Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: shot
Description: short stop
Alias: 42/4, CG18076, CG18637, Dmel\CG18076, Grv, Shot, Su(Mir)1, grv, kak, kop, l(2)CA4, l(2)k03010, l(2)k04204, l(2)k05434, l(2)k05821, l(2)k10821, l(2)k15606, shortstop/kakapo, short stop, CG18076-PA, CG18076-PAA, CG18076-PAB, CG18076-PAC, CG18076-PAD, CG18076-PB, CG18076-PC, CG18076-PE, CG18076-PG, CG18076-PH, CG18076-PI, CG18076-PJ, CG18076-PK, CG18076-PL, CG18076-PM, CG18076-PN, CG18076-PO, CG18076-PP, CG18076-PQ, CG18076-PX, CG18076-PY, CG18076-PZ, groovin, kakapo, kakapoo, kopupu, short-stop, shortshop, shortstop, shot-PA, shot-PAA, shot-PAB, shot-PAC, shot-PAD, shot-PB, shot-PC, shot-PE, shot-PG, shot-PH, shot-PI, shot-PJ, shot-PK, shot-PL, shot-PM, shot-PN, shot-PO, shot-PP, shot-PQ, shot-PX, shot-PY, shot-PZ, spectraplakin
Species: fruit fly
- Rogers G, Rusan N, Peifer M, Rogers S. A multicomponent assembly pathway contributes to the formation of acentrosomal microtubule arrays in interphase Drosophila cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:3163-78 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these results modify our view of the cycle of centrosome function and reveal a multi-component acentrosomal microtubule assembly pathway to establish interphase microtubule arrays in Drosophila. ..
- Röper K, Gregory S, Brown N. The 'spectraplakins': cytoskeletal giants with characteristics of both spectrin and plakin families. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:4215-25 pubmedRecent studies have characterised a family of giant cytoskeletal crosslinkers encoded by the short stop gene in Drosophila and the dystonin/BPAG1 and MACF1 genes in mammals...
- Subramanian A, Prokop A, Yamamoto M, Sugimura K, Uemura T, Betschinger J, et al. Shortstop recruits EB1/APC1 and promotes microtubule assembly at the muscle-tendon junction. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1086-95 pubmedShot (previously named Kakapo), is a Drosophila Plakin family member containing both Actin binding and microtubule binding domains...
- Chang C, Nashchekin D, Wheatley L, Irion U, Dahlgaard K, Montague T, et al. Anterior-posterior axis specification in Drosophila oocytes: identification of novel bicoid and oskar mRNA localization factors. Genetics. 2011;188:883-96 pubmed publisher..In addition, we recovered 30 dominant suppressors, including multiple alleles of the spectroplakin, short stop, a lethal complementation group that prevents oskar mRNA anchoring, and a female sterile complementation group ..
- Rogers S, Wiedemann U, Hacker U, Turck C, Vale R. Drosophila RhoGEF2 associates with microtubule plus ends in an EB1-dependent manner. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1827-33 pubmed
- Volk T, Vijayraghavan K. A central role for epidermal segment border cells in the induction of muscle patterning in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1994;120:59-70 pubmed..Enhancer-trap alleles of stripe that we have analyzed show reporter gene expression in the segment border cells. Our results indicate a role for the segment border cells in guidance of migrating muscle fibers to their attachment sites. ..
- Gregory S, Brown N. kakapo, a gene required for adhesion between and within cell layers in Drosophila, encodes a large cytoskeletal linker protein related to plectin and dystrophin. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:1271-82 pubmedMutations in kakapo were recovered in genetic screens designed to isolate genes required for integrin-mediated adhesion in Drosophila...
- Prokop A, Uhler J, Roote J, Bate M. The kakapo mutation affects terminal arborization and central dendritic sprouting of Drosophila motorneurons. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:1283-94 pubmed..four alleles of l(2)CA4 and mapped it to bands 50A-C on the polytene chromosomes and found it to be allelic to kakapo (. Genetics. 146:275- 285)...
- Röper K, Brown N. Maintaining epithelial integrity: a function for gigantic spectraplakin isoforms in adherens junctions. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:1305-15 pubmedThe Short stop (Shot/Kakapo) spectraplakin is a giant cytoskeletal protein, which exists in multiple isoforms with characteristics of both spectrin and plakin superfamilies...
