Gene Symbol: slp1
Description: sloppy paired 1
Alias: CG16738, Dmel\CG16738, Dmslp1, FD6, FoxG, SLP, SLP1, Slp, Slp-1, Slp1, l(2)05965, sko1, slp, slp-1, slp-2, sloppy paired 1, CG16738-PA, Sloppy-paired, Sloppy-paired1, sloppy, sloppy pair, sloppy paired, sloppy-paired 1, sloppy-paired-1, slp1-PA
Species: fruit fly
Products:     slp1

Top Publications

  1. Walrad P, Hang S, Joseph G, Salas J, Gergen J. Distinct contributions of conserved modules to Runt transcription factor activity. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2315-26 pubmed publisher
    ..distinct regions that participate in the transcriptional activation and repression of the segmentation gene sloppy-paired-1 (slp1)...
  2. Wang X, Hang S, Prazak L, Gergen J. NELF potentiates gene transcription in the Drosophila embryo. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11498 pubmed publisher
  3. Prazak L, Fujioka M, Gergen J. Non-additive interactions involving two distinct elements mediate sloppy-paired regulation by pair-rule transcription factors. Dev Biol. 2010;344:1048-59 pubmed publisher
    The relatively simple combinatorial rules responsible for establishing the initial metameric expression of sloppy-paired-1 (slp1) in the Drosophila blastoderm embryo make this system an attractive model for investigating the mechanism of ..
  4. Swantek D, Gergen J. Ftz modulates Runt-dependent activation and repression of segment-polarity gene transcription. Development. 2004;131:2281-90 pubmed
    ..These experiments identify sloppy paired 1 (slp1) as a gene that is activated and repressed by Runt in a simple combinatorial parasegment-dependent ..
  5. Frasch M, Levine M. Complementary patterns of even-skipped and fushi tarazu expression involve their differential regulation by a common set of segmentation genes in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1987;1:981-95 pubmed
  6. Wang X, Lee C, Gilmour D, Gergen J. Transcription elongation controls cell fate specification in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 2007;21:1031-6 pubmed
    The simple combinatorial rules for regulation of the sloppy-paired-1 (slp1) gene by the pair-rule transcription factors during early Drosophila embryogenesis offer a unique opportunity to investigate the molecular mechanisms of ..
  7. Riechmann V, Irion U, Wilson R, Grosskortenhaus R, Leptin M. Control of cell fates and segmentation in the Drosophila mesoderm. Development. 1997;124:2915-22 pubmed
    ..muscles, which expresses high levels of twist, a crucial factor of somatic muscle determination, is lost in sloppy-paired mutants. Simultaneously, the primordium of the visceral muscles is expanded...
  8. Gebelein B, Mckay D, Mann R. Direct integration of Hox and segmentation gene inputs during Drosophila development. Nature. 2004;431:653-9 pubmed
    ..Here we show that abdominal Hox proteins work directly with two different segmentation proteins, Sloppy paired and Engrailed, to repress the Hox target gene Distalless in anterior and posterior compartments, respectively...
  9. Albert R, Othmer H. The topology of the regulatory interactions predicts the expression pattern of the segment polarity genes in Drosophila melanogaster. J Theor Biol. 2003;223:1-18 pubmed
    ..The model gives important insights into the functioning of the segment polarity gene network, such as the crucial role of the wingless and sloppy paired genes, and the network's ability to correct errors in the pre-pattern.

More Information


  1. Luengo Hendriks C, Keränen S, Fowlkes C, Simirenko L, Weber G, DePace A, et al. Three-dimensional morphology and gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm at cellular resolution I: data acquisition pipeline. Genome Biol. 2006;7:R123 pubmed
    ..The application of these quantitative methods to other developmental systems will likely reveal many other previously unknown features and provide a more rigorous understanding of developmental regulatory networks. ..
  2. Sanchez L, Thieffry D. Segmenting the fly embryo: a logical analysis of the pair-rule cross-regulatory module. J Theor Biol. 2003;224:517-37 pubmed
    ..Finally, it provides new insights into the roles and evolutionary origins of the apparent redundancies in the regulatory architecture of the pair-rule module. ..
  3. Papatsenko D, Goltsev Y, Levine M. Organization of developmental enhancers in the Drosophila embryo. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:5665-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that grammar of gene control regions is pervasively used in the patterning of the Drosophila embryo. ..
