Gene Symbol: sgg
Description: shaggy
Alias: CG2621, DMSGG3, DMZ3K25Z, Dm Zw3, Dmel\CG2621, Dmsgg3, EG:155E2.3, EG:BACR7C10.8, GSK, GSK-3, GSK-3B, GSK-3beta, GSK-3betaSgg, GSK3, GSK3-beta, GSK3A, GSK3Beta, GSK3beta, GSK3beta/SGG, GSK3betagr, GSKbeta, Gsk-3, Gsk-3beta, Gsk3, SGG, SGG/GSK3b, Sgg, Sgg/GSK-3b, Sgg/Zw3/GSK3, ZW-3, ZW3, Zw-3, Zw3, Zw3-sh, Zw3/GSK3, Zw3[sgg], anon-WO03040301.254, gsk3, l(1)3Ba, l(1)G0055, l(1)G0183, l(1)G0263, l(1)G0335, l(1)zw3, sgg-zw3, sgg/zw3, sgg10, sgg39, sgg46, zw-3, zw3, zw3(sgg), zw3/GSK3beta, zw3/sgg, zw3[sgg], zw[3], shaggy, CG2621-PA, CG2621-PB, CG2621-PC, CG2621-PD, CG2621-PE, CG2621-PF, CG2621-PG, CG2621-PH, CG2621-PI, CG2621-PJ, CG2621-PK, CG2621-PM, CG2621-PN, CG2621-PO, CG2621-PP, CG2621-PQ, CG2621-PR, GSK-3 kinase, GSK3betagr, Shaggy/GSK-3beta, Shaggy/Glycogen synthase kinase 3, Shaggy/Zeste-white-3/Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta, Zeste-white3, Zw3 kinase, glycogen synthase Kinase-3, glycogen synthase kinase 3, glycogen synthase kinase 3Beta, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, saggy, sgg-PA, sgg-PB, sgg-PC, sgg-PD, sgg-PE, sgg-PF, sgg-PG, sgg-PH, sgg-PI, sgg-PJ, sgg-PK, sgg-PM, sgg-PN, sgg-PO, sgg-PP, sgg-PQ, sgg-PR, shaggy-zeste white 3, shaggy/zeste-white 3, zest-white 3, zeste white 3, zeste white-3, zeste white3, zeste-white 3, zestewhite-3
Species: fruit fly
Products:     sgg

Top Publications

  1. Price M, Kalderon D. Proteolysis of the Hedgehog signaling effector Cubitus interruptus requires phosphorylation by Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 and Casein Kinase 1. Cell. 2002;108:823-35 pubmed
    ..We show that these phosphoserines prime further phosphorylation at adjacent Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3) and Casein Kinase I (CK1) sites...
  2. Ahmed Y, Nouri A, Wieschaus E. Drosophila Apc1 and Apc2 regulate Wingless transduction throughout development. Development. 2002;129:1751-62 pubmed
  3. Singh A, Kango Singh M, Sun Y. Eye suppression, a novel function of teashirt, requires Wingless signaling. Development. 2002;129:4271-80 pubmed
    ..It affects both growth of eye disc and retinal cell differentiation. ..
  4. Kennerdell J, Carthew R. Use of dsRNA-mediated genetic interference to demonstrate that frizzled and frizzled 2 act in the wingless pathway. Cell. 1998;95:1017-26 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that dsRNA interference can be used to analyze many aspects of gene function. ..
  5. Bienz M, Clevers H. Linking colorectal cancer to Wnt signaling. Cell. 2000;103:311-20 pubmed
  6. Colosimo P, Liu X, Kaplan N, Tolwinski N. GSK3beta affects apical-basal polarity and cell-cell adhesion by regulating aPKC levels. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:115-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that loss of the Wnt signaling component GSK3 beta results in increased levels of aPKC and leads to defects in apical-basal polarity...
  7. Quijano J, Stinchfield M, Newfeld S. Wg signaling via Zw3 and mad restricts self-renewal of sensory organ precursor cells in Drosophila. Genetics. 2011;189:809-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that the phosphorylation of Mad in the linker region by the Wg antagonist Zw3 (homolog of vertebrate Gsk3-?) regulates the development of sensory organs in the anterior-dorsal quadrant of the wing...
