Gene Symbol: Shal
Description: Shaker cognate l
Alias: CG9262, DNK[[v]]4, Dmel\CG9262, Kv4, Sh-l, Shl, dShal, shal, shaker cognate l, CG9262-PA, CG9262-PB, CG9262-PC, Shaker-like, Shal-PA, Shal-PB, Shal-PC, shaker cognate 1, shaker cognate L
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Shal

Top Publications

  1. Salkoff L, Baker K, Butler A, Covarrubias M, Pak M, Wei A. An essential 'set' of K+ channels conserved in flies, mice and humans. Trends Neurosci. 1992;15:161-6 pubmed
    ..This conservation of the K+ channel subfamilies Shaker, Shal, Shab, and Shaw suggests that not only the broad outlines of membrane electrical properties but also many molecular ..
  2. Xu J, Yu W, Jan Y, Jan L, Li M. Assembly of voltage-gated potassium channels. Conserved hydrophilic motifs determine subfamily-specific interactions between the alpha-subunits. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:24761-8 pubmed
    ..genes for the alpha-subunits are classified into four subfamilies: Kv1 (Shaker), Kv2 (Shab), Kv3 (Shaw), and Kv4 (Shal)...
  3. Schaefer J, Worrell J, Levine R. Role of intrinsic properties in Drosophila motoneuron recruitment during fictive crawling. J Neurophysiol. 2010;104:1257-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The longer delay-to-spike in 1s motoneurons is a result of the shal-encoded A-type K(+) current...
  4. Gasque G, Labarca P, Reynaud E, Darszon A. Shal and shaker differential contribution to the K+ currents in the Drosophila mushroom body neurons. J Neurosci. 2005;25:2348-58 pubmed
    ..We found that transcripts for shab, shaw, shaker, and shal, among which only Shaker and Shal have been reported to code for A-type currents, are present in the MBs...
  5. Butler A, Wei A, Baker K, Salkoff L. A family of putative potassium channel genes in Drosophila. Science. 1989;243:943-7 pubmed
    ..DNA probe and low-stringency hybridization, three additional family members have now been isolated, Shab, Shaw, and Shal. The Shaker family genes are not clustered in the genome...
  6. Wei A, Covarrubias M, Butler A, Baker K, Pak M, Salkoff L. K+ current diversity is produced by an extended gene family conserved in Drosophila and mouse. Science. 1990;248:599-603 pubmed
    The Drosophila Shaker gene on the X chromosome has three sister genes, Shal, Shab, and Shaw, which map to the second and third chromosomes...
  7. Covarrubias M, Wei A, Salkoff L. Shaker, Shal, Shab, and Shaw express independent K+ current systems. Neuron. 1991;7:763-73 pubmed
    ..We show that Drosophila Shaker, Shal, Shab, and Shaw subunits form functional homomultimers, but that a molecular barrier to heteropolymerization is ..
  8. McCormack K, Tanouye M, Iverson L, Lin J, Ramaswami M, McCormack T, et al. A role for hydrophobic residues in the voltage-dependent gating of Shaker K+ channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:2931-5 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the leucines mediate interactions that play an important role in the transduction of charge movement into channel opening and closing. ..
  9. Diao F, Chaufty J, Waro G, Tsunoda S. SIDL interacts with the dendritic targeting motif of Shal (K(v)4) K+ channels in Drosophila. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;45:75-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Shal K(+) (K(v)4) channels in mammalian neurons have been shown to be localized exclusively to somato-dendritic regions of neurons, where they function as key determinants of dendritic excitability...

More Information


  1. Bergquist S, Dickman D, Davis G. A hierarchy of cell intrinsic and target-derived homeostatic signaling. Neuron. 2010;66:220-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that two A-type potassium channel genes, shal and shaker, are reciprocally, transcriptionally coupled to maintain A-type channel expression...
  2. Ryglewski S, Duch C. Shaker and Shal mediate transient calcium-independent potassium current in a Drosophila flight motoneuron. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102:3673-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacological and genetic manipulations unravel the specific contributions of Shaker and Shal to the calcium independent transient A-type potassium currents...
  3. Ping Y, Waro G, Licursi A, Smith S, Vo Ba D, Tsunoda S. Shal/K(v)4 channels are required for maintaining excitability during repetitive firing and normal locomotion in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16043 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examine the significance of the transient A-type K(+) current (I(A)), encoded by the highly conserved Shal/K(v)4 gene, in neuronal firing patterns and repetitive behaviors...
