Gene Symbol: Sh
Description: Shaker
Alias: BcDNA:GH03046, CG12348, CG17860, CG7640, Dmel\CG12348, EKO, Eko, Kv1, Sha, Shw, minisleep, sha, shaker, CG12348-PA, CG12348-PB, CG12348-PC, CG12348-PD, CG12348-PE, CG12348-PF, CG12348-PH, CG12348-PI, CG12348-PJ, CG12348-PK, CG12348-PL, CG12348-PM, CG12348-PQ, CG12348-PS, CG12348-PT, F-c transcription unit, Sh-PA, Sh-PB, Sh-PC, Sh-PD, Sh-PE, Sh-PF, Sh-PH, Sh-PI, Sh-PJ, Sh-PK, Sh-PL, Sh-PM, Sh-PQ, Sh-PS, Sh-PT, Shaker-downheld
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Li M, Jan Y, Jan L. Specification of subunit assembly by the hydrophilic amino-terminal domain of the Shaker potassium channel. Science. 1992;257:1225-30 pubmed
    ..A Drosophila Shaker B (ShB) potassium channel truncated polypeptide that contains only the hydrophilic amino-terminal domain can form ..
  2. Ryglewski S, Duch C. Shaker and Shal mediate transient calcium-independent potassium current in a Drosophila flight motoneuron. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102:3673-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacological and genetic manipulations unravel the specific contributions of Shaker and Shal to the calcium independent transient A-type potassium currents...
  3. Ueda A, Wu C. Distinct frequency-dependent regulation of nerve terminal excitability and synaptic transmission by IA and IK potassium channels revealed by Drosophila Shaker and Shab mutations. J Neurosci. 2006;26:6238-48 pubmed
    ..the roles of the Shab IK channel and its mammalian Kv2 counterparts is relatively poor, as compared with that for Shaker IA channels and their Kv1 homologues...
  4. Baukrowitz T, Yellen G. Two functionally distinct subsites for the binding of internal blockers to the pore of voltage-activated K+ channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:13357-61 pubmed
    Many blockers of Na+ and K+ channels act by blocking the pore from the intracellular side. For Shaker K+ channels, such intracellular blockers vary in their functional effect on slow (C-type) inactivation: Some blockers interfere with C-..
  5. Aggarwal S, MacKinnon R. Contribution of the S4 segment to gating charge in the Shaker K+ channel. Neuron. 1996;16:1169-77 pubmed
    ..A K+ channel-specific radioligand was designed and used to determine the origin of these gating charges in the Shaker K+ channel. Opening of a Shaker K+ channel is associated with a displacement of 13.6 electron charge units...
  6. Lee J, Ueda A, Wu C. Pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms of synaptic strength homeostasis revealed by slowpoke and shaker K+ channel mutations in Drosophila. Neuroscience. 2008;154:1283-96 pubmed publisher
    ..strength and D-V differentials at physiological Ca(2+) levels were not significantly altered in slowpoke (slo) and Shaker (Sh) mutants, despite their defects in two major repolarizing forces, Ca(2+)-activated Slo (BK) and voltage-..
  7. Wang J, Humphreys J, Phillips J, Hilliker A, Wu C. A novel leg-shaking Drosophila mutant defective in a voltage-gated K(+)current and hypersensitive to reactive oxygen species. J Neurosci. 2000;20:5958-64 pubmed
    ..One mutant so isolated, named quiver(1) (qvr(1)), has a leg-shaking phenotype. Mutants of the Shaker (Sh), Hyperkinetic (Hk), and ether a go-go (eag) genes, which encode different K(+) channel subunits that regulate ..
  8. Tsunoda S, Salkoff L. Genetic analysis of Drosophila neurons: Shal, Shaw, and Shab encode most embryonic potassium currents. J Neurosci. 1995;15:1741-54 pubmed
    ..Unlike muscles, where the presence of Shaker is obvious, Shaker currents are not detectable in these neurons...