- Sanchez Soriano N, Travis M, Dajas Bailador F, Gonçalves Pimentel C, Whitmarsh A, Prokop A. Mouse ACF7 and drosophila short stop modulate filopodia formation and microtubule organisation during neuronal growth. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:2534-42 pubmed publisher..Expression data for the mammalian spectraplakin ACF7 and genetic analyses of the Drosophila spectraplakin Short stop (Shot) suggest an important role during ..
- Vorbrüggen G, Jackle H. Epidermal muscle attachment site-specific target gene expression and interference with myotube guidance in response to ectopic stripe expression in the developing Drosophila epidermis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:8606-11 pubmed..sr-expressing ectodermal cells generate long-range signals that interfere with the spatial orientation of the elongating myotubes. ..
- Lee S, Harris K, Whitington P, Kolodziej P. short stop is allelic to kakapo, and encodes rod-like cytoskeletal-associated proteins required for axon extension. J Neurosci. 2000;20:1096-108 pubmedb>short stop (shot) is required for sensory and motor axons to reach their targets in the Drosophila embryo...
- Alves Silva J, SÃ¡nchez Soriano N, Beaven R, Klein M, Parkin J, Millard T, et al. Spectraplakins promote microtubule-mediated axonal growth by functioning as structural microtubule-associated proteins and EB1-dependent +TIPs (tip interacting proteins). J Neurosci. 2012;32:9143-58 pubmed publisher..Loss of function of the mouse spectraplakin ACF7 or of its close Drosophila homolog Short stop/Shot similarly cause severe axon shortening and microtubule ..
- Lee S, Kolodziej P. Short Stop provides an essential link between F-actin and microtubules during axon extension. Development. 2002;129:1195-204 pubmed..b>short stop (shot) encodes an evolutionarily conserved, neuronally expressed family of rod-like proteins required for ..
- Frommer G, Vorbrüggen G, Pasca G, Jackle H, Volk T. Epidermal egr-like zinc finger protein of Drosophila participates in myotube guidance. EMBO J. 1996;15:1642-9 pubmed
- Lee S, Nahm M, Lee M, Kwon M, Kim E, Zadeh A, et al. The F-actin-microtubule crosslinker Shot is a platform for Krasavietz-mediated translational regulation of midline axon repulsion. Development. 2007;134:1767-77 pubmed..Previous studies have shown that the F-actin-microtubule crosslinker Short stop (Shot) is required for motor and sensory axon extension in the Drosophila embryo...
- Lee T, Luo L. Mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker for studies of gene function in neuronal morphogenesis. Neuron. 1999;22:451-61 pubmed..As an example, we show that the short stop gene is required in mushroom body neurons for the extension and guidance of their axons.
- Walsh E, Brown N. A screen to identify Drosophila genes required for integrin-mediated adhesion. Genetics. 1998;150:791-805 pubmed..Thus several of these loci are good candidates for genes encoding cytoplasmic proteins required for integrin function. ..
- Yarnitzky T, Min L, Volk T. The Drosophila neuregulin homolog Vein mediates inductive interactions between myotubes and their epidermal attachment cells. Genes Dev. 1997;11:2691-700 pubmed..These results suggest that inductive interactions between myotubes and their epidermal muscle attachment cells are initiated by the binding of Vein, to the Egfr on the surface of EMA cells. ..
- Prout M, Damania Z, Soong J, Fristrom D, Fristrom J. Autosomal mutations affecting adhesion between wing surfaces in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1997;146:275-85 pubmed..Mutations in three other genes (kakapo, kiwi and moa) may also affect cell adhesion or muscle function at hatching...
- Vactor D, Sink H, Fambrough D, Tsoo R, Goodman C. Genes that control neuromuscular specificity in Drosophila. Cell. 1993;73:1137-53 pubmed..We focus on 5 genes required for specific aspects of pathway (beaten path, stranded, and short stop) and target (walkabout and clueless) recognition...
- Strumpf D, Volk T. Kakapo, a novel cytoskeletal-associated protein is essential for the restricted localization of the neuregulin-like factor, vein, at the muscle-tendon junction site. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:1259-70 pubmed..Here, we describe the cloning and the molecular and genetic analyses of kakapo, a Drosophila gene, expressed in the tendons, that is essential for muscle-dependent tendon cell differentiation...
- Röper K, Brown N. A spectraplakin is enriched on the fusome and organizes microtubules during oocyte specification in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2004;14:99-110 pubmed..We have identified the spectraplakin Short stop (Shot) as a new component of the fusome...
