Gene Symbol: shakB
Description: shaking B
Alias: CG12678, CG1321, CG15451, CG32508, CG34358, Dmel\CG34358, Dmel_CG12678, Dmel_CG32508, E81, FBpp0111481, Pas, R-9-29, R9-29, Shak B, Shak-B, ShakB, inx8, l(1)19Eb, l(1)LB21, l(1)R-10-14, l(1)R-10-3, l(1)R-10-7, l(1)R-9-29, l(1)TH73, l(1)W3, l(1)W3b, lincRNA.1031, nj-156, nj156, pas, pass, shB, shak-B, shkB, shaking B, CG34358-PA, CG34358-PC, CG34358-PD, CG34358-PE, CG34358-PF, CG34358-PG, CG34358-PH, CG34358-PI, Shaking-B, non-jumper-156, passover, passover-vital protein, section 2, section 3, section 6, shakB-PA, shakB-PC, shakB-PD, shakB-PE, shakB-PF, shakB-PG, shakB-PH, shakB-PI
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Shimohigashi M, Meinertzhagen I. The shaking B gene in Drosophila regulates the number of gap junctions between photoreceptor terminals in the lamina. J Neurobiol. 1998;35:105-17 pubmed
    ..structure of insect gap junctions differs from that in vertebrates, and in Drosophila is possibly encoded by the shaking B (= Passover) locus. shaking B2 is a null allele that acts in the nervous system...
  2. Lo C. Genes, gene knockouts, and mutations in the analysis of gap junctions. Dev Genet. 1999;24:1-4 pubmed
    ..It may be timely to form a Nomenclature Committee to establish a uniform classification scheme for naming gap junction proteins. ..
  3. Thomas J, Wyman R. Mutations altering synaptic connectivity between identified neurons in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 1984;4:530-8 pubmed
    ..One mutation, bendless, disrupts synaptic transmission between the GF and the TTM motor neuron. Another, gfA, disrupts the synaptic connections of the PSI, and a third mutation, passover, disrupts transmission in both pathways.
  4. Curtin K, Zhang Z, Wyman R. Gap junction proteins expressed during development are required for adult neural function in the Drosophila optic lamina. J Neurosci. 2002;22:7088-96 pubmed
    ..Here we show that developmental gap junction genes can be required for normally functioning neural connections to form. ..
  5. Krishnan S, Frei E, Swain G, Wyman R. Passover: a gene required for synaptic connectivity in the giant fiber system of Drosophila. Cell. 1993;73:967-77 pubmed
    b>Passover (Pas) flies fail to jump in response to a light-off stimulus. The mutation disrupts specific synapses of the giant fibers (GFs), command neurons for this response. Pas was cloned from a P element-induced allele...
  6. Sun Y, Wyman R. Passover eliminates gap junctional communication between neurons of the giant fiber system in Drosophila. off. J Neurobiol. 1996;30:340-8 pubmed
    The Passover-related gene family plays significant roles in cellular connectivity. Mutations in three family members from Drosophila and from Caenorhabditis elegans alter a few specific electrical synapses...
  7. Allen M, Shan X, Caruccio P, Froggett S, Moffat K, Murphey R. Targeted expression of truncated glued disrupts giant fiber synapse formation in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 1999;19:9374-84 pubmed
    ..We speculate that disrupting transport of a retrograde signal disrupts synapse formation and maturation. ..
  8. Blagburn J, Alexopoulos H, Davies J, Bacon J. Null mutation in shaking-B eliminates electrical, but not chemical, synapses in the Drosophila giant fiber system: a structural study. J Comp Neurol. 1999;404:449-58 pubmed
    ..Gap junctions with more vertebratelike separation of membranes (1.41 nm +/- 0.08) were abundant between peripheral perineurial glial processes; these were unaffected in the mutants. ..