  4. Hare E, Peterson B, Iyer V, Meier R, Eisen M. Sepsid even-skipped enhancers are functionally conserved in Drosophila despite lack of sequence conservation. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000106 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these observations suggest that the local arrangement of binding sites relative to each other is more important than their overall arrangement into larger units of cis-regulatory function...
  5. Tracey W, Ning X, Klingler M, Kramer S, Gergen J. Quantitative analysis of gene function in the Drosophila embryo. Genetics. 2000;154:273-84 pubmed
    ..The maternal GAL4 system will have applications both for the measurement of gene activity in reverse genetic experiments as well as for the identification of genetic factors that have quantitative effects on gene function in vivo. ..
  6. Surkova S, Kosman D, Kozlov K, Manu -, Myasnikova E, Samsonova A, et al. Characterization of the Drosophila segment determination morphome. Dev Biol. 2008;313:844-62 pubmed
    ..As the first quantitatively characterized morphogenetic field, this system and its behavior constitute an extraordinarily rich set of materials for the study of canalization and embryonic regulation at the molecular level...
  7. Fowlkes C, Hendriks C, Keränen S, Weber G, Rübel O, Huang M, et al. A quantitative spatiotemporal atlas of gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm. Cell. 2008;133:364-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a VirtualEmbryo containing data for 95 genes at six time cohorts. We show that known gene-regulatory interactions can be automatically recovered from this data set and predict hundreds of new interactions...
  8. MacArthur S, Li X, Li J, Brown J, Chu H, Zeng L, et al. Developmental roles of 21 Drosophila transcription factors are determined by quantitative differences in binding to an overlapping set of thousands of genomic regions. Genome Biol. 2009;10:R80 pubmed publisher
  9. Merabet S, Pradel J, Graba Y. Getting a molecular grasp on Hox contextual activity. Trends Genet. 2005;21:477-80 pubmed
    ..A recent study identified novel Hox molecular partners, whose properties set a conceptual framework to understand how Hox proteins use and integrate contextual information. ..
  10. Mondal S, Ivanchuk S, Rutka J, Boulianne G. Sloppy paired 1/2 regulate glial cell fates by inhibiting Gcm function. Glia. 2007;55:282-93 pubmed
    ..The Drosophila segmentation genes, sloppy paired (slp) 1/2 have been shown to be necessary for development of a neuronal precursor cell subtype, the NB4-2 ..
  11. Sato A, Tomlinson A. Dorsal-ventral midline signaling in the developing Drosophila eye. Development. 2007;134:659-67 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the ventral role of the Sloppy-paired (Slp) transcription factor, and its interactions with dorsally expressed Iroquois (Iro) transcription ..
  12. Myasnikova E, Surkova S, Panok L, Samsonova M, Reinitz J. Estimation of errors introduced by confocal imaging into the data on segmentation gene expression in Drosophila. Bioinformatics. 2009;25:346-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This article deals with errors introduced by confocal microscope...
  13. Yu Y, Yussa M, Song J, Hirsch J, Pick L. A double interaction screen identifies positive and negative ftz gene regulators and ftz-interacting proteins. Mech Dev. 1999;83:95-105 pubmed
    ..the activity of a second candidate ftz repressor isolated in the screen - the product of the pair-rule gene sloppy paired - a member of the forkhead family. We show that Slp1 is a DNA binding protein...
  14. Ochoa Espinosa A, Yucel G, Kaplan L, Pare A, Pura N, Oberstein A, et al. The role of binding site cluster strength in Bicoid-dependent patterning in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:4960-5 pubmed
    ..We propose that the key design principle in AP patterning is the differential integration of positive and negative transcriptional information at the level of individual CRMs for each target gene. ..
  15. Wheeler J, VanderZwan C, Xu X, Swantek D, Tracey W, Gergen J. Distinct in vivo requirements for establishment versus maintenance of transcriptional repression. Nat Genet. 2002;32:206-10 pubmed
    ..Other transcription factors can also establish repression in Rpd3-deficient embryos, which indicates that the distinction between establishment and maintenance may be a general feature of eukaryotic transcriptional repression. ..
  16. Grossniklaus U, Pearson R, Gehring W. The Drosophila sloppy paired locus encodes two proteins involved in segmentation that show homology to mammalian transcription factors. Genes Dev. 1992;6:1030-51 pubmed
    The sloppy paired locus is involved in the establishment of the metameric body plan of the Drosophila embryo. We have cloned the sloppy paired locus by P-element-mediated enhancer detection...