- Bottenberg W, Sanchez Soriano N, Alves Silva J, Hahn I, Mende M, Prokop A. Context-specific requirements of functional domains of the Spectraplakin Short stop in vivo. Mech Dev. 2009;126:489-502 pubmed publisher..Here we tested this possibility by studying domain requirements of the Drosophila Spectraplakin Short stop (Shot) in three different cellular contexts in vivo: (1) neuronal growth, which requires dynamic ..
- Lee S, Kolodziej P. The plakin Short Stop and the RhoA GTPase are required for E-cadherin-dependent apical surface remodeling during tracheal tube fusion. Development. 2002;129:1509-20 pubmed..at the junction form a new E-cadherin-based contact and assemble an associated track of F-actin and the plakin Short Stop (shot)...
- Laayouni H, Santos M, Fontdevila A. Toward a physical map of Drosophila buzzatii. Use of randomly amplified polymorphic dna polymorphisms and sequence-tagged site landmarks. Genetics. 2000;156:1797-816 pubmed..Further prospects toward obtaining a more developed genetic map than the one currently available for D. buzzatii are discussed...
- Hahn I, Ronshaugen M, SÃ¡nchez Soriano N, Prokop A. Functional and Genetic Analysis of Spectraplakins in Drosophila. Methods Enzymol. 2016;569:373-405 pubmed publisher..This enormous diversity of spectraplakin function is consistent with the numerous isoforms produced from single genomic loci that combine different ..
- Khanal I, Elbediwy A, Díaz de la Loza M, Fletcher G, Thompson B. Shot and Patronin polarise microtubules to direct membrane traffic and biogenesis of microvilli in epithelia. J Cell Sci. 2016;129:2651-9 pubmed publisher..cytoskeleton to recruit the microtubule-binding proteins Patronin (CAMSAP1, CAMSAP2 and CAMSAP3 in humans) and Shortstop [Shot; MACF1 and BPAG1 (also known as DST) in humans] to the apical membrane domain...
- Fuerstenberg S, Giniger E. Multiple roles for notch in Drosophila myogenesis. Dev Biol. 1998;201:66-77 pubmed..Additionally, Notch is capable of suppressing muscle development nonautonomously by regulating a signal that emanates from the ectoderm. ..
- Löer B, Bauer R, Bornheim R, Grell J, Kremmer E, Kolanus W, et al. The NHL-domain protein Wech is crucial for the integrin-cytoskeleton link. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:422-8 pubmed publisher..The single murine Wech orthologue is also colocalized with Talin and ILK in muscle tissue. We propose that Wech proteins are crucial and evolutionarily conserved regulators of the integrin-cytoskeleton link. ..
- Bökel C, Prokop A, Brown N. Papillote and Piopio: Drosophila ZP-domain proteins required for cell adhesion to the apical extracellular matrix and microtubule organization. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:633-42 pubmed..Thus, ZP domain-containing proteins may have shared functions within the aECM, while also exhibiting specific interactions with the cytoskeleton. ..
- Wang S, Volk T. Composite biopolymer scaffolds shape muscle nucleus: Insights and perspectives from Drosophila. Bioarchitecture. 2015;5:35-43 pubmed publisher..Whereas the perinuclear MT network provides structural rigidity to the myonucleus, the SRCPs Nesprin and Spectraplakin form semiflexible filamentous biopolymer networks, providing nuclei with the elasticity required to resist the ..
- Broadie K, Sink H, Van Vactor D, Fambrough D, Whitington P, Bate M, et al. From growth cone to synapse: the life history of the RP3 motor neuron. Dev Suppl. 1993;:227-38 pubmed..Genetic analysis has revealed mutations in a number of different genes which affect specific aspects of RP3 development from axon outgrowth to synapse formation. ..
- Kolodziej P, Jan L, Jan Y. Mutations that affect the length, fasciculation, or ventral orientation of specific sensory axons in the Drosophila embryo. Neuron. 1995;15:273-86 pubmed..Mutations in 4 complementation groups cause lch axon defasciculation. Mutations in 7 complementation groups cause some lch axon bundles to grow dorsally along a trajectory 180 degrees from normal. ..
- Booth A, Blanchard G, Adams R, Röper K. A dynamic microtubule cytoskeleton directs medial actomyosin function during tube formation. Dev Cell. 2014;29:562-576 pubmed publisher..The medial actomyosin network interacts with the minus ends of acentrosomal microtubule bundles through the cytolinker protein Shot, and disruption of Shot also impairs apical constriction.
