Gene Symbol: sli
Description: slit
Alias: CG33464, CG43758, CG8355, CT21700, CT37068, Dmel\CG43758, Dmel_CG33464, Dmel_CG8355, Sli, Slit, dSlit, fus3, l(2)05248, wdh, slit, CG43758-PA, CG43758-PB, CG43758-PC, CG43758-PD, CG43758-PE, CG43758-PF, SGP cluster fusion defects 3, lethal (2) 05248, sli-PA, sli-PB, sli-PC, sli-PD, sli-PE, sli-PF
Species: fruit fly
Products:     sli

Top Publications

  1. SANTIAGO MARTINEZ E, Soplop N, Kramer S. Lateral positioning at the dorsal midline: Slit and Roundabout receptors guide Drosophila heart cell migration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12441-6 pubmed
    ..In this study, we analyzed the role of Slit, an extracellular matrix protein and its transmembrane receptors Roundabout (Robo) and Roundabout2 (Robo2) during ..
  2. MacMullin A, Jacobs J. Slit coordinates cardiac morphogenesis in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2006;293:154-64 pubmed
    b>Slit is a secreted guidance cue that conveys repellent or attractive signals from target and guidepost cells. In Drosophila, responsive cells express one or more of three Robo receptors...
  3. Bossing T, Brand A. Determination of cell fate along the anteroposterior axis of the Drosophila ventral midline. Development. 2006;133:1001-12 pubmed
    ..Engrailed-positive midline cells develop into ventral unpaired median (VUM) neurons and the median neuroblast (MNB). Engrailed-negative midline cells develop into unpaired median interneurons (UMI), MP1 interneurons and midline glia. ..
  4. Qian L, Liu J, Bodmer R. Slit and Robo control cardiac cell polarity and morphogenesis. Curr Biol. 2005;15:2271-8 pubmed
    ..The extracellular-matrix molecule Slit and its Robo-family receptors are conserved regulators of axonal guidance...
  5. Merianda T, Botta V, Bhat K. Patched regulation of axon guidance is by specifying neural identity in the Drosophila nerve cord. Dev Genes Evol. 2005;215:285-96 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the medial tracts cross the midline ignoring the axon-repellant Slit on the midline and Roundabout on growth cones. The medial tract is pioneered by neurons pCC and vMP2...
  6. Bashaw G, Goodman C. Chimeric axon guidance receptors: the cytoplasmic domains of slit and netrin receptors specify attraction versus repulsion. Cell. 1999;97:917-26 pubmed
    Frazzled (Fra) is the DCC-like Netrin receptor in Drosophila that mediates attraction; Roundabout (Robo) is a Slit receptor that mediates repulsion...
  7. Zlatic M, Landgraf M, Bate M. Genetic specification of axonal arbors: atonal regulates robo3 to position terminal branches in the Drosophila nervous system. Neuron. 2003;37:41-51 pubmed
    ..chordotonal neurons) or nonexpression (multidendritic neurons) of the Robo3 receptor for the midline repellent Slit. Robo3 expression is one of a suite of chordotonal neuron properties that depend on expression of the proneural ..
  8. Chanana B, Steigemann P, Jackle H, Vorbrüggen G. Reception of Slit requires only the chondroitin-sulphate-modified extracellular domain of Syndecan at the target cell surface. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11984-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, Sdc has been shown to be necessary for Slit signaling-dependent axon and myotube guidance during CNS development and muscle pattern formation...
  9. Liu Q, Hiramoto M, Ueda H, Gojobori T, Hiromi Y, Hirose S. Midline governs axon pathfinding by coordinating expression of two major guidance systems. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1165-70 pubmed publisher
    ..protein Midline controls expression of genes encoding components of two major guidance systems: Frazzled, ROBO, and Slit. In midline mutant, expression of all these molecules are reduced, resulting in severe axon guidance defects, ..

More Information


  1. Medioni C, Astier M, Zmojdzian M, Jagla K, Semeriva M. Genetic control of cell morphogenesis during Drosophila melanogaster cardiac tube formation. J Cell Biol. 2008;182:249-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we identify a genetic pathway in which roundabout, slit, held out wings, and dystroglycan control cardiac lumen formation by establishing nonadherent luminal membranes and ..