  17. Alexandre C, Vincent J. Requirements for transcriptional repression and activation by Engrailed in Drosophila embryos. Development. 2003;130:729-39 pubmed
    ..We identified the intermediate repressor activity as being encoded by sloppy paired 1 and 2 and showed that bona fide activation is dramatically enhanced by Wingless signaling...
  18. Kaplan T, Li X, Sabo P, Thomas S, Stamatoyannopoulos J, Biggin M, et al. Quantitative models of the mechanisms that control genome-wide patterns of transcription factor binding during early Drosophila development. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001290 pubmed publisher
  19. Kosman D, Small S, Reinitz J. Rapid preparation of a panel of polyclonal antibodies to Drosophila segmentation proteins. Dev Genes Evol. 1998;208:290-4 pubmed
    ..Antigenicity of the purified recombinant proteins may be increased by precipitation in double-distilled water. The results of using the serums obtained for fluorescent staining of Drosophila embryos are shown. ..
  20. Acharya P, Raj N, Buckley M, Zhang L, Duperon S, Williams G, et al. Paradoxical instability-activity relationship defines a novel regulatory pathway for retinoblastoma proteins. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:3890-901 pubmed publisher
    ..Analogous mutations in the mammalian RB family member p107 similarly induce abnormal accumulation, indicating substantial conservation of this regulatory pathway. ..
  21. Bhat K, van Beers E, Bhat P. Sloppy paired acts as the downstream target of wingless in the Drosophila CNS and interaction between sloppy paired and gooseberry inhibits sloppy paired during neurogenesis. Development. 2000;127:655-65 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we show that sloppy paired 1 and sloppy paired 2 function as the downstream targets of the Wg signaling to generate the NB4-2 cell...
  22. Andrioli L, Oberstein A, Corado M, Yu D, Small S. Groucho-dependent repression by sloppy-paired 1 differentially positions anterior pair-rule stripes in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 2004;276:541-51 pubmed
    ..The sloppy-paired (slp) locus contains two genes (slp1 and slp2) that are expressed in overlapping striped patterns in the ..
  23. Struhl G, Barbash D, Lawrence P. Hedgehog organises the pattern and polarity of epidermal cells in the Drosophila abdomen. Development. 1997;124:2143-54 pubmed
    ..Many of these results are unexpected and lead us to reassess the role of gradients and compartments in patterning insect segments. ..
  24. Sanchez L, Chaouiya C, Thieffry D. Segmenting the fly embryo: logical analysis of the role of the segment polarity cross-regulatory module. Int J Dev Biol. 2008;52:1059-75 pubmed publisher
    ..of Cubitus interruptus, the effector molecule of the Hedgehog signalling pathway and (4) the roles of Sloppy-paired and Naked in the delineation of the engrailed and wingless expression domains are emphasized as being ..
  25. Buescher M, Svendsen P, Tio M, Miskolczi McCallum C, Tear G, Brook W, et al. Drosophila T box proteins break the symmetry of hedgehog-dependent activation of wingless. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1694-702 pubmed
    ..In odd-numbered abdominal segments, Mid/H15 activity plays an important role in restricting the expression of Wg to a single domain. ..
  26. He X, Duque T, Sinha S. Evolutionary origins of transcription factor binding site clusters. Mol Biol Evol. 2012;29:1059-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The quantitative framework we develop here can be used more generally to understand how mechanisms of enhancer action influence their composition and evolution. ..
  27. Vanderzwan Butler C, Prazak L, Gergen J. The HMG-box protein Lilliputian is required for Runt-dependent activation of the pair-rule gene fushi-tarazu. Dev Biol. 2007;301:350-60 pubmed
    ..lilli is not required for all targets that are activated by Runt and appears to have no role in activation of sloppy paired (slp1)...
  28. McKeon J, Slade E, Sinclair D, Cheng N, Couling M, Brock H. Mutations in some Polycomb group genes of Drosophila interfere with regulation of segmentation genes. Mol Gen Genet. 1994;244:474-83 pubmed
    ..These results support a role for Pc genes in regulation of some segmentation genes, and suggest that esc may act differently from other Pc group genes. ..
  29. Topol J, Dearolf C, Prakash K, Parker C. Synthetic oligonucleotides recreate Drosophila fushi tarazu zebra-stripe expression. Genes Dev. 1991;5:855-67 pubmed
    ..The reconstructed promoter system presented provides an effective means of studying molecular mechanisms governing spatially restricted transcription in the early embryo. ..