  9. Phelan P, Stebbings L, Baines R, Bacon J, Davies J, Ford C. Drosophila Shaking-B protein forms gap junctions in paired Xenopus oocytes. Nature. 1998;391:181-4 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first structural component of an invertebrate gap junction to be characterized. ..

More Information


  1. Crompton D, Todman M, Wilkin M, Ji S, Davies J. Essential and neural transcripts from the Drosophila shaking-B locus are differentially expressed in the embryonic mesoderm and pupal nervous system. Dev Biol. 1995;170:142-58 pubmed
  2. Zhang Z, Curtin K, Sun Y, Wyman R. Nested transcripts of gap junction gene have distinct expression patterns. J Neurobiol. 1999;40:288-301 pubmed
    The shaking B locus (shakB, or Passover) codes for structural molecules of gap junctions in Drosophila. This report describes the complex set of transcripts from the shakB locus. A nested set of five transcripts is described...
  3. Jacobs K, Todman M, Allen M, Davies J, Bacon J. Synaptogenesis in the giant-fibre system of Drosophila: interaction of the giant fibre and its major motorneuronal target. Development. 2000;127:5203-12 pubmed
    ..This results in the Giant Fibre remaining stranded at the midline, unable to make its characteristic bend. We conclude that Giant Fibre morphogenesis normally relies on fasciculation with its major motorneuronal target. ..
  4. Trimarchi J, Murphey R. The shaking-B2 mutation disrupts electrical synapses in a flight circuit in adult Drosophila. J Neurosci. 1997;17:4700-10 pubmed
    ..Together, these results show that the haltere-to-flight motoneuron synapses comprise an electrical component that requires shaking-B and a chemical component that is likely to be cholinergic. ..
  5. Phelan P, Starich T. Innexins get into the gap. Bioessays. 2001;23:388-96 pubmed
    ..The completed genomic sequences for the fly and worm allow identification of the full complement of innexin genes in these two organisms and provide valuable resources for genetic analyses of gap junction function. ..
  6. Baird D, Schalet A, Wyman R. The Passover locus in Drosophila melanogaster: complex complementation and different effects on the giant fiber neural pathway. Genetics. 1990;126:1045-59 pubmed
    Drosophila melanogaster bearing the Passover mutation fail to jump in response to a light-off stimulus. Pas also disrupts some of the synapses between the neurons of the giant fiber system which mediate this escape behavior...
  7. Phelan P, Nakagawa M, Wilkin M, Moffat K, O Kane C, Davies J, et al. Mutations in shaking-B prevent electrical synapse formation in the Drosophila giant fiber system. J Neurosci. 1996;16:1101-13 pubmed
    ..The mutation shak-B2, which eliminates protein expression, prevents the establishment of dye coupling shaking-B, therefore, is essential for the assembly and/or maintenance of functional gap junctions at electrical synapses in the GFS. ..
  8. Phelan P, Bacon J, Davies J, Stebbings L, Todman M, Avery L, et al. Innexins: a family of invertebrate gap-junction proteins. Trends Genet. 1998;14:348-9 pubmed
  9. Wu C, Shih M, Lai J, Yang H, Turner G, Chen L, et al. Heterotypic gap junctions between two neurons in the drosophila brain are critical for memory. Curr Biol. 2011;21:848-54 pubmed publisher the regulation of neuronal metabolism and homeostasis by serving as connections that enable small molecules to pass between cells and synchronize activity between cells...
  10. Boyan G, Ball E. The grasshopper, Drosophila and neuronal homology (advantages of the insect nervous system for the neuroscientist). Prog Neurobiol. 1993;41:657-82 pubmed
  11. Seeger M. Genetic and molecular dissection of axon pathfinding in the Drosophila nervous system. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1994;4:56-62 pubmed
  12. Miklos G, Kelly L, Coombe P, Leeds C, Lefevre G. Localization of the genes shaking-B, small optic lobes, sluggish-A, stoned and stress-sensitive-C to a well-defined region on the X-chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurogenet. 1987;4:1-19 pubmed
  13. Cunliffe V, Baines R, Giachello C, Lin W, Morgan A, Reuber M, et al. Epilepsy research methods update: Understanding the causes of epileptic seizures and identifying new treatments using non-mammalian model organisms. Seizure. 2015;24:44-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The short generation times of most of these model organisms also mean that they lend themselves particularly conveniently to the investigation of drug effects or epileptogenic processes across the lifecourse. ..