  9. Bushey D, Huber R, Tononi G, Cirelli C. Drosophila Hyperkinetic mutants have reduced sleep and impaired memory. J Neurosci. 2007;27:5384-93 pubmed
    ..features of mammalian sleep, and a recent study found that Drosophila lines carrying loss-of-function mutations in Shaker (Sh) are short sleeping, suggesting that the Sh current plays a major role in regulating daily sleep amount...

More Information


  1. Cirelli C, Bushey D, Hill S, Huber R, Kreber R, Ganetzky B, et al. Reduced sleep in Drosophila Shaker mutants. Nature. 2005;434:1087-92 pubmed
    ..By screening 9,000 mutant lines, we found minisleep (mns), a line that sleeps for one-third of the wild-type amount...
  2. Heginbotham L, MacKinnon R. Conduction properties of the cloned Shaker K+ channel. Biophys J. 1993;65:2089-96 pubmed
    The conduction properties of the cloned Shaker K+ channel were studied using electrophysiological techniques. Single channel conductance increases in a sublinear manner with symmetric increases in K+ activity, reaching saturation by 0...
  3. Solc C, Zagotta W, Aldrich R. Single-channel and genetic analyses reveal two distinct A-type potassium channels in Drosophila. Science. 1987;236:1094-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, the myotube channel is affected by Shaker mutations, whereas the neuronal channel is not...
  4. Hoshi T, Zagotta W, Aldrich R. Biophysical and molecular mechanisms of Shaker potassium channel inactivation. Science. 1990;250:533-8 pubmed
    The potassium channels encoded by the Drosophila Shaker gene activate and inactivate rapidly when the membrane potential becomes more positive...
  5. Henrion U, Renhorn J, Börjesson S, Nelson E, Schwaiger C, Bjelkmar P, et al. Tracking a complete voltage-sensor cycle with metal-ion bridges. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:8552-7 pubmed publisher
    ..closed conformations based on metal-ion bridges between all four segments of the VSD in the voltage-gated Shaker K channel...
  6. Friedman E, Sun Y, Moore J, Hung H, Meng Q, Perera P, et al. A conserved behavioral state barrier impedes transitions between anesthetic-induced unconsciousness and wakefulness: evidence for neural inertia. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11903 pubmed publisher
  7. Pielage J, Fetter R, Davis G. A postsynaptic spectrin scaffold defines active zone size, spacing, and efficacy at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. J Cell Biol. 2006;175:491-503 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which a postsynaptic Spectrin-actin lattice acts as an organizing scaffold upon which pre- and postsynaptic development are arranged. ..
  8. Singh S, Wu C. Properties of potassium currents and their role in membrane excitability in Drosophila larval muscle fibers. J Exp Biol. 1990;152:59-76 pubmed
    ..The Shaker (Sh) and the slowpoke (slo) mutations, respectively, eliminate the voltage-activated fast K+ current (IA) and the ..
  9. Peabody N, Pohl J, Diao F, Vreede A, Sandstrom D, Wang H, et al. Characterization of the decision network for wing expansion in Drosophila using targeted expression of the TRPM8 channel. J Neurosci. 2009;29:3343-53 pubmed publisher
  10. Salkoff L, Baker K, Butler A, Covarrubias M, Pak M, Wei A. An essential 'set' of K+ channels conserved in flies, mice and humans. Trends Neurosci. 1992;15:161-6 pubmed
    ..This conservation of the K+ channel subfamilies Shaker, Shal, Shab, and Shaw suggests that not only the broad outlines of membrane electrical properties but also many ..
  11. Baker O, Larsson H, Mannuzzu L, Isacoff E. Three transmembrane conformations and sequence-dependent displacement of the S4 domain in shaker K+ channel gating. Neuron. 1998;20:1283-94 pubmed
    ..evidence that two components evident previously in the depolarization-evoked gating currents from voltage-gated Shaker K+ channels have their origin in sequential, two-step outward movements of the S4 protein segments...