  30. Coulter D, Wieschaus E. Gene activities and segmental patterning in Drosophila: analysis of odd-skipped and pair-rule double mutants. Genes Dev. 1988;2:1812-23 pubmed
    ..We have observed phenotypic suppression in double-mutant combinations with even-skipped (eve), paired, sloppy paired, and engrailed (en)...
  31. Howard M, Davidson E. cis-Regulatory control circuits in development. Dev Biol. 2004;271:109-18 pubmed
    ..At this higher level of organization, common bilaterian strategies for specifying progenitor fields, locking down regulatory states, and driving development forward emerge. ..
  32. Andrioli L, Vasisht V, Theodosopoulou E, Oberstein A, Small S. Anterior repression of a Drosophila stripe enhancer requires three position-specific mechanisms. Development. 2002;129:4931-40 pubmed
    ..This site is bound specifically by Sloppy-paired 1 (Slp1), which is expressed in a gap gene-like anterior domain...
  33. Cadigan K, Grossniklaus U, Gehring W. Functional redundancy: the respective roles of the two sloppy paired genes in Drosophila segmentation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:6324-8 pubmed
    The sloppy paired (slp) locus consists of two genes, slp1 and slp2, both of which encode proteins containing a forkhead domain (a DNA-binding motif)...
  34. Tsoi H, Lau C, Lau K, Chan H. Perturbation of U2AF65/NXF1-mediated RNA nuclear export enhances RNA toxicity in polyQ diseases. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:3787-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We also provide a novel mechanistic explanation to how perturbation of RNA nuclear export would contribute to polyQ degeneration. ..
  35. Surkova S, Myasnikova E, Janssens H, Kozlov K, Samsonova A, Reinitz J, et al. Pipeline for acquisition of quantitative data on segmentation gene expression from confocal images. Fly (Austin). 2008;2:58-66 pubmed
    ..5-minute resolution in time, as well as to construct a spatiotemporal atlas of segmentation gene expression. Each data pipeline step can be easily adapted to process a wide range of images of gene expression patterns. ..
  36. Blanco J, Gehring W. Analysis of twin of eyeless regulation during early embryogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Gene Expr Patterns. 2008;8:523-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas Bicoid, Dorsal and Torso signaling synergistically act as activators, Hunchback, Knirps and Decapentaplegic act as repressors. ..
  37. Lee H, Frasch M. Wingless effects mesoderm patterning and ectoderm segmentation events via induction of its downstream target sloppy paired. Development. 2000;127:5497-508 pubmed
    Inactivation of either the secreted protein Wingless (Wg) or the forkhead domain transcription factor Sloppy Paired (Slp) has been shown to produce similar effects in the developing Drosophila embryo...
  38. Ghavi Helm Y, Klein F, Pakozdi T, Ciglar L, Noordermeer D, Huber W, et al. Enhancer loops appear stable during development and are associated with paused polymerase. Nature. 2014;512:96-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the general topology governing enhancer contacts is conserved from flies to humans and suggest that transcription initiates from preformed enhancer-promoter loops through release of paused polymerase. ..
  39. Nekrasov M, Klymenko T, Fraterman S, Papp B, Oktaba K, Kocher T, et al. Pcl-PRC2 is needed to generate high levels of H3-K27 trimethylation at Polycomb target genes. EMBO J. 2007;26:4078-88 pubmed
    ..Pcl-PRC2 is thus the HMTase that generates the high levels of H3-K27 trimethylation in Polycomb target genes that are needed to maintain a Polycomb-repressed chromatin state. ..
  40. Crozatier M, Valle D, Dubois L, Ibnsouda S, Vincent A. Head versus trunk patterning in the Drosophila embryo; collier requirement for formation of the intercalary segment. Development. 1999;126:4385-94 pubmed
  41. Piepenburg O, Vorbrüggen G, Jackle H. Drosophila segment borders result from unilateral repression of hedgehog activity by wingless signaling. Mol Cell. 2000;6:203-9 pubmed
    ..The nuclear mediators of the two signaling pathways, Cubitus interruptus and Pangolin, function as activator and symmetry-breaking repressor of stripe expression, respectively. ..
  42. Lee H, Kahn T, Simcox A, Schwartz Y, Pirrotta V. Genome-wide activities of Polycomb complexes control pervasive transcription. Genome Res. 2015;25:1170-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We show, however, that H2AK118ub does not mediate the global PRC2 activity or the global repression and is predominantly produced by a new complex involving L(3)73Ah, a homolog of mammalian PCGF3. ..