  8. Kaplan N, Liu X, Tolwinski N. Epithelial polarity: interactions between junctions and apical-basal machinery. Genetics. 2009;183:897-904 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, in embryos lacking the Wingless signaling component zw3, the same full apical expansion occurs again with only a reduction in lgl...
  9. Yang M, Hatton Ellis E, Simpson P. The kinase Sgg modulates temporal development of macrochaetes in Drosophila by phosphorylation of Scute and Pannier. Development. 2012;139:325-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Wingless downregulates the activity of the serine/threonine kinase Shaggy (Sgg; also known as GSK-3)...

More Information


  1. Zhang L, Jia J, Wang B, Amanai K, Wharton K, Jiang J. Regulation of wingless signaling by the CKI family in Drosophila limb development. Dev Biol. 2006;299:221-37 pubmed
    ..Finally, we provide evidence that several CKI isoforms including CKIalpha and Gish/CKIgamma can phosphorylate the Wg coreceptor Arrow (Arr), which may account, at least in part, for their positive roles in the Wg pathway. ..
  2. Chen X, Li Y, Huang J, Cao D, Yang G, Liu W, et al. Study of tauopathies by comparing Drosophila and human tau in Drosophila. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;329:169-78 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the two tau genes differ significantly. This comparison between species-specific isoforms may help to clarify whether the homologous tau genes are conserved. ..
  3. Sofola O, Kerr F, Rogers I, Killick R, Augustin H, Gandy C, et al. Inhibition of GSK-3 ameliorates Abeta pathology in an adult-onset Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001087 pubmed publisher
    ..Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is increasingly implicated as playing a pivotal role in this amyloid cascade...
  4. He X, Semenov M, Tamai K, Zeng X. LDL receptor-related proteins 5 and 6 in Wnt/beta-catenin signaling: arrows point the way. Development. 2004;131:1663-77 pubmed
    ..We also discuss the regulation of Lrp5/Lrp6 by other extracellular ligands, and LRP5 mutations associated with familial osteoporosis and other disorders. ..
  5. Yu X, Hoppler S, Eresh S, Bienz M. decapentaplegic, a target gene of the wingless signalling pathway in the Drosophila midgut. Development. 1996;122:849-58 pubmed
    dishevelled, shaggy/zeste-white 3 and armadillo are required for transmission of the wingless signal in the Drosophila epidermis...
  6. Shi Q, Li S, Jia J, Jiang J. The Hedgehog-induced Smoothened conformational switch assembles a signaling complex that activates Fused by promoting its dimerization and phosphorylation. Development. 2011;138:4219-31 pubmed publisher
  7. Cliffe A, Hamada F, Bienz M. A role of Dishevelled in relocating Axin to the plasma membrane during wingless signaling. Curr Biol. 2003;13:960-6 pubmed a scaffold in this complex, to assemble beta-catenin substrate and kinases (casein kinase I [CKI] and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta [GSK3])...
  8. Colosimo P, Tolwinski N. Wnt, Hedgehog and junctional Armadillo/beta-catenin establish planar polarity in the Drosophila embryo. PLoS ONE. 2006;1:e9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest new roles for Hh and Wg as instructive polarizing cues that help establish directionality within a cell sheet, and a new polarity-signaling role for the membrane fraction of the oncoprotein Arm. ..
  9. Khurana V, Lu Y, Steinhilb M, Oldham S, Shulman J, Feany M. TOR-mediated cell-cycle activation causes neurodegeneration in a Drosophila tauopathy model. Curr Biol. 2006;16:230-41 pubmed
    ..TOR-mediated cell-cycle activation causes neurodegeneration in a Drosophila tauopathy model, identifying TOR and the cell cycle as potential therapeutic targets in tauopathies and AD. ..
  10. Chatterjee S, Sang T, Lawless G, Jackson G. Dissociation of tau toxicity and phosphorylation: role of GSK-3beta, MARK and Cdk5 in a Drosophila model. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:164-77 pubmed publisher
    ..less toxic than wild-type tau; however, this was not due to their resistance to phosphorylation by GSK-3beta/Shaggy. On the contrary, a tau mutant resistant to phosphorylation by GSK-3beta/Shaggy retained substantial toxicity and ..