  14. Lifschytz E, Falk R. Fine structure analysis of a chromosome segment in Drosophila melanogaster. Analysis of x-ray-induced lethals. Mutat Res. 1968;6:235-44 pubmed
  15. Kankare M, Salminen T, Laiho A, Vesala L, Hoikkala A. Changes in gene expression linked with adult reproductive diapause in a northern malt fly species: a candidate gene microarray study. BMC Ecol. 2010;10:3 pubmed publisher
    ..montana is worth of studying in more details. Also, further studies using the candidate gene microarray with more specific experimental designs and target tissues may reveal additional genes with more restricted expression patterns. ..
  16. Homyk T, Pye Q. Some mutations affecting neural or muscular tissues alter the physiological components of the electroretinogram in Drosophila. J Neurogenet. 1989;5:37-48 pubmed
    ..Mutations bas, rex and sesD delay recovery from the prolonged depolarization afterpotential. The visual defects of mutations elavjl and nbAEE171 are not complemented by lethal mutations, which, presumably, affect other tissues. ..
  17. Tazuke S, Schulz C, Gilboa L, Fogarty M, Mahowald A, Guichet A, et al. A germline-specific gap junction protein required for survival of differentiating early germ cells. Development. 2002;129:2529-39 pubmed
  18. Paradi E, Vogel E, Szilagyi E. Effect of storage and dose on MMS-induced deletions. Complementation analysis of X-chromosomal recessive lethals in the zeste-white and maroon-like regions of Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1983;111:145-59 pubmed
    ..An interesting aspect for further analysis is the apparent infrequency in the zeste-white region of alkylation-induced chromosomal breakage, as observed by various investigators for MMS, EMS and MNNG. ..
  19. Hughes A. Evolutionary diversification of insect innexins. J Insect Sci. 2014;14: pubmed publisher
    ..The relationships among this clades were poorly resolved, except for a sister relationship between ShakB and Ogre...
  20. Lifschytz E. Fine-Structure Analysis and Genetic Organization at the Base of the X Chromosome in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. Genetics. 1978;88:457-67 pubmed
    ..Section 20 is considered to be a transition region between the mostly heterochromatic and mostly euchromatic regions of the X chromosome; the differences between them are suggested as being merely quantitative. ..
  21. Egger M, Nowakowski R, Peng B, Wyman R. Patterns of connectivity in a Drosophila nerve. J Comp Neurol. 1997;387:63-72 pubmed
    ..The distribution of synaptic profiles was also examined in a mutant strain, Passover (Pas), known to affect connectivity in a pathway that includes the PAPSI...
  22. Song J, Tanouye M. Seizure suppression by shakB2, a gap junction mutation in Drosophila. J Neurophysiol. 2006;95:627-35 pubmed
    Gap junction proteins mediate electrical synaptic transmission. In Drosophila, flies carrying null mutations in the shakB locus, such as shakB2, have behavioral and electrophysiological defects in the giant fiber (GF) system neurocircuit ..
  23. Burden D, Osheroff N. In vitro evolution of preferred topoisomerase II DNA cleavage sites. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:5227-35 pubmed
    ..melanogaster, implying that it may be a site for the physiological action of this enzyme. ..
  24. Todman M, Baines R, Stebbings L, Davies J, Bacon J. Gap-Junctional communication between developing Drosophila muscles is essential for their normal development. Dev Genet. 1999;24:57-68 pubmed
    ..Our observations show that Shak-B(neural) is one of a set of embryonic gap-junction proteins, and that it is required for the normal temporal development of potassium currents in some larval muscles. ..