  4. Ping Y, Tsunoda S. Inactivity-induced increase in nAChRs upregulates Shal K(+) channels to stabilize synaptic potentials. Nat Neurosci. 2011;15:90-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This response then induced an increase in the transient A-type K(+) current carried by Shaker cognate L (Shal; also known as voltage-gated K(+) channel 4, Kv4) channels...
  5. Tsunoda S, Salkoff L. Genetic analysis of Drosophila neurons: Shal, Shaw, and Shab encode most embryonic potassium currents. J Neurosci. 1995;15:1741-54 pubmed
    ..In contrast, we show that Shal is as important in these neuronal cell bodies as Shaker is in muscles...
  6. Pulver S, Griffith L. Spike integration and cellular memory in a rhythmic network from Na+/K+ pump current dynamics. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:53-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This current also interacted with endogenous Shal K(+) conductances to modulate spike timing for multiple seconds following rhythmic activity, providing a cellular ..
  7. Diao F, Waro G, Tsunoda S. Fast inactivation of Shal (K(v)4) K+ channels is regulated by the novel interactor SKIP3 in Drosophila neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2009;42:33-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Shal K+ (K(v)4) channels across species carry the major A-type K+ current present in neurons. Shal currents are activated by small EPSPs and modulate post-synaptic potentials, backpropagation of action potentials, and induction of LTP...
  8. Wallner M, Meera P, Toro L. Determinant for beta-subunit regulation in high-conductance voltage-activated and Ca(2+)-sensitive K+ channels: an additional transmembrane region at the N terminus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:14922-7 pubmed
    ..Both the unique S0 region and the exoplasmic N terminus are necessary for this gain of function. ..
  9. Parrish J, Kim C, Tang L, Bergquist S, Wang T, Derisi J, et al. Krüppel mediates the selective rebalancing of ion channel expression. Neuron. 2014;82:537-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, we demonstrate that loss of the Shal potassium channel induces the compensatory rebalancing of ion channel expression including, but not limited to, the ..
  10. McCormack T. Comparison of K+-channel genes within the genomes of Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster. Genome Biol. 2003;4:R58 pubmed
  11. Li Y, Wang F, Lee J, Gao F. MicroRNA-9a ensures the precise specification of sensory organ precursors in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2793-805 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that miR-9a ensures the generation of the precise number of neuronal precursor cells during development...
  12. Tripoulas N, Hersperger E, La Jeunesse D, Shearn A. Molecular genetic analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster gene absent, small or homeotic discs1 (ash1). Genetics. 1994;137:1027-38 pubmed
    ..The gene Shal, which is located cytogenetically nearby ash1, was used to initiate an 84-kb genomic walk within which the ash1 ..
  13. Pak M, Covarrubias M, Ratcliffe A, Salkoff L. A mouse brain homolog of the Drosophila Shab K+ channel with conserved delayed-rectifier properties. J Neurosci. 1991;11:869-80 pubmed
    ..The mShab current closely resembles a native delayed-rectifier-type potassium current, IK, in hippocampal neurons. ..
  14. Karsai G, Pollak E, Wacker M, Vömel M, Selcho M, Berta G, et al. Diverse in- and output polarities and high complexity of local synaptic and non-synaptic signaling within a chemically defined class of peptidergic Drosophila neurons. Front Neural Circuits. 2013;7:127 pubmed publisher
  15. Jan L, Jan Y. How might the diversity of potassium channels be generated?. Trends Neurosci. 1990;13:415-9 pubmed
    ..How might this tremendous diversity of potassium channels be generated? Partial answers have begun to emerge as molecular studies of potassium channel genes have become possible over the past few years. ..
  16. Srinivasan S, Lance K, Levine R. Segmental differences in firing properties and potassium currents in Drosophila larval motoneurons. J Neurophysiol. 2012;107:1356-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Segmental differences in the expression of voltage-activated K(+) currents were observed. In addition, we demonstrate that Shal contributes to I(Av) currents in the motoneurons of the first thoracic segment.