  12. Alabi A, Bahamonde M, Jung H, Kim J, Swartz K. Portability of paddle motif function and pharmacology in voltage sensors. Nature. 2007;450:370-5 pubmed
    ..The widespread targeting of voltage-sensor paddles by toxins demonstrates that this modular structural motif is an important pharmacological target. ..
  13. McCormack K, Lin J, Iverson L, Rudy B. Shaker K+ channel subunits from heteromultimeric channels with novel functional properties. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990;171:1361-71 pubmed
    ..One of these genes, the Shaker gene in Drosophila, generates several products by alternative splicing...
  14. Joiner W, Crocker A, White B, Sehgal A. Sleep in Drosophila is regulated by adult mushroom bodies. Nature. 2006;441:757-60 pubmed
    ..Other manipulations of the mushroom bodies, such as electrical silencing, increasing excitation or ablation, also alter sleep. These results link sleep regulation to an anatomical locus known to be involved in learning and memory. ..
  15. Iverson L, Mottes J, Yeager S, Germeraad S. Tissue-specific alternative splicing of Shaker potassium channel transcripts results from distinct modes of regulating 3' splice choice. J Neurobiol. 1997;32:457-68 pubmed
    ..Differential splicing of Drosophila Shaker (Sh) gene transcripts regulates the tissue-specific expression of kinetically distinct potassium ion channels ..
  16. Demo S, Yellen G. The inactivation gate of the Shaker K+ channel behaves like an open-channel blocker. Neuron. 1991;7:743-53 pubmed
    Following voltage-dependent activation, Drosophila Shaker K+ channels enter a nonconducting, inactivated state...
  17. Kaplan W, Trout W. The behavior of four neurological mutants of Drosophila. Genetics. 1969;61:399-409 pubmed
  18. Rogero O, Hämmerle B, Tejedor F. Diverse expression and distribution of Shaker potassium channels during the development of the Drosophila nervous system. J Neurosci. 1997;17:5108-18 pubmed
    The spatio-temporal expression of Shaker (Sh) potassium channels (Kch) in the developing and adult nervous system of Drosophila has been studied at the molecular and histological level using specific antisera...
  19. Zhao M, Sable E, Iverson L, Wu C. Functional expression of Shaker K+ channels in cultured Drosophila "giant" neurons derived from Sh cDNA transformants: distinct properties, distribution, and turnover. J Neurosci. 1995;15:1406-18 pubmed
    Expression of transgenic Shaker (Sh) channels has not previously been examined in Drosophila neurons. We studied K+ current by whole-cell recording in cultured "giant" neurons derived from germline transformants...
  20. Rivlin P, St Clair R, Vilinsky I, Deitcher D. Morphology and molecular organization of the adult neuromuscular junction of Drosophila. J Comp Neurol. 2004;468:596-613 pubmed not detectable at type I terminals, while DLG-immunoreactivity is observed at the synapse; 3) a Shaker-GFP fusion protein that localizes to all type I boutons in the larva is differentially localized at adult ..
  21. Leibovitch B, Campbell D, Krishnan K, Nash H. Mutations that affect ion channels change the sensitivity of Drosophila melanogaster to volatile anesthetics. J Neurogenet. 1995;10:1-13 pubmed
    ..They also provide perspective on the behavior of previously isolated mutations (har) that decrease the sensitivity of Drosophila to anesthetics in the inebriometer. ..
  22. Phillis R, Bramlage A, Wotus C, Whittaker A, Gramates L, Seppala D, et al. Isolation of mutations affecting neural circuitry required for grooming behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1993;133:581-92 pubmed
    ..We have also used our assay to test the grooming ability of stocks containing mutations that produce known neural defects. ..