  43. Kozlov K, Myasnikova E, Samsonova A, Surkova S, Reinitz J, Samsonova M. GCPReg package for registration of the segmentation gene expression data in Drosophila. Fly (Austin). 2009;3:151-6 pubmed
    ..GCPReg has been designed to operate ona UNIX platform and is freely available via the Internet at ..
  44. Zamparo L, Perkins T. Statistical lower bounds on protein copy number from fluorescence expression images. Bioinformatics. 2009;25:2670-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The data are all drawn from FlyEx (explained within), and is available at ..
  45. Martinez C, Rest J, Kim A, Ludwig M, Kreitman M, White K, et al. Ancestral resurrection of the Drosophila S2E enhancer reveals accessible evolutionary paths through compensatory change. Mol Biol Evol. 2014;31:903-16 pubmed publisher
    ..A multiplicity of mechanisms for binding site turnover exemplified by Bicoid, Giant, and Krüppel sites, explains how rapid sequence change may occur while maintaining the function of the cis-regulatory element...
  46. Chen H, Xu Z, Mei C, Yu D, Small S. A system of repressor gradients spatially organizes the boundaries of Bicoid-dependent target genes. Cell. 2012;149:618-29 pubmed publisher
    ..These results put conceptual limits on the Bcd morphogen hypothesis and demonstrate how the Bcd gradient functions within the gene network that patterns the embryo. ..
  47. Goldstein R, Cook O, Dinur T, Pisanté A, Karandikar U, Bidwai A, et al. An eh1-like motif in odd-skipped mediates recruitment of Groucho and repression in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10711-20 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that phosphorylation of these phosphomeric residues, if it occurs, will down-regulate Groucho binding and therefore repression, providing a mechanism for posttranslational control of Groucho-mediated repression. ..
  48. Jakobsen J, Braun M, Astorga J, Gustafson E, Sandmann T, Karzynski M, et al. Temporal ChIP-on-chip reveals Biniou as a universal regulator of the visceral muscle transcriptional network. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2448-60 pubmed
    ..The regulatory connection of a number of Biniou target genes is conserved in mice, suggesting an ancient wiring of this developmental program. ..
  49. Gebelein B, Mann R. Compartmental modulation of abdominal Hox expression by engrailed and sloppy-paired patterns the fly ectoderm. Dev Biol. 2007;308:593-605 pubmed
    ..findings, we show that en is essential for high Abd-A levels and low Ubx levels in the P compartment, whereas sloppy-paired (slp) is required for high Ubx levels in the A compartment...
  50. Noordermeer J, Klingensmith J, Nusse R. Differential requirements for segment polarity genes in wingless signaling. Mech Dev. 1995;51:145-55 pubmed
    ..Signaling from engrailed cells to this novel wingless expression domain is dependent on hedgehog but also on porcupine. We further demonstrate a novel requirement for hedgehog in maintenance of expression of engrailed itself. ..
  51. Kobayashi M, Fujioka M, Tolkunova E, Deka D, Abu Shaar M, Mann R, et al. Engrailed cooperates with extradenticle and homothorax to repress target genes in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:741-51 pubmed
    ..These studies expand the functional requirements for extradenticle and homothorax beyond the Hox proteins to a larger family of non-Hox homeodomain proteins. ..
  52. Clark K, Halay E, Lai E, Burley S. Co-crystal structure of the HNF-3/fork head DNA-recognition motif resembles histone H5. Nature. 1993;364:412-20 pubmed
    ..The remainder of the protein includes a twisted, antiparallel beta-structure and random coil that interacts with the minor groove. ..
  53. Gates A, Rocha L. Control of complex networks requires both structure and dynamics. Sci Rep. 2016;6:24456 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis further shows that the logic of automata transition functions, namely how canalizing they are, plays an important role in the extent to which structure predicts dynamics. ..
  54. Klingensmith J, Nusse R. Signaling by wingless in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1994;166:396-414 pubmed
    ..Where appropriate, wingless signaling will be compared to the activity of vertebrate Wnt proteins. ..
  55. Cadigan K, Grossniklaus U, Gehring W. Localized expression of sloppy paired protein maintains the polarity of Drosophila parasegments. Genes Dev. 1994;8:899-913 pubmed
    ..The sloppy paired (slp) locus contains two transcription units, both encoding proteins containing a forkhead domain, a DNA-..
  56. Fujioka M, Gebelein B, COFER Z, Mann R, Jaynes J. Engrailed cooperates directly with Extradenticle and Homothorax on a distinct class of homeodomain binding sites to repress sloppy paired. Dev Biol. 2012;366:382-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The sloppy-paired (slp) locus is a target of repression by both Eve and En...