  25. Russell R, Healy M, Oakeshott J. Molecular analysis of the lethal(1)B214 region at the base of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1992;101:456-66 pubmed
  26. Lifschytz E, Falk R. Fine structure analysis of a chromosome segment in Drosophila melanogaster: analysis of ethyl methanesulphonate-induced lethals. Mutat Res. 1969;8:147-55 pubmed
  27. Perrimon N, Smouse D, Miklos G. Developmental genetics of loci at the base of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1989;121:313-31 pubmed
    ..Additionally, all lethal complementation groups, as well as a specific subset of deficiencies, have been studied histologically for defects in the development of the central and peripheral embryonic nervous systems. ..
  28. Brookfield J. Population genetics: the signature of selection. Curr Biol. 2001;11:R388-90 pubmed
    ..New work on Drosophila genes that seem to have been subject to adaptive changes illustrates the difficulties in calculating the statistical significance of data trends that seem to show this. ..
  29. Keller A, Sweeney S, Zars T, O Kane C, Heisenberg M. Targeted expression of tetanus neurotoxin interferes with behavioral responses to sensory input in Drosophila. J Neurobiol. 2002;50:221-33 pubmed
    ..To increase the utility of the GAL4 system for such purposes, we have designed an inducible system that allows us to circumvent lethality caused by TNT expression during early development. ..
  30. Nurminsky D, Aguiar D, Bustamante C, Hartl D. Chromosomal effects of rapid gene evolution in Drosophila melanogaster. Science. 2001;291:128-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings imply that the pattern of genetic variation along a chromosome may be useful for inferring its evolutionary history and for revealing regions in which recent adaptive fixations have taken place...
  31. Pézier A, Jezzini S, Bacon J, Blagburn J. Shaking B Mediates Synaptic Coupling between Auditory Sensory Neurons and the Giant Fiber of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0152211 pubmed publisher
    ..The GF is known to express Shaking B (ShakB), specifically the ShakB(N+16) isoform only, at its output synapses in the thorax...
  32. Torres M, Sanchez L. The segmentation gene runt is needed to activate Sex-lethal, a gene that controls sex determination and dosage compensation in Drosophila. Genet Res. 1992;59:189-98 pubmed
    ..We conclude that runt is needed for the initial step of Sex-lethal activation, but does not have a major role as an X-counting element. ..
  33. Pool J. The Mosaic Ancestry of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel and the D. melanogaster Reference Genome Reveals a Network of Epistatic Fitness Interactions. Mol Biol Evol. 2015;32:3236-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that admixed D. melanogaster samples could become an important study system for the genetics of early-stage isolation between populations. ..
  34. Johnson E, Ringo J, Dowse H. Modulation of Drosophila heartbeat by neurotransmitters. J Comp Physiol B. 1997;167:89-97 pubmed
    ..Dopamine-N-acetyltransferase, which is on the catabolic route to dopamine, serotonin, and octopamine, has no effect. hypoactiveC reduces the rate of the heart, but its mechanism of action is unknown. ..
  35. Krishnan S, Frei E, Schalet A, Wyman R. Molecular basis of intracistronic complementation in the Passover locus of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:2021-5 pubmed
    ..The Drosophila neural mutant Passover (Pas) disrupts specific synaptic connections...
  36. Phillis R, Bramlage A, Wotus C, Whittaker A, Gramates L, Seppala D, et al. Isolation of mutations affecting neural circuitry required for grooming behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1993;133:581-92 pubmed
    ..We have also used our assay to test the grooming ability of stocks containing mutations that produce known neural defects. ..
  37. Elliott C, Sparrow J. In vivo measurement of muscle output in intact Drosophila. Methods. 2012;56:78-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We have now extended the use of the apparatus to record the muscle forces during larval and other aspects of adult locomotion. The robustness, simplicity and versatility of the apparatus are key to these measurements. ..