  2. Fritz J, VanBerkum M. Calmodulin and son of sevenless dependent signaling pathways regulate midline crossing of axons in the Drosophila CNS. Development. 2000;127:1991-2000 pubmed
    ..signaling pathway leads to abnormal projection of axons across the midline and these increase with roundabout or slit mutations...
  3. Keleman K, Ribeiro C, Dickson B. Comm function in commissural axon guidance: cell-autonomous sorting of Robo in vivo. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:156-63 pubmed
    ..the Drosophila melanogaster midline by regulating surface levels of Robo, the receptor for the midline repellent Slit. Two different models have been proposed for how Comm regulates Robo: a 'sorting' model and a 'clearance' model, ..
  4. Johnson K, Ghose A, Epstein E, Lincecum J, O Connor M, Van Vactor D. Axonal heparan sulfate proteoglycans regulate the distribution and efficiency of the repellent slit during midline axon guidance. Curr Biol. 2004;14:499-504 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate through genetic analysis in vivo that the HSPG Syndecan (Sdc) is critical for the fidelity of Slit repellent signaling at the midline of the Drosophila CNS, consistent with the localization of Sdc to CNS axons...
  5. Kidd T, Bland K, Goodman C. Slit is the midline repellent for the robo receptor in Drosophila. Cell. 1999;96:785-94 pubmed
    ..Here we present genetic evidence that Slit is the midline Robo ligand; a companion paper presents biochemical evidence that Slit binds Robo...
  6. Evans T, Bashaw G. Functional diversity of Robo receptor immunoglobulin domains promotes distinct axon guidance decisions. Curr Biol. 2010;20:567-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, three Roundabout (Robo) Ig superfamily receptors respond to their common Slit ligand to regulate axon guidance at the midline: Robo and Robo2 mediate midline repulsion, Robo2 and Robo3 control ..
  7. Bashaw G, Kidd T, Murray D, Pawson T, Goodman C. Repulsive axon guidance: Abelson and Enabled play opposing roles downstream of the roundabout receptor. Cell. 2000;101:703-15 pubmed
    ..Robo) is the founding member of a conserved family of repulsive axon guidance receptors that respond to secreted Slit proteins. Little is known about the signaling mechanisms which function downstream of Robo to mediate repulsion...
  8. Hummel T, Schimmelpfeng K, Klämbt C. Commissure formation in the embryonic CNS of Drosophila. Development. 1999;126:771-9 pubmed
    ..The results lead to a detailed model relating different cellular functions to axonal patterning at the midline. ..
  9. Rhee J, Buchan T, Zukerberg L, Lilien J, Balsamo J. Cables links Robo-bound Abl kinase to N-cadherin-bound beta-catenin to mediate Slit-induced modulation of adhesion and transcription. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:883-92 pubmed
    Binding of the secreted axon guidance cue Slit to its Robo receptor results in inactivation of the neural, calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin, providing a rapid epigenetic mechanism for integrating guidance and ..
  10. Steigemann P, Molitor A, Fellert S, Jackle H, Vorbrüggen G. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan promotes axonal and myotube guidance by slit/robo signaling. Curr Biol. 2004;14:225-30 pubmed
    b>Slit, the ligand for the Roundabout (Robo) receptors, is secreted from midline cells of the Drosophila central nervous system (CNS)...
  11. Volohonsky G, Edenfeld G, Klämbt C, Volk T. Muscle-dependent maturation of tendon cells is induced by post-transcriptional regulation of stripeA. Development. 2007;134:347-56 pubmed
    ..Thus, we demonstrate a mechanism by which tendon cell terminal differentiation is maintained and reinforced by the approaching muscle. ..
  12. Bossing T, Brand A. Dephrin, a transmembrane ephrin with a unique structure, prevents interneuronal axons from exiting the Drosophila embryonic CNS. Development. 2002;129:4205-18 pubmed
    ..We propose that the longitudinal tracts in the Drosophila CNS are moulded by a repulsive outer border of Dephrin expression. ..