  23. Covarrubias M, Wei A, Salkoff L. Shaker, Shal, Shab, and Shaw express independent K+ current systems. Neuron. 1991;7:763-73 pubmed
    ..diversity of K+ currents observed in living cells? Previous work has shown that different subunits encoded by the Shaker gene subfamily are able to form heteromultimers, which add to the diversity of currents...
  24. Aberle H, Haghighi A, Fetter R, McCabe B, Magalhaes T, Goodman C. wishful thinking encodes a BMP type II receptor that regulates synaptic growth in Drosophila. Neuron. 2002;33:545-58 pubmed
    ..The NMJ phenotype is specifically rescued by transgenic expression of Wit only in motoneurons. Thus, Wit appears to function as a presynaptic receptor that regulates synaptic size at the Drosophila NMJ. ..
  25. Li Smerin Y, Hackos D, Swartz K. A localized interaction surface for voltage-sensing domains on the pore domain of a K+ channel. Neuron. 2000;25:411-23 pubmed this structure, we used tryptophan-scanning mutagenesis on the transmembrane shell of the pore domain in the Shaker voltage-gated K+ channel to localize potential protein-protein and protein-lipid interfaces...
  26. Bezanilla F, Perozo E, Papazian D, Stefani E. Molecular basis of gating charge immobilization in Shaker potassium channels. Science. 1991;254:679-83 pubmed
    ..Measurement of the gating currents of the Drosophila Shaker potassium channel indicates that the charge on the voltage sensor of the channels is progressively immobilized by ..
  27. Tsunoda S, Salkoff L. The major delayed rectifier in both Drosophila neurons and muscle is encoded by Shab. J Neurosci. 1995;15:5209-21 pubmed
    ..all the whole cell delayed rectifier current (IK), while leaving unaltered the transient A-current encoded by the Shaker gene...
  28. Stern M, Kreber R, Ganetzky B. Dosage effects of a Drosophila sodium channel gene on behavior and axonal excitability. Genetics. 1990;124:133-43 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the number of sodium channels present in at least some Drosophila neurons can be affected by changes in para+ gene dosage, and that the level of para+ expression can strongly influence neuronal excitability. ..
  29. Salkoff L, Wyman R. Genetic modification of potassium channels in Drosophila Shaker mutants. Nature. 1981;293:228-30 pubmed
  30. Osterwalder T, Yoon K, White B, Keshishian H. A conditional tissue-specific transgene expression system using inducible GAL4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:12596-601 pubmed
  31. Sigrist S, Thiel P, Reiff D, Lachance P, Lasko P, Schuster C. Postsynaptic translation affects the efficacy and morphology of neuromuscular junctions. Nature. 2000;405:1062-5 pubmed
    ..Our results therefore provide evidence for a postsynaptic translational control of long-term junctional plasticity. ..
  32. Barbas J, Galceran J, Krah Jentgens I, de la Pompa J, Canal I, Pongs O, et al. Troponin I is encoded in the haplolethal region of the Shaker gene complex of Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1991;5:132-40 pubmed
    We have analyzed one of the nine complementation groups that constitute the haplolethal (HL) region of the Shaker gene complex (ShC). Five mutations, including a dominant lethal, define this complementation group: HL I...
  33. Mannuzzu L, Moronne M, Isacoff E. Direct physical measure of conformational rearrangement underlying potassium channel gating. Science. 1996;271:213-6 pubmed
    ..By combination of site-specific fluorescent labeling of the Shaker potassium channel protein with voltage clamping, this gating conformational change was measured in real time...
  34. Schoppa N, McCormack K, Tanouye M, Sigworth F. The size of gating charge in wild-type and mutant Shaker potassium channels. Science. 1992;255:1712-5 pubmed
    ..A more direct measurement of q in Drosophila melanogaster Shaker 29-4 potassium channels yields a q value of 12.3 e0...