  17. Frolov R, Bagati A, Casino B, Singh S. Potassium channels in Drosophila: historical breakthroughs, significance, and perspectives. J Neurogenet. 2012;26:275-90 pubmed
    ..Drosophila has also helped in discovering other K(+) channels, such as Shab, Shaw, Shal, Eag, Sei, Elk, and also Slo, a Ca(2+) - and voltage-dependent K(+) channel...
  18. Peng I, Wu C. Drosophila cacophony channels: a major mediator of neuronal Ca2+ currents and a trigger for K+ channel homeostatic regulation. J Neurosci. 2007;27:1072-81 pubmed
    ..However, Ca2+ current expression levels remained unaltered in several K+ channel mutants, illustrating a key role of cac in developmental regulation of Drosophila neuronal excitability. ..
  19. Muraro N, Weston A, Gerber A, Luschnig S, Moffat K, Baines R. Pumilio binds para mRNA and requires Nanos and Brat to regulate sodium current in Drosophila motoneurons. J Neurosci. 2008;28:2099-109 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show coupling between I(Na) (para) and I(K) (Shal) such that Pum-mediated change in para results in a compensatory change in Shal...
  20. Strong M, Chandy K, Gutman G. Molecular evolution of voltage-sensitive ion channel genes: on the origins of electrical excitability. Mol Biol Evol. 1993;10:221-42 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the separate domains of the four-domain channels (Ca++ and Na+) supports their having evolved by two sequential gene duplications and implies the historical existence of a functional two-domain channel. ..
  21. Ping Y, Hahm E, Waro G, Song Q, Vo Ba D, Licursi A, et al. Linking aβ42-induced hyperexcitability to neurodegeneration, learning and motor deficits, and a shorter lifespan in an Alzheimer's model. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005025 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the underlying mechanism involves the selective degradation of the A-type K+ channel, Kv4. An age-dependent loss of Kv4 leads to an increased probability of AP firing...
  22. Jegla T, Nguyen M, Feng C, Goetschius D, Luna E, van Rossum D, et al. Bilaterian Giant Ankyrins Have a Common Evolutionary Origin and Play a Conserved Role in Patterning the Axon Initial Segment. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006457 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the potassium channel shal concentrates in the proximal axon in an Ank2-dependent manner...
  23. Butler A, Wei A, Salkoff L. Shal, Shab, and Shaw: three genes encoding potassium channels in Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:2173-4 pubmed
  24. Perney T, Kaczmarek L. The molecular biology of K+ channels. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1991;3:663-70 pubmed
    ..Expression of different members of these subfamilies, coupled with mutational analysis, has advanced our knowledge of the structure and function of voltage-dependent K+ channels. ..
  25. Hoopengardner B, Bhalla T, Staber C, Reenan R. Nervous system targets of RNA editing identified by comparative genomics. Science. 2003;301:832-6 pubmed
    ..These results point to a pivotal role for RNA editing in nervous system function. ..
  26. Yao W, Wu C. Distinct roles of CaMKII and PKA in regulation of firing patterns and K(+) currents in Drosophila neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2001;85:1384-94 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that PKA modulates Shaker A-type currents, whereas CaMKII modulates Shal-A type currents plus delayed rectifier Shab currents...
  27. Yu W, Xu J, Li M. NAB domain is essential for the subunit assembly of both alpha-alpha and alpha-beta complexes of shaker-like potassium channels. Neuron. 1996;16:441-53 pubmed
    ..Here we report that Kv beta 1 inactivates RCK4 and Shaker B K+ channels of the Kv1 subfamily, but not Shal2 of the Kv4 subfamily...
  28. Ghezzi A, Liebeskind B, Thompson A, Atkinson N, Zakon H. Ancient association between cation leak channels and Mid1 proteins is conserved in fungi and animals. Front Mol Neurosci. 2014;7:15 pubmed publisher
    ..The relationship between Mid1 and leak channels has therefore persisted over a billion years of evolution, despite drastic changes to both proteins and the organisms in which they exist. ..
  29. Guy H, Durell S, Warmke J, Drysdale R, Ganetzky B. Similarities in amino acid sequences of Drosophila eag and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. Science. 1991;254:730 pubmed
  30. Pym E, Southall T, Mee C, Brand A, Baines R. The homeobox transcription factor Even-skipped regulates acquisition of electrical properties in Drosophila neurons. Neural Dev. 2006;1:3 pubmed show that increased Eve specifically down regulates the Slowpoke (a BK Ca2+-gated potassium channel), but not Shal, component of this current...