  13. Rajagopalan S, Nicolas E, Vivancos V, Berger J, Dickson B. Crossing the midline: roles and regulation of Robo receptors. Neuron. 2000;28:767-77 pubmed
    In the Drosophila CNS, the midline repellent Slit acts at short range through its receptor Robo to control midline crossing...
  14. Klämbt C, Jacobs J, Goodman C. The midline of the Drosophila central nervous system: a model for the genetic analysis of cell fate, cell migration, and growth cone guidance. Cell. 1991;64:801-15 pubmed
    ..A genetic test of this model has utilized a number of mutations that, by either eliminating or altering the differentiation of various midline cells, perturb the development of the axon commissures in a predictable fashion. ..
  15. Ma Y, Certel K, Gao Y, Niemitz E, Mosher J, Mukherjee A, et al. Functional interactions between Drosophila bHLH/PAS, Sox, and POU transcription factors regulate CNS midline expression of the slit gene. J Neurosci. 2000;20:4596-605 pubmed
    ..The corresponding proteins bind to DNA sites present in a 1 kb midline enhancer from the slit gene and regulate the activity of this enhancer in cultured Drosophila Schneider line 2 cells...
  16. Albrecht S, Altenhein B, Paululat A. The transmembrane receptor Uncoordinated5 (Unc5) is essential for heart lumen formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2011;350:89-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support the idea that Unc5 is crucial for lumen formation and thereby represents a repulsive cue acting during Drosophila heart tube formation. ..
  17. Wharton K, Franks R, Kasai Y, Crews S. Control of CNS midline transcription by asymmetric E-box-like elements: similarity to xenobiotic responsive regulation. Development. 1994;120:3563-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a model whereby related basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS proteins interact with asymmetric E-box-like target sequences to control these disparate processes...
  18. Sonnenfeld M, Jacobs J. Mesectodermal cell fate analysis in Drosophila midline mutants. Mech Dev. 1994;46:3-13 pubmed
    ..of commissures, leading to longitudinal tract collapse, was seen in embryos mutant for the genes single-minded and slit. MEC lineages did not survive in single-minded mutant embryos, in contrast to the survival of all MEC lineages in ..
  19. Rhee J, Mahfooz N, Arregui C, Lilien J, Balsamo J, VanBerkum M. Activation of the repulsive receptor Roundabout inhibits N-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:798-805 pubmed
    ..activation of the transmembrane receptor Roundabout (Robo) by its ligand, the secreted repulsive guidance cue Slit, inactivates N-cadherin-mediated adhesion...
  20. Furrer M, Vasenkova I, Kamiyama D, Rosado Y, Chiba A. Slit and Robo control the development of dendrites in Drosophila CNS. Development. 2007;134:3795-804 pubmed
    The molecular mechanisms that generate dendrites in the CNS are poorly understood. The diffusible signal molecule Slit and the neuronally expressed receptor Robo mediate growth cone collapse in vivo...
  21. Yang L, Bashaw G. Son of sevenless directly links the Robo receptor to rac activation to control axon repulsion at the midline. Neuron. 2006;52:595-607 pubmed
    ..SH3-SH2 adaptor protein Dreadlocks (Dock) to regulate Rac-dependent cytoskeletal rearrangement in response to the Slit ligand...
  22. Coleman H, Labrador J, Chance R, Bashaw G. The Adam family metalloprotease Kuzbanian regulates the cleavage of the roundabout receptor to control axon repulsion at the midline. Development. 2010;137:2417-26 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Slit is cleaved to produce fragments with distinct signaling properties...
  23. Evans I, Hu N, Skaer H, Wood W. Interdependence of macrophage migration and ventral nerve cord development in Drosophila embryos. Development. 2010;137:1625-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Using live imaging, we demonstrate that the axonal guidance cue Slit and its receptor Robo are both required for haemocyte migration, but signalling is not autonomously required in ..
  24. Rodriguez Moncalvo V, Campos A. Role of serotonergic neurons in the Drosophila larval response to light. BMC Neurosci. 2009;10:66 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new insights into the function of 5-HT neurons in Drosophila larval behavior as well as into the mechanisms underlying regulation of larval response to light. ..