  11. Steitz M, Wickenheisser J, Siegfried E. Overexpression of zeste white 3 blocks wingless signaling in the Drosophila embryonic midgut. Dev Biol. 1998;197:218-33 pubmed
    ..the signaling pathway of the Drosophila Wnt homologue, Wingless, have identified a number of genes, including zeste white 3, which function to transduce the Wingless signal. zeste white 3 encodes a serine/threonine kinase...
  12. Tolwinski N. Membrane bound axin is sufficient for Wingless signaling in Drosophila embryos. Genetics. 2009;181:1169-73 pubmed publisher
    ..I find that nuclear localization of APC2 appears to be required, but Axin can block signaling when tethered to the membrane. These results support the model where Axin regulates Armadillo localization and activity in the cytoplasm. ..
  13. Singh A, Shi X, Choi K. Lobe and Serrate are required for cell survival during early eye development in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:4771-81 pubmed
    ..5-fold higher frequency. This suggests that L or Ser loss-of-function triggers both caspase-dependent and -independent cell death. Our studies thus identify a mechanism responsible for cell survival in the early eye. ..
  14. Nawathean P, Stoleru D, Rosbash M. A small conserved domain of Drosophila PERIOD is important for circadian phosphorylation, nuclear localization, and transcriptional repressor activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:5002-13 pubmed
    ..This is then followed by additional PER phosphorylation, which occurs within the nucleus and leads to PER degradation. ..
  15. Peifer M, Pai L, Casey M. Phosphorylation of the Drosophila adherens junction protein Armadillo: roles for wingless signal and zeste-white 3 kinase. Dev Biol. 1994;166:543-56 pubmed
    ..We discuss the implications of these results for regulation of Wingless/Wnt-1 signaling and adherens junction function. ..
  16. Shulman J, Perrimon N, Axelrod J. Frizzled signaling and the developmental control of cell polarity. Trends Genet. 1998;14:452-8 pubmed
    ..Recently described examples from the nematode and frog suggest that the developmental control of cell polarity by FZ receptors might represent a functionally conserved signaling mechanism. ..
  17. Zettervall C, Anderl I, Williams M, Palmer R, Kurucz E, Ando I, et al. A directed screen for genes involved in Drosophila blood cell activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14192-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the activation of a cellular response is complex and affected by multiple signaling pathways. ..
  18. Lin C, Tsai P, Wu R, Chien C. LRRK2 G2019S mutation induces dendrite degeneration through mislocalization and phosphorylation of tau by recruiting autoactivated GSK3ß. J Neurosci. 2010;30:13138-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, hyperactivated G2019S promotes tau phosphorylation at the T212 site by the Drosophila glycogen synthase kinase 3? homolog Shaggy (Sgg)...
  19. Zhang J, Carthew R. Interactions between Wingless and DFz2 during Drosophila wing development. Development. 1998;125:3075-85 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that a single dominant-negative form of Fz or DFz2 can block more than one type of Wnt signaling pathway and imply that truncated proteins of the Fz family lose some aspect of signaling specificity. ..
  20. Cyran S, Yiannoulos G, Buchsbaum A, Saez L, Young M, Blau J. The double-time protein kinase regulates the subcellular localization of the Drosophila clock protein period. J Neurosci. 2005;25:5430-7 pubmed
    ..It was reported previously that overexpression of a second kinase, Shaggy (SGG)/Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3, accelerates PER nuclear accumulation...
  21. Hamada F, Tomoyasu Y, Takatsu Y, Nakamura M, Nagai S, Suzuki A, et al. Negative regulation of Wingless signaling by D-axin, a Drosophila homolog of axin. Science. 1999;283:1739-42 pubmed
    ..Hence, D-Axin negatively regulates Wingless signaling by down-regulating the level of Armadillo. These results establish the importance of the Axin family of proteins in Wnt/Wingless signaling in Drosophila. ..
  22. Stambolic V, Ruel L, Woodgett J. Lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 activity and mimics wingless signalling in intact cells. Curr Biol. 1996;6:1664-8 pubmed
    ..or disruption, respectively, of a highly conserved protein serine/threonine kinase, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3)...
  23. Treisman J, Rubin G. wingless inhibits morphogenetic furrow movement in the Drosophila eye disc. Development. 1995;121:3519-27 pubmed
    ..In addition, the presence of wingless in the center of the disc can prevent furrow progression. These effects of wingless are achieved without altering the expression of decapentaplegic. ..
