Gene Symbol: smg
Description: smaug
Alias: CG5263, D69, Dmel\CG5263, SMG, SmG, Smaug, Smg, anon-D69, anonD69, smaug, CG5263-PA, CG5263-PB, CG5263-PC, CG5263-PD, CG5263-PE, SMAUG, dSmaug, smau, smg-PA, smg-PB, smg-PC, smg-PD, smg-PE
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Schultz J, Ponting C, Hofmann K, Bork P. SAM as a protein interaction domain involved in developmental regulation. Protein Sci. 1997;6:249-53 pubmed
    ..A conserved tyrosine in the SAM sequences of the EPH related RPTKs is likely to mediate cell-cell initiated signal transduction via the binding of SH2 containing proteins to phosphotyrosine. ..
  2. Baez M, Boccaccio G. Mammalian Smaug is a translational repressor that forms cytoplasmic foci similar to stress granules. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:43131-40 pubmed
    ..The Drosophila member of this family, dSmaug, triggers the translational repression and deadenylation of maternal mRNAs by independent mechanisms, and the ..
  3. Jeske M, Moritz B, Anders A, Wahle E. Smaug assembles an ATP-dependent stable complex repressing nanos mRNA translation at multiple levels. EMBO J. 2011;30:90-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Translation of the RNA is repressed throughout most of the embryo by the protein Smaug binding to Smaug recognition elements (SREs) in the 3' UTR...
  4. Rouget C, Papin C, Boureux A, Meunier A, Franco B, Robine N, et al. Maternal mRNA deadenylation and decay by the piRNA pathway in the early Drosophila embryo. Nature. 2010;467:1128-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, maternal mRNA degradation depends on the RNA-binding protein Smaug and the deadenylase CCR4, as well as the zygotic expression of a microRNA cluster...
  5. Benoit B, He C, Zhang F, Votruba S, Tadros W, Westwood J, et al. An essential role for the RNA-binding protein Smaug during the Drosophila maternal-to-zygotic transition. Development. 2009;136:923-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The RNA-binding protein Smaug is required for cleavage-independent maternal transcript destruction during the Drosophila MZT...
  6. Aviv T, Lin Z, Lau S, Rendl L, Sicheri F, Smibert C. The RNA-binding SAM domain of Smaug defines a new family of post-transcriptional regulators. Nat Struct Biol. 2003;10:614-21 pubmed
    Anteroposterior patterning in Drosophila melanogaster is dependent on the sequence-specific RNA-binding protein Smaug, which binds to and regulates the translation of nanos (nos) mRNA...
  7. Smibert C, Lie Y, Shillinglaw W, Henzel W, Macdonald P. Smaug, a novel and conserved protein, contributes to repression of nanos mRNA translation in vitro. RNA. 1999;5:1535-47 pubmed
    ..Here we describe cloning of the gene encoding Smaug, an RNA-binding protein that interacts with the sequences, SREs, in the nanos mRNA that mediate translational ..
  8. Dahanukar A, Walker J, Wharton R. Smaug, a novel RNA-binding protein that operates a translational switch in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 1999;4:209-18 pubmed
    ..In this report, we identify a factor named Smaug that binds to these elements and represses translation in the bulk cytoplasm...
  9. Semotok J, Luo H, Cooperstock R, Karaiskakis A, Vari H, Smibert C, et al. Drosophila maternal Hsp83 mRNA destabilization is directed by multiple SMAUG recognition elements in the open reading frame. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:6757-72 pubmed publisher
    b>SMAUG (SMG) is an RNA-binding protein that functions as a key component of a transcript degradation pathway that eliminates maternal mRNAs in the bulk cytoplasm of activated Drosophila melanogaster eggs...

More Information


  1. Andrews S, Snowflack D, Clark I, Gavis E. Multiple mechanisms collaborate to repress nanos translation in the Drosophila ovary and embryo. RNA. 2011;17:967-77 pubmed publisher the interaction of a cis-acting element in the nos 3' untranslated region with two proteins, Glorund (Glo) and Smaug (Smg), that function in the oocyte and embryo, respectively. The mechanism of Glo-dependent repression is unknown...
  2. Gouw J, Pinkse M, Vos H, Moshkin Y, Verrijzer C, Heck A, et al. In vivo stable isotope labeling of fruit flies reveals post-transcriptional regulation in the maternal-to-zygotic transition. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2009;8:1566-78 pubmed publisher
  3. Smibert C, Wilson J, Kerr K, Macdonald P. smaug protein represses translation of unlocalized nanos mRNA in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2600-9 pubmed
    ..These sequences bind an embryonic protein of 135 kD, smaug, and we refer to them as smaug recognition elements (SREs)...