  25. Englund C, Steneberg P, Falileeva L, Xylourgidis N, Samakovlis C. Attractive and repulsive functions of Slit are mediated by different receptors in the Drosophila trachea. Development. 2002;129:4941-51 pubmed
    ..b>Slit, a phylogenetically conserved axonal guidance signal, is expressed in several tracheal targets and is required both ..
  26. Stevens A, Jacobs J. Integrins regulate responsiveness to slit repellent signals. J Neurosci. 2002;22:4448-55 pubmed
    ..phenotypic interaction between genes for the integrins, their ligands, and the midline growth cone repellent, Slit, but not for the midline attractant, Netrin...
  27. Knox J, Moyer K, Yacoub N, Soldaat C, Komosa M, Vassilieva K, et al. Syndecan contributes to heart cell specification and lumen formation during Drosophila cardiogenesis. Dev Biol. 2011;356:279-90 pubmed publisher
    ..surface signaling of diverse ligands in mammals, yet in Drosophila, genetic evidence links Syndecan only to the Slit receptor Roundabout and to the receptor tyrosine phosphatase LAR...
  28. SANTIAGO MARTINEZ E, Soplop N, Patel R, Kramer S. Repulsion by Slit and Roundabout prevents Shotgun/E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion during Drosophila heart tube lumen formation. J Cell Biol. 2008;182:241-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Slit and its receptor Roundabout (Robo) are required at CB apical domains for lumen formation...
  29. Mitchell K, Doyle J, Serafini T, Kennedy T, Tessier Lavigne M, Goodman C, et al. Genetic analysis of Netrin genes in Drosophila: Netrins guide CNS commissural axons and peripheral motor axons. Neuron. 1996;17:203-15 pubmed
    ..Expression of either Netrin gene in all muscles also results in aberrant motor projections. Thus, Drosophila Netrins are required for the guidance of commissural axons at the midline, and of motor axons to their target muscles. ..
  30. Simpson J, Kidd T, Bland K, Goodman C. Short-range and long-range guidance by slit and its Robo receptors. Robo and Robo2 play distinct roles in midline guidance. Neuron. 2000;28:753-66 pubmed
    Previous studies showed that Roundabout (Robo) in Drosophila is a repulsive axon guidance receptor that binds to Slit, a repellent secreted by midline glia...
  31. Godenschwege T, Simpson J, Shan X, Bashaw G, Goodman C, Murphey R. Ectopic expression in the giant fiber system of Drosophila reveals distinct roles for roundabout (Robo), Robo2, and Robo3 in dendritic guidance and synaptic connectivity. J Neurosci. 2002;22:3117-29 pubmed
    ..We conclude that axon guidance, dendritic guidance, and synaptogenesis are separable processes and that the different Robo family members affect them distinctly. ..
  32. Pappu K, Morey M, Nern A, Spitzweck B, Dickson B, Zipursky S. Robo-3--mediated repulsive interactions guide R8 axons during Drosophila visual system development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:7571-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In wild-type animals, posterior-most R8 axons extend along a border of glial cells demarcated by the expression of Slit, the secreted ligand of Robo3...
  33. Dimitrova S, Reissaus A, Tavosanis G. Slit and Robo regulate dendrite branching and elongation of space-filling neurons in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2008;324:18-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we show that a member of the conserved Robo receptor family, Robo, and its ligand Slit regulate the dendritic differentiation of space-filling neurons...
  34. Lundström A, Gallio M, Englund C, Steneberg P, Hemphälä J, Aspenstrom P, et al. Vilse, a conserved Rac/Cdc42 GAP mediating Robo repulsion in tracheal cells and axons. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2161-71 pubmed
    b>Slit proteins steer the migration of many cell types through their binding to Robo receptors, but how Robo controls cell motility is not clear...
  35. Keleman K, Dickson B. Short- and long-range repulsion by the Drosophila Unc5 netrin receptor. Neuron. 2001;32:605-17 pubmed
    ..Ectopic expression of Unc5 on CNS axons can elicit either short- or long-range repulsion from the midline. Both short- and long-range repulsion require Netrin function, but only long-range repulsion requires Frazzled. ..