  35. Larsson H, Baker O, Dhillon D, Isacoff E. Transmembrane movement of the shaker K+ channel S4. Neuron. 1996;16:387-97 pubmed
    ..thiol reagent methanethiosulfonate-ethyltrimethlammonium (MTSET) in both open and closed, cysteine-substituted Shaker K+ channels...
  36. Bogdanik L, Mohrmann R, Ramaekers A, Bockaert J, Grau Y, Broadie K, et al. The Drosophila metabotropic glutamate receptor DmGluRA regulates activity-dependent synaptic facilitation and fine synaptic morphology. J Neurosci. 2004;24:9105-16 pubmed
  37. Duch C, Vonhoff F, Ryglewski S. Dendrite elongation and dendritic branching are affected separately by different forms of intrinsic motoneuron excitability. J Neurophysiol. 2008;100:2525-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore dendritic branching and branch elongation are controlled by separate mechanisms that can be addressed selectively in vivo by different manipulations of neuronal intrinsic excitability. ..
  38. Huang Y, Stern M. In vivo properties of the Drosophila inebriated-encoded neurotransmitter transporter. J Neurosci. 2002;22:1698-708 pubmed
    ..of larval nerve compound action potentials, suppression of the leg-shaking behavior of mutants defective in the Shaker-encoded potassium channel, and temperature-sensitive paralysis...
  39. Diao F, Chaufty J, Waro G, Tsunoda S. SIDL interacts with the dendritic targeting motif of Shal (K(v)4) K+ channels in Drosophila. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;45:75-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of SIDL may provide the first step for future investigation into the molecular machinery regulating the LL-motif-dependent targeting of K(+) channels. ..
  40. Ganetzky B, Wu C. Drosophila mutants with opposing effects on nerve excitability: genetic and spatial interactions in repetitive firing. J Neurophysiol. 1982;47:501-14 pubmed
  41. Choi J, Park D, Griffith L. Electrophysiological and morphological characterization of identified motor neurons in the Drosophila third instar larva central nervous system. J Neurophysiol. 2004;91:2353-65 pubmed
    ..The combination of genetic identification and whole cell recording allows us to directly explore the cellular substrates of neural and locomotor behavior in an intact system. ..
  42. Luan H, Lemon W, Peabody N, Pohl J, Zelensky P, Wang D, et al. Functional dissection of a neuronal network required for cuticle tanning and wing expansion in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2006;26:573-84 pubmed
  43. Parisky K, Agosto J, Pulver S, Shang Y, Kuklin E, Hodge J, et al. PDF cells are a GABA-responsive wake-promoting component of the Drosophila sleep circuit. Neuron. 2008;60:672-82 pubmed publisher
  44. Ferrus A, Llamazares S, de la Pompa J, Tanouye M, Pongs O. Genetic analysis of the Shaker gene complex of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1990;125:383-98 pubmed
    The Shaker complex (ShC) spans over 350 kb in the 16F region of the X chromosome. It can be dissected by means of aneuploids into three main sections: the maternal effect (ME), the viable (V) and the haplolethal (HL) regions...
  45. Thomas U, Kim E, Kuhlendahl S, Koh Y, Gundelfinger E, Sheng M, et al. Synaptic clustering of the cell adhesion molecule fasciclin II by discs-large and its role in the regulation of presynaptic structure. Neuron. 1997;19:787-99 pubmed
    ..DLG can directly mediate a biochemical complex and a macroscopic cluster of FASII and Shaker K+ channels in heterologous cells...
  46. Yellen G, Jurman M, Abramson T, MacKinnon R. Mutations affecting internal TEA blockade identify the probable pore-forming region of a K+ channel. Science. 1991;251:939-42 pubmed
    ..In the potassium channel encoded by the Drosophila Shaker gene, an amino acid residue that specifically affects the affinity for intracellular TEA has now been identified ..
  47. Hardie R. Voltage-sensitive potassium channels in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Neurosci. 1991;11:3079-95 pubmed
    ..Rapidly inactivating A-channels (IA), coded by the Shaker gene, were isolated in multichannel patches from adult flies...