  38. Allen M, Murphey R. The chemical component of the mixed GF-TTMn synapse in Drosophila melanogaster uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:439-45 pubmed
    ..Our findings show that the two components of this synapse can be separated to allow further studies into the mechanisms by which mixed synapses are built and function. ..
  39. Yaksi E, Wilson R. Electrical coupling between olfactory glomeruli. Neuron. 2010;67:1034-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that when stimuli are weak, lateral excitation promotes sensitivity, whereas when stimuli are strong, lateral excitation helps recruit inhibitory gain control. ..
  40. Sudhakaran I, Holohan E, Osman S, Rodrigues V, Vijayraghavan K, Ramaswami M. Plasticity of recurrent inhibition in the Drosophila antennal lobe. J Neurosci. 2012;32:7225-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that recurrent inhibitory motifs common in neural circuits may similarly underlie habituation to other complex stimuli. ..
  41. Pézier A, Jezzini S, Marie B, Blagburn J. Engrailed alters the specificity of synaptic connections of Drosophila auditory neurons with the giant fiber. J Neurosci. 2014;34:11691-704 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results suggest that En and Inv in JONs regulate both neuronal excitability and synaptic connectivity. ..
  42. Schalet A, Lefevre G. The localization of "ordinary" sex-linked genes in section 20 of the polytene X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1973;44:183-202 pubmed
  43. Chiusano M, Di Giaimo R, Potenza N, Russo G, Geraci G, del Gaudio R. A possible flip-flop genetic mechanism for reciprocal gene expression. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:4919-22 pubmed
    ..melanogaster cellular compartments. We propose here a new and robust mechanism, based on our analysis of the genomic organization of inx-2 and inx-7, that structurally justifies the reciprocal expression of genes. ..
  44. Stebbings L, Todman M, Phillips R, Greer C, Tam J, Phelan P, et al. Gap junctions in Drosophila: developmental expression of the entire innexin gene family. Mech Dev. 2002;113:197-205 pubmed
    ..This work forms an essential basis for future studies of innexin interactions in Drosophila and outlines the potential extent of gap-junction involvement in development. ..
  45. Phelan P, Goulding L, Tam J, Allen M, Dawber R, Davies J, et al. Molecular mechanism of rectification at identified electrical synapses in the Drosophila giant fiber system. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1955-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide the most definitive evidence to date that rectification is achieved by differential regulation of the pre- and postsynaptic elements of structurally asymmetric junctions. ..
  46. Miklos G, de Couet H. The mutations previously designated as flightless-I3, flightless-O2 and standby are members of the W-2 lethal complementation group at the base of the X-chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurogenet. 1990;6:133-51 pubmed
    ..These viable flightless mutations are all hypomorphs since the homozygous deficiency of the W-2 X-chromosomal region is lethal to the organism. ..
  47. Pflugfelder G. Genetic lesions in Drosophila behavioural mutants. Behav Brain Res. 1998;95:3-15 pubmed
    ..Various mutagens are reviewed as to their suitability in inducing selective regulatory mutations. ..
  48. Homyk T, Szidonya J, Suzuki D. Behavioral mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. III. Isolation and mapping of mutations by direct visual observations of behavioral phenotypes. Mol Gen Genet. 1980;177:553-65 pubmed
  49. Kuebler D, Zhang H, Ren X, Tanouye M. Genetic suppression of seizure susceptibility in Drosophila. J Neurophysiol. 2001;86:1211-25 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the utility of Drosophila as a model system for studying seizure susceptibility and identify physiological processes that modify seizure susceptibility...
  50. Miklos G, Cotsell J. Chromosome structure at interfaces between major chromatin types: alpha- and beta-heterochromatin. Bioessays. 1990;12:1-6 pubmed
    ..The recent microcloning of part of this region, the isolation of a monoclonal antibody to a beta-heterochromatin binding protein, and new in situ studies now shed a little more light on this chromosomal region. ..