  4. Kim C, Bowie J. SAM domains: uniform structure, diversity of function. Trends Biochem Sci. 2003;28:625-8 pubmed
    ..Such functional diversity within a homologous protein family presents a significant challenge for bioinformatic function assignment. ..
  5. Semotok J, Cooperstock R, Pinder B, Vari H, Lipshitz H, Smibert C. Smaug recruits the CCR4/POP2/NOT deadenylase complex to trigger maternal transcript localization in the early Drosophila embryo. Curr Biol. 2005;15:284-94 pubmed
    ..Here, we identify the RNA binding protein, Smaug, previously known as a translational repressor of nanos, as a key regulator of degradation/protection-based ..
  6. Pinder B, Smibert C. microRNA-independent recruitment of Argonaute 1 to nanos mRNA through the Smaug RNA-binding protein. EMBO Rep. 2013;14:80-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe a new mechanism of Ago recruitment through the Drosophila Smaug RNA-binding protein...
  7. de Haro M, Al Ramahi I, Jones K, Holth J, Timchenko L, Botas J. Smaug/SAMD4A restores translational activity of CUGBP1 and suppresses CUG-induced myopathy. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003445 pubmed publisher
    ..The screen revealed smaug as a powerful modulator of CUG-induced toxicity...
  8. Green J, Gardner C, Wharton R, Aggarwal A. RNA recognition via the SAM domain of Smaug. Mol Cell. 2003;11:1537-48 pubmed
    ..required for proper abdominal segmentation, is generated in part via translational repression of its mRNA by Smaug. We report here the crystal structure of the Smaug RNA binding domain, which shows no sequence homology to any ..
  9. Kalifa Y, Huang T, Rosen L, Chatterjee S, Gavis E. Glorund, a Drosophila hnRNP F/H homolog, is an ovarian repressor of nanos translation. Dev Cell. 2006;10:291-301 pubmed
    ..TCE stem-loop II functions during embryogenesis, through its interaction with the Smaug repressor...
  10. Zaessinger S, Busseau I, Simonelig M. Oskar allows nanos mRNA translation in Drosophila embryos by preventing its deadenylation by Smaug/CCR4. Development. 2006;133:4573-83 pubmed
    ..Here we identify a novel level of nanos translational control. We show that the Smaug protein bound to the nanos 3' UTR recruits the deadenylation complex CCR4-NOT, leading to rapid deadenylation and ..
  11. Green J, Edwards T, Trincao J, Escalante C, Wharton R, Aggarwal A. Crystallization and characterization of Smaug: a novel RNA-binding motif. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;297:1085-8 pubmed
    During Drosophila embryogenesis, Smaug protein represses translation of Nanos through an interaction with a specific element in its 3(')UTR...
  12. Forrest K, Clark I, Jain R, Gavis E. Temporal complexity within a translational control element in the nanos mRNA. Development. 2004;131:5849-57 pubmed
    ..of nanos translation initiate during oogenesis and that translational repression is initially independent of Smaug, an embryonic repressor of nanos...
  13. Sung H, Spangenberg S, Vogt N, Großhans J. Number of nuclear divisions in the Drosophila blastoderm controlled by onset of zygotic transcription. Curr Biol. 2013;23:133-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that activation of zygotic gene expression is the trigger that determines the timely and concerted cell-cycle pause and cellularization. ..
  14. Mihailovic M, Mihailovich M, Wurth L, Zambelli F, Abaza I, Militti C, et al. Widespread generation of alternative UTRs contributes to sex-specific RNA binding by UNR. RNA. 2012;18:53-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that UNR exploits the transcript diversity generated by alternative processing and alternative promoter usage to bind and regulate target genes in a sex-specific manner. ..
  15. Verrotti A, Wharton R. Nanos interacts with cup in the female germline of Drosophila. Development. 2000;127:5225-32 pubmed
    ..They further suggest that Nos and Pum are likely to collaborate during oogenesis, as they do during embryogenesis. ..
  16. Song Y, Fee L, Lee T, Wharton R. The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for mRNA localization in Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Genetics. 2007;176:2213-22 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that LKB1 is a primary Hsp90 target for pgc localization and that other Hsp90 partners mediate localization of nos. ..
  17. Shav Tal Y, Singer R. RNA localization. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:4077-81 pubmed
  18. MacDonald P. Diversity in translational regulation. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2001;13:326-31 pubmed
    ..Diversity seems to be a central feature of translational control, both in the mechanisms themselves and in the situations where this form of regulation is used. ..