  36. Rothberg J, Hartley D, Walther Z, Artavanis Tsakonas S. slit: an EGF-homologous locus of D. melanogaster involved in the development of the embryonic central nervous system. Cell. 1988;55:1047-59 pubmed
    ..Cytological, immunocytochemical, genetic, and molecular data show that this gene corresponds to the slit locus...
  37. Kramer S, Kidd T, Simpson J, Goodman C. Switching repulsion to attraction: changing responses to slit during transition in mesoderm migration. Science. 2001;292:737-40 pubmed
    b>Slit is secreted by cells at the midline of the central nervous system, where it binds to Roundabout (Robo) receptors and functions as a potent repellent...
  38. Rothberg J, Jacobs J, Goodman C, Artavanis Tsakonas S. slit: an extracellular protein necessary for development of midline glia and commissural axon pathways contains both EGF and LRR domains. Genes Dev. 1990;4:2169-87 pubmed
    The Drosophila slit locus encodes a protein with four regions containing tandem arrays of a 24-amino-acid leucine-rich repeat (LRR) with conserved flanking sequences (flank-LRR-flank surrounding these arrays), followed by two regions with ..
  39. Brose K, Bland K, Wang K, Arnott D, Henzel W, Goodman C, et al. Slit proteins bind Robo receptors and have an evolutionarily conserved role in repulsive axon guidance. Cell. 1999;96:795-806 pubmed
    ..Genetic analysis in Drosophila, reported in a companion to this paper, identifies the Slit protein as a candidate ligand for the repulsive guidance receptor Roundabout (Robo)...
  40. Bhat K, Gaziova I, Krishnan S. Regulation of axon guidance by slit and netrin signaling in the Drosophila ventral nerve cord. Genetics. 2007;176:2235-46 pubmed
    Netrin and Slit signaling systems play opposing roles during the positioning of longitudinal tracts along the midline in the ventral nerve cord of Drosophila embryo...
  41. Myat A, Henry P, McCabe V, Flintoft L, Rotin D, Tear G. Drosophila Nedd4, a ubiquitin ligase, is recruited by Commissureless to control cell surface levels of the roundabout receptor. Neuron. 2002;35:447-59 pubmed
    ..Our results show that changes in axonal sensitivity to external cues during pathfinding across the midline makes use of ubiquitin-dependent mechanisms to regulate transmembrane protein levels. ..
  42. Soriano N, Russell S. The Drosophila SOX-domain protein Dichaete is required for the development of the central nervous system midline. Development. 1998;125:3989-96 pubmed
    ..The midline phenotypes of Dichaete mutations are rescued by expression of mouse SOX2. Our data suggest that SOX gene structure, function and interactions have been conserved during evolution. ..
  43. Hsouna A, Kim Y, VanBerkum M. Abelson tyrosine kinase is required to transduce midline repulsive cues. J Neurobiol. 2003;57:15-30 pubmed
    ..The frequency of abnormal crossovers is enhanced by mutations in the genes encoding the midline repellent, Slit, or its receptor, Roundabout...
  44. Vanderploeg J, Vazquez Paz L, MacMullin A, Jacobs J. Integrins are required for cardioblast polarisation in Drosophila. BMC Dev Biol. 2012;12:8 pubmed publisher
    ..Apical accumulation of Integrins is enhanced by Robo, and reciprocally, apicalisation of luminal factors like Slit and Robo requires Integrin function...
  45. Rajagopalan S, Vivancos V, Nicolas E, Dickson B. Selecting a longitudinal pathway: Robo receptors specify the lateral position of axons in the Drosophila CNS. Cell. 2000;103:1033-45 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the midline repellent Slit, previously identified as a short-range signal that regulates midline crossing, also functions at long range to ..
  46. Wharton K, Crews S. CNS midline enhancers of the Drosophila slit and Toll genes. Mech Dev. 1993;40:141-54 pubmed
    ..Using germ-line transformation of lacZ fusion constructs, we have dissected putative regulatory regions of the slit and Toll genes to identify CNS midline-restricted transcriptional enhancers...