  48. White B, Osterwalder T, Yoon K, Joiner W, Whim M, Kaczmarek L, et al. Targeted attenuation of electrical activity in Drosophila using a genetically modified K(+) channel. Neuron. 2001;31:699-711 pubmed
    ..Inhibition is accomplished by expressing a genetically modified Shaker K(+) channel (termed the EKO channel) in targeted cells...
  49. Heginbotham L, MacKinnon R. The aromatic binding site for tetraethylammonium ion on potassium channels. Neuron. 1992;8:483-91 pubmed
    ..A Shaker K+ channel can be made highly sensitive by introducing a tyrosine (or phenylalanine) at residue 449 in each of the ..
  50. Bergquist S, Dickman D, Davis G. A hierarchy of cell intrinsic and target-derived homeostatic signaling. Neuron. 2010;66:220-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that two A-type potassium channel genes, shal and shaker, are reciprocally, transcriptionally coupled to maintain A-type channel expression...
  51. Pongs O, Kecskemethy N, Muller R, Krah Jentgens I, Baumann A, Kiltz H, et al. Shaker encodes a family of putative potassium channel proteins in the nervous system of Drosophila. EMBO J. 1988;7:1087-96 pubmed
    The Shaker locus of Drosophila contains a very large transcription unit...
  52. Bhalla T, Rosenthal J, Holmgren M, Reenan R. Control of human potassium channel inactivation by editing of a small mRNA hairpin. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2004;11:950-6 pubmed
    ..Drosophila melanogaster Shaker channels, mimicking this editing event through mutation, exhibit a similar effect...
  53. Gasque G, Labarca P, Reynaud E, Darszon A. Shal and shaker differential contribution to the K+ currents in the Drosophila mushroom body neurons. J Neurosci. 2005;25:2348-58 pubmed
    b>Shaker, a voltage-dependent K+ channel, is enriched in the mushroom bodies (MBs), the locus of olfactory learning in Drosophila...
  54. Butler A, Wei A, Baker K, Salkoff L. A family of putative potassium channel genes in Drosophila. Science. 1989;243:943-7 pubmed
    Mutant flies in which the gene coding for the Shaker potassium channel is deleted still have potassium currents similar to those coded by the Shaker gene. This suggests the presence of a family of Shaker-like genes in Drosophila...
  55. van Swinderen B. A succession of anesthetic endpoints in the Drosophila brain. J Neurobiol. 2006;66:1195-211 pubmed
    ..LFP correlates of general anesthesia in Drosophila provide a powerful new approach to uncovering the nature of these processes. ..
  56. Ranganathan R, Lewis J, MacKinnon R. Spatial localization of the K+ channel selectivity filter by mutant cycle-based structure analysis. Neuron. 1996;16:131-9 pubmed
    The structurally well-characterized scorpion toxin Agitoxin2 inhibits ion permeation through Shaker K+ channels by binding to the external pore entryway...
  57. Mallart A, Angaut Petit D, Bourret Poulain C, Ferrus A. Nerve terminal excitability and neuromuscular transmission in T(X;Y)V7 and Shaker mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurogenet. 1991;7:75-84 pubmed
    ..These mutations affect two different genes belonging to the Shaker gene complex which encode different yet functionally related proteins...
  58. Wu C, Haugland F. Voltage clamp analysis of membrane currents in larval muscle fibers of Drosophila: alteration of potassium currents in Shaker mutants. J Neurosci. 1985;5:2626-40 pubmed
    ..Previous studies indicate that mutations in the Shaker (Sh) locus alter excitability in both nerve and muscle in Drosophila...
  59. Kamb A, Iverson L, Tanouye M. Molecular characterization of Shaker, a Drosophila gene that encodes a potassium channel. Cell. 1987;50:405-13 pubmed
    The Drosophila Shaker (Sh) gene appears to encode a type of voltage-sensitive potassium (K+) channel called the A channel. We have isolated Sh as part of a 350 kb chromosomal walk...