  19. Khan M, Li L, Pérez Sánchez C, Saraf A, Florens L, Slaughter B, et al. Amyloidogenic Oligomerization Transforms Drosophila Orb2 from a Translation Repressor to an Activator. Cell. 2015;163:1468-83 pubmed publisher
  20. Chartier A, Klein P, Pierson S, Barbezier N, Gidaro T, Casas F, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction reveals the role of mRNA poly(A) tail regulation in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy pathogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005092 pubmed publisher
    ..We focus on the deadenylation regulator Smaug and show that it is expressed in adult muscles and specifically binds to the down-regulated mRNAs...
  21. Lie Y, Macdonald P. Translational regulation of oskar mRNA occurs independent of the cap and poly(A) tail in Drosophila ovarian extracts. Development. 1999;126:4989-96 pubmed
    ..Translational regulation mediated through the Bruno response elements is thus likely to occur via a novel mechanism. ..
  22. Farrell J, O Farrell P. From egg to gastrula: how the cell cycle is remodeled during the Drosophila mid-blastula transition. Annu Rev Genet. 2014;48:269-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we consider how the elements of this program may be conserved or changed in other organisms. ..
  23. Wylie C. Germ cells. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2000;10:410-3 pubmed
  24. Thomsen S, Anders S, Janga S, Huber W, Alonso C. Genome-wide analysis of mRNA decay patterns during early Drosophila development. Genome Biol. 2010;11:R93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data also provide a valuable resource for further experimental and computational studies investigating the process of mRNA decay. ..
  25. Liu J, Lee D, Yu C, Angers S, Harris T. Stepping stone: a cytohesin adaptor for membrane cytoskeleton restraint in the syncytial Drosophila embryo. Mol Biol Cell. 2015;26:711-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall we propose that Sstn acts as a cytohesin adaptor that promotes Steppke activity for localized membrane cytoskeleton restraint in the syncytial Drosophila embryo. ..
  26. Gamberi C, Lasko P. The Bic-C family of developmental translational regulators. Comp Funct Genomics. 2012;2012:141386 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss recent advances towards understanding the functions of these proteins in the context of the cellular and developmental biology of many model organisms and their connection to human disease. ..
  27. Aerts S, Vilain S, Hu S, Tranchevent L, Barriot R, Yan J, et al. Integrating computational biology and forward genetics in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000351 pubmed publisher
    ..A systems genetics approach that combines the power of computational predictions with in vivo genetic screens strongly enhances the process of gene function and gene-gene association discovery. ..
  28. Macdonald P. Translational repression by Bicoid: competition for the cap. Cell. 2005;121:321-2 pubmed
    ..In this issue of Cell, solve a puzzle surrounding the action of the Drosophila Bicoid morphogen in formation of the Caudal protein gradient and in doing so describe a novel mechanism of translational repression. ..
  29. Benoit P, Papin C, Kwak J, Wickens M, Simonelig M. PAP- and GLD-2-type poly(A) polymerases are required sequentially in cytoplasmic polyadenylation and oogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 2008;135:1969-79 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that two distinct poly(A) polymerases have a role in cytoplasmic polyadenylation in the female germline, each of them being specifically required for different steps of oogenesis. ..
  30. Cui J, Sackton K, Horner V, Kumar K, Wolfner M. Wispy, the Drosophila homolog of GLD-2, is required during oogenesis and egg activation. Genetics. 2008;178:2017-29 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, WISP and Smaug (SMG) have previously been reported to be required to trigger the destabilization of maternal mRNAs during egg ..
  31. Nelson M, Leidal A, Smibert C. Drosophila Cup is an eIF4E-binding protein that functions in Smaug-mediated translational repression. EMBO J. 2004;23:150-9 pubmed
    ..Spatial regulation of nanos translation requires Smaug protein bound to the nanos 3' UTR, which represses the translation of unlocalized nanos transcripts...
  32. Brechbiel J, Gavis E. Spatial regulation of nanos is required for its function in dendrite morphogenesis. Curr Biol. 2008;18:745-750 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting of nos mRNA to the processes of da neurons may reflect a local requirement for Nos protein in dendritic translational control. ..
  33. Clark I, Dobi K, Duchow H, Vlasak A, Gavis E. A common translational control mechanism functions in axial patterning and neuroendocrine signaling in Drosophila. Development. 2002;129:3325-34 pubmed
    ..They also suggest that mechanisms that regulate maternal mRNAs, like TCE-mediated repression, may function more widely during development to spatially or temporally control gene expression. ..