- Wayburn B, Volk T. LRT, a tendon-specific leucine-rich repeat protein, promotes muscle-tendon targeting through its interaction with Robo. Development. 2009;136:3607-15 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our data suggest a novel mechanism by which muscles are targeted towards tendon cells as a result of LRT-Robo interactions. This mechanism may apply to the Robo-dependent migration of a wide variety of cell types. ..
- Meehan T, Kleinsorge S, Timmons A, Taylor J, McCall K. Polarization of the epithelial layer and apical localization of integrins are required for engulfment of apoptotic cells in the Drosophila ovary. Dis Model Mech. 2015;8:1603-14 pubmed publisher..This study also establishes the epithelial follicle cells of the Drosophila ovary as a powerful model for understanding the molecular changes required for engulfment by a polarized epithelium. ..
- Applewhite D, Grode K, Duncan M, Rogers S. The actin-microtubule cross-linking activity of Drosophila Short stop is regulated by intramolecular inhibition. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:2885-93 pubmed publisher..the regulation of the Drosophila actin-microtubule cross-linker Short stop (Shot), a member of the spectraplakin family...
- Valakh V, Walker L, Skeath J, DiAntonio A. Loss of the spectraplakin short stop activates the DLK injury response pathway in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2013;33:17863-73 pubmed publisher..Here we describe a new mechanism that activates DLK in Drosophila: loss of the spectraplakin short stop (shot)...
- Jiang H, Edgar B. EGFR signaling regulates the proliferation of Drosophila adult midgut progenitors. Development. 2009;136:483-93 pubmed publisher..Two stronger EGFR ligands, Spitz and Keren, are expressed by the AMPs themselves and provide an additional, autocrine mitogenic stimulus to the AMPs during late larval stages. ..
- Sanchez Soriano N, Gonçalves Pimentel C, Beaven R, Haessler U, Ofner Ziegenfuss L, Ballestrem C, et al. Drosophila growth cones: a genetically tractable platform for the analysis of axonal growth dynamics. Dev Neurobiol. 2010;70:58-71 pubmed publisher..We demonstrate these events to be mediated by the actin-MT linking factor Short stop, thus identifying an essential molecular player in this context.
- Beaven R, Dzhindzhev N, Qu Y, Hahn I, Dajas Bailador F, Ohkura H, et al. Drosophila CLIP-190 and mammalian CLIP-170 display reduced microtubule plus end association in the nervous system. Mol Biol Cell. 2015;26:1491-508 pubmed publisher..Our findings demonstrate that +TIP functions known from nonneuronal cells do not necessarily apply to the regulation of the very distinct MT networks in axons. ..
- Bökel C, Brown N. Integrins in development: moving on, responding to, and sticking to the extracellular matrix. Dev Cell. 2002;3:311-21 pubmed..Integrins also participate in signaling events that govern tissue differentiation and organogenesis. Finally, adhesion by integrin-mediated junctions allows tissues to withstand mechanical load and is essential for tissue integrity. ..
- Brown N. Cell-cell adhesion via the ECM: integrin genetics in fly and worm. Matrix Biol. 2000;19:191-201 pubmed
- Gilsohn E, Volk T. Slowdown promotes muscle integrity by modulating integrin-mediated adhesion at the myotendinous junction. Development. 2010;137:785-94 pubmed publisher..Our analysis implicates Slow as an essential component of the MTJ, crucial for ensuring muscle and tendon integrity during larval locomotion. ..
- Klein Y, Halachmi N, Egoz Matia N, Toder M, Salzberg A. The proprioceptive and contractile systems in Drosophila are both patterned by the EGR family transcription factor Stripe. Dev Biol. 2010;337:458-70 pubmed publisher..Similarly to the biphasic differentiation program of tendons, terminal differentiation of chordotonal attachment cells is associated with sequential activation of the two Stripe isoforms-Stripe B and Stripe A. ..
- Crews S, Brenman J. Spineless provides a little backbone for dendritic morphogenesis. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2773-8 pubmed
- Grevengoed E, Peifer M. Cytoskeletal connections: building strong cells in new ways. Curr Biol. 2003;13:R568-70 pubmed..New findings reveal that the cytoskeletal linker protein Short stop works with EB1 and APC1 to help carry out this function.
- Zimmerman E, Palsson A, Gibson G. Quantitative trait loci affecting components of wing shape in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2000;155:671-83 pubmed
- Volohonsky G, Edenfeld G, Klämbt C, Volk T. Muscle-dependent maturation of tendon cells is induced by post-transcriptional regulation of stripeA. Development. 2007;134:347-56 pubmed..Thus, we demonstrate a mechanism by which tendon cell terminal differentiation is maintained and reinforced by the approaching muscle. ..
