Gene Symbol: slgA
Description: sluggish A
Alias: CG1417, Dmel\CG1417, EE85, PRODH, slg, tu3, sluggish A, CG1417-PA, CG1417-PB, CG1417-PC, CG1417-PD, CG1417-PE, CG1417-PF, CG1417-PG, CG1417-PH, CG1417-PI, CG1417-PJ, CG1417-PK, CG1417-PL, CG1417-PM, CG1417-PN, proline dehydrogenase, slgA-PA, slgA-PB, slgA-PC, slgA-PD, slgA-PE, slgA-PF, slgA-PG, slgA-PH, slgA-PI, slgA-PJ, slgA-PK, slgA-PL, slgA-PM, slgA-PN, sluggish, sluggish-A, sluggishA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Nurminsky D, Aguiar D, Bustamante C, Hartl D. Chromosomal effects of rapid gene evolution in Drosophila melanogaster. Science. 2001;291:128-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings imply that the pattern of genetic variation along a chromosome may be useful for inferring its evolutionary history and for revealing regions in which recent adaptive fixations have taken place...
  2. Zwarts L, Vulsteke V, Buhl E, Hodge J, Callaerts P. SlgA, encoded by the homolog of the human schizophrenia-associated gene PRODH, acts in clock neurons to regulate Drosophila aggression. Dis Model Mech. 2017;10:705-716 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the proline dehydrogenase gene PRODH are linked to behavioral alterations in schizophrenia and as part of DiGeorge and velo-cardio-facial syndromes, but the role of PRODH in their etiology remains unclear...
  3. Perrimon N, Smouse D, Miklos G. Developmental genetics of loci at the base of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1989;121:313-31 pubmed
    ..but which have little or no effect on zygotic viability (maroon-like, little fly, small optic lobes and sluggish)...
  4. Shayan A, Brodin L, Ottersen O, Birinyi A, Hill C, Govind C, et al. Neurotransmitter levels and synaptic strength at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction are not altered by mutation in the sluggish-A gene, which encodes proline oxidase and affects adult locomotion. J Neurogenet. 2000;14:165-92 pubmed
    The sluggish-A (slgA) gene of Drosophila melanogaster has been shown to encode for the enzyme proline oxidase, a mitochondrial enzyme which catalyzes the first step in the conversion of L-proline to L-glutamate...
  5. Miklos G, Cotsell J. Chromosome structure at interfaces between major chromatin types: alpha- and beta-heterochromatin. Bioessays. 1990;12:1-6 pubmed
    ..The recent microcloning of part of this region, the isolation of a monoclonal antibody to a beta-heterochromatin binding protein, and new in situ studies now shed a little more light on this chromosomal region. ..
  6. Miklos G, de Couet H. The mutations previously designated as flightless-I3, flightless-O2 and standby are members of the W-2 lethal complementation group at the base of the X-chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurogenet. 1990;6:133-51 pubmed
    ..These viable flightless mutations are all hypomorphs since the homozygous deficiency of the W-2 X-chromosomal region is lethal to the organism. ..
  7. Hayward D, Delaney S, Campbell H, Ghysen A, Benzer S, Kasprzak A, et al. The sluggish-A gene of Drosophila melanogaster is expressed in the nervous system and encodes proline oxidase, a mitochondrial enzyme involved in glutamate biosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:2979-83 pubmed
    Certain gene mutations in Drosophila melanogaster cause sluggish motor activity. We have localized the transcription unit of the sluggish-A gene to a 14.7-kb region at the base of the X chromosome and have cloned corresponding cDNAs...
  8. Brookfield J. Population genetics: the signature of selection. Curr Biol. 2001;11:R388-90 pubmed
    ..New work on Drosophila genes that seem to have been subject to adaptive changes illustrates the difficulties in calculating the statistical significance of data trends that seem to show this. ..
  9. Miklos G, Kelly L, Coombe P, Leeds C, Lefevre G. Localization of the genes shaking-B, small optic lobes, sluggish-A, stoned and stress-sensitive-C to a well-defined region on the X-chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurogenet. 1987;4:1-19 pubmed
    ..mapping and complementation tests, we have localized 5 behavioral mutations: shaking-B2, small optic lobesKS58, sluggish-AEE85, stonedts1, and stress-sensitive-C1 to 4 genetic complementation groups at the base of the X-chromosome...

More Information


  1. Tritsch D, Mawlawi H, Biellmann J. Mechanism-based inhibition of proline dehydrogenase by proline analogues. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993;1202:77-81 pubmed
    The inactivation of proline dehydrogenase by several L-Pro analogues was investigated with the aim to block the essential metabolic pathway of tsetse flies allowing the degradation of L-Pro to L-Glu...
  2. Fergestad T, Olson L, Patel K, Miller R, Palladino M, Ganetzky B. Neuropathology in Drosophila mutants with increased seizure susceptibility. Genetics. 2008;178:947-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results emphasize the importance of proper cellular metabolism in maintaining both the activity and viability of neurons. ..
  3. Fergestad T, Bostwick B, Ganetzky B. Metabolic disruption in Drosophila bang-sensitive seizure mutants. Genetics. 2006;173:1357-64 pubmed
    ..Our data implicate cellular metabolism in regulating seizure susceptibility and suggest that differential sensitivity of neuronal subtypes to metabolic changes underlies distinct types of seizure activity. ..
  4. Miklos G, Yamamoto M, Burns R, Maleszka R. An essential cell division gene of Drosophila, absent from Saccharomyces, encodes an unusual protein with tubulin-like and myosin-like peptide motifs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:5189-94 pubmed
    ..The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome lacks a true homolog of the misato gene, and this finding highlights the emerging problem of assigning functional attributes to orphan genes that occur only in some evolutionary lineages. ..
  5. Misener S, Chen C, Walker V. Cold tolerance and proline metabolic gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. J Insect Physiol. 2001;47:393-400 pubmed
  6. Maleszka R, de Couet H, Miklos G. Data transferability from model organisms to human beings: insights from the functional genomics of the flightless region of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:3731-6 pubmed
  7. Markow T, Merriam J. Phototactic and geotactic behavior of countercurrent defective mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Behav Genet. 1977;7:447-55 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that certain mutations may be affecting visual components other than the ERG while other mutations may be more centrally or generally acting. ..
  8. Russell R, Healy M, Oakeshott J. Molecular analysis of the lethal(1)B214 region at the base of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1992;101:456-66 pubmed
  9. Maleszka R, Hanes S, Hackett R, de Couet H, Miklos G. The Drosophila melanogaster dodo (dod) gene, conserved in humans, is functionally interchangeable with the ESS1 cell division gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:447-51 pubmed
    ..When we expressed the dodo gene product in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it rescued the lethal phenotype of the ESS1 cell division gene. ..