  34. Chen L, Dumelie J, Li X, Cheng M, Yang Z, Laver J, et al. Global regulation of mRNA translation and stability in the early Drosophila embryo by the Smaug RNA-binding protein. Genome Biol. 2014;15:R4 pubmed publisher
    b>Smaug is an RNA-binding protein that induces the degradation and represses the translation of mRNAs in the early Drosophila embryo. Smaug has two identified direct target mRNAs that it differentially regulates: nanos and Hsp83...
  35. Geisbrecht E, Sawant K, Su Y, Liu Z, Silver D, Burtscher A, et al. Genetic interaction screens identify a role for hedgehog signaling in Drosophila border cell migration. Dev Dyn. 2013;242:414-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified a pathway by which Hh signaling connects to Rac and Par-1 in cell migration. These results further highlight the importance of modifier screens in the identification of new genes that function in developmental pathways. ..
  36. Horner V, Wolfner M. Mechanical stimulation by osmotic and hydrostatic pressure activates Drosophila oocytes in vitro in a calcium-dependent manner. Dev Biol. 2008;316:100-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This will allow exploitation of Drosophila genetics to dissect molecular pathways involving Ca(2+) and the activation of development. ..
  37. Temme C, Zhang L, Kremmer E, Ihling C, Chartier A, Sinz A, et al. Subunits of the Drosophila CCR4-NOT complex and their roles in mRNA deadenylation. RNA. 2010;16:1356-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Nocturnin may also be involved in mRNA deadenylation, whereas there is no evidence for a similar role of Angel and 3635. ..
  38. Hall T. SAM breaks its stereotype. Nat Struct Biol. 2003;10:677-9 pubmed
  39. Dean K, Aggarwal A, Wharton R. Translational repressors in Drosophila. Trends Genet. 2002;18:572-7 pubmed
    ..These repressors do not work in isolation - each binds multiple sites in the appropriate mRNA, and the resulting RNA-protein complexes appear to recruit co-repressors by a variety of mechanisms. ..
  40. Crucs S, Chatterjee S, Gavis E. Overlapping but distinct RNA elements control repression and activation of nanos translation. Mol Cell. 2000;5:457-67 pubmed
    ..We show that TCE function requires formation of a bipartite secondary structure that is recognized by Smaug repressor and at least one additional factor...
  41. Macdonald P. Translational control: a cup half full. Curr Biol. 2004;14:R282-3 pubmed
    ..The Cup protein is now found to have an important role in repression of both mRNAs, and apparently does so in a manner similar to the action of the Xenopus Maskin protein. ..
  42. Patel P, Barbee S, Blankenship J. GW-Bodies and P-Bodies Constitute Two Separate Pools of Sequestered Non-Translating RNAs. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0150291 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, inhibition of zygotic gene transcription is unable to block the formation of either P-bodies or GW-bodies in the early embryo, suggesting that these structures are composed of maternal RNAs. ..
  43. Laver J, Ancevicius K, Sollazzo P, Westwood J, Sidhu S, Lipshitz H, et al. Synthetic antibodies as tools to probe RNA-binding protein function. Mol Biosyst. 2012;8:1650-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Using two well-characterized Drosophila RNA-binding proteins, Staufen and Smaug, for proof-of-principle, we demonstrate that synthetic antibodies can be generated and used either to perform RNA-..
  44. Majumdar A, Cesario W, White Grindley E, Jiang H, Ren F, Khan M, et al. Critical role of amyloid-like oligomers of Drosophila Orb2 in the persistence of memory. Cell. 2012;148:515-29 pubmed publisher
    ..However the mutant flies failed to stabilize memory beyond 48 hr. These results support the idea that amyloid-like oligomers of neuronal CPEB are critical for the persistence of long-term memory. ..
  45. Foat B, Stormo G. Discovering structural cis-regulatory elements by modeling the behaviors of mRNAs. Mol Syst Biol. 2009;5:268 pubmed publisher
    ..We recovered the known specificities of Vts1p in yeast and Smaug in flies. In addition, we discovered six putative SCREs in flies and three in humans...
  46. Jeske M, Meyer S, Temme C, Freudenreich D, Wahle E. Rapid ATP-dependent deadenylation of nanos mRNA in a cell-free system from Drosophila embryos. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:25124-33 pubmed
    ..The nanos mRNA is translationally repressed by the protein Smaug in Drosophila embryos...