  60. Koh K, Joiner W, Wu M, Yue Z, Smith C, Sehgal A. Identification of SLEEPLESS, a sleep-promoting factor. Science. 2008;321:372-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic and molecular analyses revealed that quiver, a mutation that impairs Shaker-dependent potassium current, is an allele of sleepless...
  61. Kuo C. Deactivation retards recovery from inactivation in Shaker K+ channels. J Neurosci. 1997;17:3436-44 pubmed
    ..In contrast, it is demonstrated in this study that recovery from inactivation in Shaker K+ channels begins with no delay on repolarization...
  62. Peng I, Wu C. Differential contributions of Shaker and Shab K+ currents to neuronal firing patterns in Drosophila. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97:780-94 pubmed
    ..Mutations of Sh and Shab K(+) channels removed part of inactivating I(A) and sustained I(K), respectively, and the remaining I(A) ..
  63. Diao F, Waro G, Tsunoda S. Fast inactivation of Shal (K(v)4) K+ channels is regulated by the novel interactor SKIP3 in Drosophila neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2009;42:33-44 pubmed publisher
    ..As a scaffold-like protein, SKIP3 is likely to lead to the identification of a novel regulatory complex that modulates Shal channel inactivation. ..
  64. Timpe L, Schwarz T, Tempel B, Papazian D, Jan Y, Jan L. Expression of functional potassium channels from Shaker cDNA in Xenopus oocytes. Nature. 1988;331:143-5 pubmed
    The Shaker gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a potassium-selective ion channel, the 'A' channel, or one of its subunits...
  65. Tejedor F, Bokhari A, Rogero O, Gorczyca M, Zhang J, Kim E, et al. Essential role for dlg in synaptic clustering of Shaker K+ channels in vivo. J Neurosci. 1997;17:152-9 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the product of the Drosophila discs-large gene, DLG, is colocalized with Shaker K+ channels, which are clustered at glutamatergic synapses at the larval neuromuscular junction...
  66. Balakrishnan R, Rodrigues V. The shaker and shaking-B genes specify elements in the processing of gustatory information in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 1991;157:161-81 pubmed
    ..We have examined the effects of mutations in two loci--the Shaker complex and shaking-B-on the taste pathway of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen at the behavioural and ..
  67. Parnas D, Haghighi A, Fetter R, Kim S, Goodman C. Regulation of postsynaptic structure and protein localization by the Rho-type guanine nucleotide exchange factor dPix. Neuron. 2001;32:415-24 pubmed
    ..Many, but not all, dpix defects are mediated through dPak, a member of the family of Cdc42/Rac1-activated kinases. Thus, a Rho-type GEF and Rho-type effector kinase regulate postsynaptic structure. ..
  68. Ping Y, Waro G, Licursi A, Smith S, Vo Ba D, Tsunoda S. Shal/K(v)4 channels are required for maintaining excitability during repetitive firing and normal locomotion in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16043 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that Shal/K(v)4 channels play a key role in repetitively firing neurons during prolonged input/output, and suggests that their function and regulation are important for rhythmic behaviors. ..
  69. Tempel B, Papazian D, Schwarz T, Jan Y, Jan L. Sequence of a probable potassium channel component encoded at Shaker locus of Drosophila. Science. 1987;237:770-5 pubmed
    ..The Shaker locus of Drosophila is thought to encode a K+ channel...
  70. Ataman B, Ashley J, Gorczyca M, Ramachandran P, Fouquet W, Sigrist S, et al. Rapid activity-dependent modifications in synaptic structure and function require bidirectional Wnt signaling. Neuron. 2008;57:705-18 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that activation of the postsynaptic Wg pathway is required for the assembly of the postsynaptic apparatus, while activation of the presynaptic Wg pathway regulates cytoskeletal dynamics. ..