  24. Parker D, Jemison J, Cadigan K. Pygopus, a nuclear PHD-finger protein required for Wingless signaling in Drosophila. Development. 2002;129:2565-76 pubmed
    ..Our data argue strongly that Pygopus is a new core component of the Wg signaling pathway that acts downstream or at the level of TCF. ..
  25. Kramps T, Peter O, Brunner E, Nellen D, Froesch B, Chatterjee S, et al. Wnt/wingless signaling requires BCL9/legless-mediated recruitment of pygopus to the nuclear beta-catenin-TCF complex. Cell. 2002;109:47-60 pubmed
  26. Peifer M, Sweeton D, Casey M, Wieschaus E. wingless signal and Zeste-white 3 kinase trigger opposing changes in the intracellular distribution of Armadillo. Development. 1994;120:369-80 pubmed
    ..We present a model for the role of Armadillo stripes in transduction of wingless signal. ..
  27. McCartney B, Dierick H, Kirkpatrick C, Moline M, Baas A, Peifer M, et al. Drosophila APC2 is a cytoskeletally-associated protein that regulates wingless signaling in the embryonic epidermis. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:1303-18 pubmed
    ..We discuss the implications of our results for Wg signaling, and suggest a role for dAPC2 as a mediator of Wg effects on the cytoskeleton. We also speculate on more general roles that APCs may play in cytoskeletal dynamics. ..
  28. Couso J, Bishop S, Martinez Arias A. The wingless signalling pathway and the patterning of the wing margin in Drosophila. Development. 1994;120:621-36 pubmed
    ..margin, the wingless signal requires the activity of at least three genes: armadillo (arm), dishevelled (dsh) and shaggy (sgg) and that the functional relationship between these genes and wg is the same as that which exist during the ..
  29. Zhang W, Zhao Y, Tong C, Wang G, Wang B, Jia J, et al. Hedgehog-regulated Costal2-kinase complexes control phosphorylation and proteolytic processing of Cubitus interruptus. Dev Cell. 2005;8:267-78 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, Hh counteracts phosphorylation by PKA, GSK3, and CKI to prevent Cubitus interruptus (Ci) processing through unknown mechanisms...
  30. Bienz M, Clevers H. Armadillo/beta-catenin signals in the nucleus--proof beyond a reasonable doubt?. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:179-82 pubmed
    ..Plausible explanations allow these observations to be reconciled with the large body of evidence supporting a nuclear function of Arm/beta-catenin. ..
  31. Buttrick G, Beaumont L, Leitch J, Yau C, Hughes J, Wakefield J. Akt regulates centrosome migration and spindle orientation in the early Drosophila melanogaster embryo. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:537-48 pubmed publisher
    ..cortex and is required for phosphorylation of the glycogen synthase kinase-3beta homologue Zeste-white 3 kinase (Zw3) and for the cortical localizations of the adenomatosis polyposis coli (APC)-related protein APC2/E-APC and the MT +..
  32. Yu X, Waltzer L, Bienz M. A new Drosophila APC homologue associated with adhesive zones of epithelial cells. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:144-51 pubmed
    ..E-APC also binds to Shaggy, the Drosophila GSK-3 homologue...
  33. Bourouis M. Targeted increase in shaggy activity levels blocks wingless signaling. Genesis. 2002;34:99-102 pubmed
  34. Ruel L, Pantesco V, Lutz Y, Simpson P, Bourouis M. Functional significance of a family of protein kinases encoded at the shaggy locus in Drosophila. EMBO J. 1993;12:1657-69 pubmed
    The characterization of the structurally complex gene shaggy is presented...
  35. Folwell J, Cowan C, Ubhi K, Shiabh H, Newman T, Shepherd D, et al. Abeta exacerbates the neuronal dysfunction caused by human tau expression in a Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease. Exp Neurol. 2010;223:401-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of tau(wt)/Abeta(42) and flies with LiCl ameliorates the exacerbating effect of Abeta(42), suggesting that GSK-3beta may be involved in the mechanism by which Abeta(42) and tau(wt) interact to cause neuronal dysfunction...