  47. Evans T, Bashaw G. Slit/Robo-mediated axon guidance in Tribolium and Drosophila: divergent genetic programs build insect nervous systems. Dev Biol. 2012;363:266-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of Tribolium to organize longitudinal axons into three discrete medial-lateral zones with only two Robo receptors demonstrates that beetle and fly achieve equivalent developmental outcomes using divergent genetic programs...
  48. Govek E, Newey S, Van Aelst L. The role of the Rho GTPases in neuronal development. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1-49 pubmed
    ..This review will focus on the role of the Rho GTPases and their associated signaling molecules throughout neuronal development and discuss how perturbations in Rho GTPase signaling may lead to cognitive disorders. ..
  49. Gallio M, Englund C, Kylsten P, Samakovlis C. Rhomboid 3 orchestrates Slit-independent repulsion of tracheal branches at the CNS midline. Development. 2004;131:3605-14 pubmed
    ..rho3 acts independently from the main midline repellent Slit, and originates from a different sub-population of midline cells: the VUM neurons...
  50. Couch J, Chen J, Rieff H, Uri E, Condron B. robo2 and robo3 interact with eagle to regulate serotonergic neuron differentiation. Development. 2004;131:997-1006 pubmed
    ..robo2/3) are necessary for serotonergic neuron differentiation and function independently of their ligand, slit. Loss of robo2 or robo3 causes a loss of SerT expression in about half of neurons, and resembles the phenotype seen ..
  51. Wayburn B, Volk T. LRT, a tendon-specific leucine-rich repeat protein, promotes muscle-tendon targeting through its interaction with Robo. Development. 2009;136:3607-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest a novel mechanism by which muscles are targeted towards tendon cells as a result of LRT-Robo interactions. This mechanism may apply to the Robo-dependent migration of a wide variety of cell types. ..
  52. Crews S. Control of cell lineage-specific development and transcription by bHLH-PAS proteins. Genes Dev. 1998;12:607-20 pubmed
  53. Wessendorf L, Wehrli M, DiAntonio A, Wilcox M. Genetic interactions with integrins during wing morphogenesis in Drosophila. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1992;57:241-8 pubmed
  54. Ordan E, Brankatschk M, Dickson B, Schnorrer F, Volk T. Slit cleavage is essential for producing an active, stable, non-diffusible short-range signal that guides muscle migration. Development. 2015;142:1431-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, the repulsive protein Slit, secreted by tendon cells, has been proposed to be an attractant for muscle migration...
  55. Machesky L. Putting on the brakes: a negative regulatory function for Ena/VASP proteins in cell migration. Cell. 2000;101:685-8 pubmed
  56. Rusch J, Van Vactor D. New Roundabouts send axons into the Fas lane. Neuron. 2000;28:637-40 pubmed
  57. Biersmith B, Liu Z, Bauman K, Geisbrecht E. The DOCK protein sponge binds to ELMO and functions in Drosophila embryonic CNS development. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16120 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings not only characterize the role of a new DOCK family member, but help to further understand the role of signaling downstream of N-cadherin in neuronal development. ..
  58. Bergmann A, Tugentman M, Shilo B, Steller H. Regulation of cell number by MAPK-dependent control of apoptosis: a mechanism for trophic survival signaling. Dev Cell. 2002;2:159-70 pubmed
    ..Therefore, a direct pathway linking a specific extracellular survival factor with a caspase-based death program has been established. ..
  59. Harpaz N, Ordan E, Ocorr K, Bodmer R, Volk T. Multiplexin promotes heart but not aorta morphogenesis by polarized enhancement of slit/robo activity at the heart lumen. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003597 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, Mp forms a protein complex with Slit, and interacts genetically with both slit and robo in the formation of the heart tube...
  60. Shulman J, Chipendo P, Chibnik L, Aubin C, Tran D, Keenan B, et al. Functional screening of Alzheimer pathology genome-wide association signals in Drosophila. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;88:232-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our strategy of coupling genome-wide association in humans with functional screening in a model organism is likely to be a powerful approach for gene discovery in AD and other complex genetic disorders. ..
  61. Charron F, Tessier Lavigne M. Novel brain wiring functions for classical morphogens: a role as graded positional cues in axon guidance. Development. 2005;132:2251-62 pubmed