  71. Papazian D, Timpe L, Jan Y, Jan L. Alteration of voltage-dependence of Shaker potassium channel by mutations in the S4 sequence. Nature. 1991;349:305-10 pubmed
    ..Site-directed mutagenesis of the S4 sequence of the Shaker potassium channel and electrophysiological analysis suggest that voltage-dependent activation involves the S4 ..
  72. Budnik V, Zhong Y, Wu C. Morphological plasticity of motor axons in Drosophila mutants with altered excitability. J Neurosci. 1990;10:3754-68 pubmed
    ..We examined motor axon terminals of (1) hyperexcitable mutants Shaker (Sh), ether a go-go (eag), Hyperkinetic (Hk), and Duplication of para+ (Dp para+); and (2) mutants with reduced ..
  73. Cowan T, Siegel R. Mutational and pharmacological alterations of neuronal membrane function disrupt conditioning in Drosophila. J Neurogenet. 1984;1:333-44 pubmed
    ..Conditioning could not be detected for Shaker mutants, in which the fast transient potassium current (IA) is altered; a second potassium channel mutant, eag (..
  74. Xu X, Li H, Guggino W, Montell C. Coassembly of TRP and TRPL produces a distinct store-operated conductance. Cell. 1997;89:1155-64 pubmed
    ..We propose that the light-activated current in photoreceptor cells is produced by a combination of TRP homo- and TRP-TRPL heteromultimers. ..
  75. Yuan Q, Joiner W, Sehgal A. A sleep-promoting role for the Drosophila serotonin receptor 1A. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1051-62 pubmed
    ..These data show that serotonin promotes baseline sleep in Drosophila. They also link the regulation of sleep behavior by serotonin to a specific receptor in a distinct region of the fly brain. ..
  76. Weber B, Schaper C, Bushey D, Rohlfs M, Steinfath M, Tononi G, et al. Increased volatile anesthetic requirement in short-sleeping Drosophila mutants. Anesthesiology. 2009;110:313-6 pubmed publisher
    ..05; n = 32) (mean +/- SEM, all P compared to wild-type and other shaker alleles). Sh flies slept 584 +/- 13 min (n = 64, P < 0.01), Sh flies 412 +/- 22 min (n = 32, P < 0...
  77. Kamb A, Tseng Crank J, Tanouye M. Multiple products of the Drosophila Shaker gene may contribute to potassium channel diversity. Neuron. 1988;1:421-30 pubmed
    ..Molecular studies of the Shaker (Sh) locus in Drosophila have provided the first glimpse of K+ channel structure...
  78. Crocker A, Shahidullah M, Levitan I, Sehgal A. Identification of a neural circuit that underlies the effects of octopamine on sleep:wake behavior. Neuron. 2010;65:670-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies define the cellular and molecular basis of octopamine action and suggest that the PI is a sleep:wake-regulating neuroendocrine structure like the mammalian hypothalamus. ..
  79. Hoopengardner B, Bhalla T, Staber C, Reenan R. Nervous system targets of RNA editing identified by comparative genomics. Science. 2003;301:832-6 pubmed
    ..These results point to a pivotal role for RNA editing in nervous system function. ..
  80. Seoh S, Sigg D, Papazian D, Bezanilla F. Voltage-sensing residues in the S2 and S4 segments of the Shaker K+ channel. Neuron. 1996;16:1159-67 pubmed
    The activation of Shaker K+ channels is steeply voltage dependent...
  81. Kelley W, Wolters A, Sack J, Jockusch R, Jurchen J, Williams E, et al. Characterization of a novel gastropod toxin (6-bromo-2-mercaptotryptamine) that inhibits shaker K channel activity. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:34934-42 pubmed
    ..Voltage clamp experiments with a number of K channel subtypes indicate that BrMT inhibits certain voltage-gated K channels of the Kv1 subfamily.