myosin VI, Arp2/3 complex, and the actin-bundling proteins, singed (fascin) and quail (villin), occurred when movement initiated...
- Kraft R, Kahn A, Medina Franco J, Orlowski M, Baynes C, López Vallejo F, et al. A cell-based fascin bioassay identifies compounds with potential anti-metastasis or cognition-enhancing functions. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6:217-35 pubmed publisherThe actin-bundling protein fascin is a key mediator of tumor invasion and metastasis and its activity drives filopodia formation, cell-shape changes and cell migration...
- Simmons M, Raymond J, Grimes C, Belinco C, Haake B, Jordan M, et al. Repression of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster by heat-shock-inducible sense and antisense P-element constructs. Genetics. 1996;144:1529-44 pubmed..Overall, the experimental results suggest that in nature, P-element activity could be regulated by P-encoded polypeptides and by antisense P RNAs. ..
- Green M. Genetic instability in Drosophila melanogaster: the genetics of an MR element that makes complete P insertion mutations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:1036-40 pubmed..The genetic basis for the mutational-mitotic recombinational components of "hybrid dysgenesis" is conveniently explicable in terms of MR elements present in the genomes of flies present in the wild. ..
- Brookfield J, Lewis A. Somatic reversion of P transposable element insertion mutations in the singed locus of Drosophila melanogaster requiring specific P insertions and a trans- acting factor. Genet Res. 1989;54:101-12 pubmedDestabilization in somatic cells of P-element insertions in the X-linked singed gene of Drosophila melanogaster has been studied. We have shown that some but not all unstable P-element insertions in singed can form mosaics...
- Eeken J, Sobels F, Hyland V, Schalet A. Distribution of MR-induced sex-linked recessive lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1985;150:261-75 pubmed
- Tamaskovic R, Bichsel S, Hemmings B. NDR family of AGC kinases--essential regulators of the cell cycle and morphogenesis. FEBS Lett. 2003;546:73-80 pubmed..melanogaster and C. elegans. In mammalians, the LATS kinase is a tumor suppressor, negatively regulating the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1, cell proliferation rate, and modulating cell survival. ..
- Sanchez Soriano N, Gonçalves Pimentel C, Beaven R, Haessler U, Ofner Ziegenfuss L, Ballestrem C, et al. Drosophila growth cones: a genetically tractable platform for the analysis of axonal growth dynamics. Dev Neurobiol. 2010;70:58-71 pubmed publisher..We demonstrate these events to be mediated by the actin-MT linking factor Short stop, thus identifying an essential molecular player in this context. ..
- Pelisson A. The I--R system of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster: are I factor insertions responsible for the mutator effect of the I--R interaction?. Mol Gen Genet. 1981;183:123-9 pubmed
- Eeken J. The stability of mutator (MR)-induced X-chromosomal recessive visible mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1982;96:213-24 pubmed..The induction of visible mutations by MR is observed at only a limited number of genes, such as singed bristle (sn), raspberry eye colour (ras), yellow body colour (y) and a carmine eye colour (car)...
- Guild G, Connelly P, Ruggiero L, Vranich K, Tilney L. Actin filament bundles in Drosophila wing hairs: hairs and bristles use different strategies for assembly. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:3620-31 pubmed..These filaments become cross-linked into bundles by the sequential use of three cross-bridges: villin, forked and fascin. Genetic loss of each cross-bridge affects cell shape...
- Simmons M, Haley K, Grimes C, Raymond J, Fong J. Regulation of P-element transposase activity in Drosophila melanogaster by hobo transgenes that contain KP elements. Genetics. 2002;161:205-15 pubmed
- Engels W. Extrachromosomal control of mutability in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76:4011-5 pubmed..One such unstable allele at the singed bristle locus, designated snw, was found to mutate at extraordinary rates exceeding 50%...
- Dorer D, Cadden M, Gordesky Gold B, Harries G, Christensen A. Suppression of a lethal trisomic phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster by increased dosage of an unlinked locus. Genetics. 1993;134:243-9 pubmed..By examining the interactions between Isis dosage and Tpl we suggest that Isis does not directly repress Tpl expression, but acts downstream on the triplo-lethal phenotype of Tpl. ..
- Wang Y, Balter H, Levitan M, Margulies L. Mutability, sterility and suppression in P-M hybrid dysgenesis: the influence of P subline, cross, chromosome, sex and P-element structure. Genet Res. 1993;62:111-23 pubmed..Mutability in non-dysgenic males ranged from 40 to 60% of the level found in dysgenic males. The high snw mutability and low GD sterility in non-dysgenic hybrids suggests that these traits may arise by a different mechanism. ..
- Domanitskaya E, Anllo L, Schupbach T. Phantom, a cytochrome P450 enzyme essential for ecdysone biosynthesis, plays a critical role in the control of border cell migration in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2014;386:408-18 pubmed publisher..This "egg chamber autonomous" ecdysone synthesis constitutes a useful way to regulate the individual maturation of the asynchronous egg chambers present in the Drosophila ovary. ..
- Merriman P, Grimes C, Ambroziak J, Hackett D, Skinner P, Simmons M. S elements: a family of Tc1-like transposons in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1995;141:1425-38 pubmed..melanogaster genome. These elements seem to insert at an AT dinucleotide within a short palindrome and apparently duplicate that dinucleotide upon insertion. ..
- Starr D, Han M. ANChors away: an actin based mechanism of nuclear positioning. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:211-6 pubmed..Syne/ANC-1 anchors nuclei by directly tethering the nuclear envelope to the actin cytoskeleton, and UNC-84/SUN functions at the nuclear envelope to recruit Syne/ANC-1. ..
- Ronsseray S, Lehmann M, Nouaud D, Anxolabehere D. The regulatory properties of autonomous subtelomeric P elements are sensitive to a Suppressor of variegation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1996;143:1663-74 pubmed..Su(var)205 encodes Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1). These results suggest that the HP1 dosage effect on the P element properties is site-dependent and could involve the structure of the chromatin. ..