- Gao F, Brenman J, Jan L, Jan Y. Genes regulating dendritic outgrowth, branching, and routing in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2549-61 pubmed..These genes include kakapo, a large cytoskeletal protein related to plectin and dystrophin; flamingo, a seven-transmembrane protein ..
- Voelzmann A, Okenve Ramos P, Qu Y, Chojnowska Monga M, Del Caño Espinel M, Prokop A, et al. Tau and spectraplakins promote synapse formation and maintenance through Jun kinase and neuronal trafficking. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher..Tau and the spectraplakin Short Stop act upstream of a three-step regulatory cascade ensuring adequate delivery of synaptic proteins...
- Röper K. Rtnl1 is enriched in a specialized germline ER that associates with ribonucleoprotein granule components. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1081-92 pubmed..As the ER is actively transported into the oocyte, this colocalization suggests a role for the Rtnl1-containing subdomain in anchoring the ribonucleoprotein complexes within and/or transporting them into the oocyte. ..
- Jan Y, Jan L. The control of dendrite development. Neuron. 2003;40:229-42 pubmed..In contrast, the control of dendrite development is still much less well understood. However, recent progress has begun to shed light on the molecular mechanisms that orchestrate dendrite growth, arborization, and guidance. ..
- Uchino R, Nonaka Y, Horigome T, Sugiyama S, Furukawa K. Loss of Drosophila A-type lamin C initially causes tendon abnormality including disintegration of cytoskeleton and nuclear lamina in muscular defects. Dev Biol. 2013;373:216-27 pubmed publisher..In tendon cells lacking lamin C activity, overall cell morphology was affected and organization of the spectraplakin family cytoskeletal protein Shortstop which is prominently expressed in tendon cells gradually disintegrated, ..
- Mui U, Lubczyk C, Nam S. Role of spectraplakin in Drosophila photoreceptor morphogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25965 pubmed publisher..Since Spectraplakin is able to bind both microtubule and actin cytoskeletons, the role of Spectraplakin was analyzed in the ..
- Fuss B, Josten F, Feix M, Hoch M. Cell movements controlled by the Notch signalling cascade during foregut development in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:1587-95 pubmed..gene that encodes the Drosophila plectin homolog of vertebrates and is a cytoskeletal linker protein of the spectraplakin superfamily...
- Perkins A, Tanentzapf G. An ongoing role for structural sarcomeric components in maintaining Drosophila melanogaster muscle function and structure. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e99362 pubmed publisher..Our results provide in vivo evidence of adult muscle protein turnover and uncover specific functional defects associated with reduced expression of a subset of cytoskeletal proteins in the adult animal. ..
- Lee J, Lee S, Chen C, Shim H, Kim Ha J. shot regulates the microtubule reorganization required for localization of axis-determining mRNAs during oogenesis. FEBS Lett. 2016;590:431-44 pubmed publisher..We have identified shot as a key player in establishing the cytoskeletal arrangement required for the spatial localization of axis-..
- Nashchekin D, Fernandes A, St Johnston D. Patronin/Shot Cortical Foci Assemble the Noncentrosomal Microtubule Array that Specifies the Drosophila Anterior-Posterior Axis. Dev Cell. 2016;38:61-72 pubmed publisher..Here we identify the spectraplakin, Short stop (Shot), as the cortical anchor for noncentrosomal microtubule organizing centers (ncMTOCs) in the ..
- Matus A, Shepherd G. The millennium of the dendrite?. Neuron. 2000;27:431-4 pubmed
- Wang S, Reuveny A, Volk T. Nesprin provides elastic properties to muscle nuclei by cooperating with spectraplakin and EB1. J Cell Biol. 2015;209:529-38 pubmed publisher..of MSP300 (nesprin) and rigidity provided by a perinuclear network of microtubules stabilized by Shot (spectraplakin) and EB1...
- Gao F, Bogert B. Genetic control of dendritic morphogenesis in Drosophila. Trends Neurosci. 2003;26:262-8 pubmed
- Kulkarni M, Booker M, Silver S, Friedman A, Hong P, Perrimon N, et al. Evidence of off-target effects associated with long dsRNAs in Drosophila melanogaster cell-based assays. Nat Methods. 2006;3:833-8 pubmed..Although a full appreciation of all causes of false positive errors remains to be determined, we suggest simple guidelines to help ensure high-quality information from RNAi high-throughput screens. ..