  51. Hammond S, O SHEA M. Ontogeny of flight initiation in the fly Drosophila melanogaster: implications for the giant fibre system. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2007;193:1125-37 pubmed
    ..Thus, the escape mechanism is subject to developmental modulation following eclosion and the GF system does not underlie voluntary flight. ..
  52. Smendziuk C, Messenberg A, Vogl A, Tanentzapf G. Bi-directional gap junction-mediated soma-germline communication is essential for spermatogenesis. Development. 2015;142:2598-609 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we show that stem cell maintenance and differentiation in the testis are directed by gap junction-derived cues. ..
  53. Swain G, Wyman R, Egger M. A deficiency chromosome in Drosophila alters neuritic projections in an identified motoneuron. Brain Res. 1990;535:147-50 pubmed
  54. Abascal F, Zardoya R. Evolutionary analyses of gap junction protein families. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1828:4-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Several groups of paralogy were identified within each subfamily. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The Communicating junctions, roles and dysfunctions. ..
  55. Baird D, Koto M, Wyman R. Dendritic reduction in Passover, a Drosophila mutant with a defective giant fiber neuronal pathway. J Neurobiol. 1993;24:971-84 pubmed
    ..Flies bearing the X-chromosome mutation Passover (Pas) fail to jump in response to a light-off stimulus, and electrical stimulation of the GF in the brain no ..
  56. Depriest A, Phelan P, Martha Skerrett I. Tryptophan scanning mutagenesis of the first transmembrane domain of the innexin Shaking-B(Lethal). Biophys J. 2011;101:2408-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, several mutations induced hemichannel activity. These changes are similar to those observed after substitutions within the transmembrane domains of connexins. ..
  57. Curtin K, Zhang Z, Wyman R. Gap junction proteins are not interchangeable in development of neural function in the Drosophila visual system. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:3379-88 pubmed
    ..Mutations in either of two Drosophila GJ genes (innexins), shakB and ogre, lead to a loss of transients in the electroretinogram (ERG), which is indicative of a failure of the ..
  58. Lifschytz E, Yakobovitz N. The role of X-linked lethal and viable male-sterile mutations in male gametogenesis of Drosophila melanogaster: genetic analysis. Mol Gen Genet. 1978;161:275-84 pubmed
    ..It is further shown that about the same proportion of vital genes is operating in female gonads and that the two groups overlap by about 70%. The role of viable and lethal male gametogenesis is discussed in detail. ..
  59. Curtin K, Zhang Z, Wyman R. Drosophila has several genes for gap junction proteins. Gene. 1999;232:191-201 pubmed
    ..We have used PCR techniques to identify three new members of this family from Drosophila. These are designated pas-related proteins (prp) 6, 7, and 33...
  60. Stebbings L, Todman M, Phelan P, Bacon J, Davies J. Two Drosophila innexins are expressed in overlapping domains and cooperate to form gap-junction channels. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:2459-70 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Dm-Inx2 and Dm-Inx3, which are expressed in overlapping domains during embryogenesis, can form oligomeric gap-junction channels. ..
  61. Marks W, Skerrett I. Role of amino terminus in voltage gating and junctional rectification of Shaking B innexins. J Neurophysiol. 2014;111:1383-95 pubmed publisher
    ..giant fiber system, adjacent cells express and contribute different transcript variants of the innexin Shaking B, resulting in heterotypic gap junctions with rectifying properties...
  62. Crompton D, Griffin A, Davies J, Miklos G. Analysis of a cDNA from the neurologically active locus shaking-B (Passover) of Drosophila melanogaster. Gene. 1992;122:385-6 pubmed
    ..melanogaster gene, l(1)ogre. This suggests the existence of a new family of proteins required for the development and maintenance of the D. melanogaster nervous system. ..