  57. Li X, Thomas S, Sabo P, Eisen M, Stamatoyannopoulos J, Biggin M. The role of chromatin accessibility in directing the widespread, overlapping patterns of Drosophila transcription factor binding. Genome Biol. 2011;12:R34 pubmed publisher
  58. Wilson R. Competent steps in determination of cell fate. Bioessays. 1999;21:455-8 pubmed
    ..A recent paper by Carmena et al. has revealed how several signalling mechanisms are used sequentially and in specific combinations to specify two mesodermal lineages in Drosophila. ..
  59. Crozatier M, Valle D, Dubois L, Ibnsouda S, Vincent A. Collier, a novel regulator of Drosophila head development, is expressed in a single mitotic domain. Curr Biol. 1996;6:707-18 pubmed
    ..The structural conservation of Col during evolution raises the questions of its conservation of function in head specification and its interactions with other factors conserved between insects and vertebrates. ..
  60. Andrioli L, Digiampietri L, de Barros L, Machado Lima A. Huckebein is part of a combinatorial repression code in the anterior blastoderm. Dev Biol. 2012;361:177-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We further discuss that Hkb and Slp1, which is the other previously identified common repressor of anterior stripes, might participate in a ..
  61. Kaufmann E, Knochel W. Five years on the wings of fork head. Mech Dev. 1996;57:3-20 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this review is to summarize the accumulating amount of data on structure, expression and function of fork head/HNF-3-related transcription factors. ..
  62. Samee A, Sinha S. Evaluating thermodynamic models of enhancer activity on cellular resolution gene expression data. Methods. 2013;62:79-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our model identifies three transcription factors--ZELDA, SLOPPY-PAIRED, and NUBBIN--that have not been previously incorporated in quantitative models of this system, as having ..
  63. Hauptmann G, Gerster T. Multicolour whole-mount in situ hybridization to Drosophila embryos. Dev Genes Evol. 1996;206:292-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Hybridized probes are detected by consecutive staining with appropriate alkaline phosphatase conjugates using different chromogenic substrate combinations, and serial removal of the antibody conjugates by low pH washes. ..
  64. Lee H, Frasch M. Survey of forkhead domain encoding genes in the Drosophila genome: Classification and embryonic expression patterns. Dev Dyn. 2004;229:357-66 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the expression patterns of two of these genes, fd19B and fd102C, suggest a role for them as gap genes during early embryonic head segmentation. ..
  65. Lee H, Frasch M. Nuclear integration of positive Dpp signals, antagonistic Wg inputs and mesodermal competence factors during Drosophila visceral mesoderm induction. Development. 2005;132:1429-42 pubmed
    ..Adjacent binding sites for the FoxG transcription factors encoded by the Sloppy paired genes (slp1 and slp2), which are direct targets of the Wg signaling cascade, serve to block the synergistic ..
  66. Ochoa Espinosa A, Yu D, Tsirigos A, Struffi P, Small S. Anterior-posterior positional information in the absence of a strong Bicoid gradient. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:3823-8 pubmed publisher
  67. Miskiewicz P, Morrissey D, Lan Y, Raj L, Kessler S, Fujioka M, et al. Both the paired domain and homeodomain are required for in vivo function of Drosophila Paired. Development. 1996;122:2709-18 pubmed
    ..Quantitation of this effect shows that the paired domain mutant has a dominant-negative effect consistent with the observations that Paired protein can bind DNA as a dimer. ..
  68. Karim M, Moore A. Convergent local identity and topographic projection of sensory neurons. J Neurosci. 2011;31:17017-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that convergent sensory neuron specification, local differentiation, and topographic wiring are mediated by Mirror, and they suggest an integrated paradigm for position-sensitive neural development. ..
  69. Aswani A, Biggin M, Bickel P, TOMLIN C. Nonparametric variable selection and modeling for spatial and temporal regulatory networks. Methods Cell Biol. 2012;110:243-61 pubmed publisher
    ..By being able to quantify a continuum of interaction likelihoods, this helps to direct future experiments. ..
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  71. Mazet F, Yu J, Liberles D, Holland L, Shimeld S. Phylogenetic relationships of the Fox (Forkhead) gene family in the Bilateria. Gene. 2003;316:79-89 pubmed
    ..Our analyses suggest that the common ancestor of protostomes and deuterostomes had a minimum complement of 14 Fox genes. ..