  36. Galletti M, Riccardo S, Parisi F, Lora C, Saqcena M, Rivas L, et al. Identification of domains responsible for ubiquitin-dependent degradation of dMyc by glycogen synthase kinase 3beta and casein kinase 1 kinases. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3424-34 pubmed publisher regulated in vitro and in vivo by members of the casein kinase 1 (CK1) family and by glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta)...
  37. Jia J, Zhang L, Zhang Q, Tong C, Wang B, Hou F, et al. Phosphorylation by double-time/CKIepsilon and CKIalpha targets cubitus interruptus for Slimb/beta-TRCP-mediated proteolytic processing. Dev Cell. 2005;9:819-30 pubmed
    ..Ci processing requires sequential phosphorylation by PKA, GSK3, and a casein kinase I (CKI) family member(s)...
  38. Siegfried E, Chou T, Perrimon N. wingless signaling acts through zeste-white 3, the Drosophila homolog of glycogen synthase kinase-3, to regulate engrailed and establish cell fate. Cell. 1992;71:1167-79 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that the segment polarity gene zeste-white 3 (zw3; also known as shaggy) acts as a repressor of en autoregulation...
  39. Pai L, Orsulic S, Bejsovec A, Peifer M. Negative regulation of Armadillo, a Wingless effector in Drosophila. Development. 1997;124:2255-66 pubmed
    ..We discuss two models for the negative regulation of Armadillo in normal development and discuss how escape from this regulation contributes to tumorigenesis. ..
  40. Martinek S, Inonog S, Manoukian A, Young M. A role for the segment polarity gene shaggy/GSK-3 in the Drosophila circadian clock. Cell. 2001;105:769-79 pubmed
    Tissue-specific overexpression of the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) ortholog shaggy (sgg) shortens the period of the Drosophila circadian locomotor activity cycle...
  41. Kalderon D. Similarities between the Hedgehog and Wnt signaling pathways. Trends Cell Biol. 2002;12:523-31 pubmed
    ..Recently, the common use of glycogen synthase kinase 3 and casein kinase 1 has been added to a growing list of straightforward similarities between Hedgehog ..
  42. Morel V, Arias A. Armadillo/beta-catenin-dependent Wnt signalling is required for the polarisation of epidermal cells during dorsal closure in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:3273-83 pubmed
    ..g. Flamingo, PCP Wingless signalling is not involved in DC. ..
  43. Axelrod J, Miller J, Shulman J, Moon R, Perrimon N. Differential recruitment of Dishevelled provides signaling specificity in the planar cell polarity and Wingless signaling pathways. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2610-22 pubmed
    ..The PCP signal may selectively result in focal Fz activation and asymmetric relocalization of Dsh to the membrane, where Dsh effects cytoskeletal reorganization to orient prehair initiation. ..
  44. Royet J, Finkelstein R. Establishing primordia in the Drosophila eye-antennal imaginal disc: the roles of decapentaplegic, wingless and hedgehog. Development. 1997;124:4793-800 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate that otd is activated by wg in the vertex primordium. Finally, we show that early activation of dpp depends on hedgehog (hh) expression in the eye anlage prior to morphogenetic furrow formation. ..
  45. Mines M, Jope R. Glycogen synthase kinase-3: a promising therapeutic target for fragile x syndrome. Front Mol Neurosci. 2011;4:35 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence that inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) may contribute to the therapeutic treatment of FXS is reviewed here...
  46. Tolwinski N, Wieschaus E. Armadillo nuclear import is regulated by cytoplasmic anchor Axin and nuclear anchor dTCF/Pan. Development. 2001;128:2107-17 pubmed
    ..We find that nuclear retention is dependent on dTCF/Pangolin. This suggests that cellular distribution of Arm is controlled by an anchoring system, where various nuclear and cytoplasmic binding partners determine its localization. ..
  47. Smelkinson M, Zhou Q, Kalderon D. Regulation of Ci-SCFSlimb binding, Ci proteolysis, and hedgehog pathway activity by Ci phosphorylation. Dev Cell. 2007;13:481-95 pubmed
    ..b>GSK3 enhances binding primarily through a nearby region of Ci, which might contact an SCF component other than Slimb...
  48. Blair S. Shaggy (zeste-white 3) and the formation of supernumerary bristle precursors in the developing wing blade of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1992;152:263-78 pubmed
    The development of supernumerary bristle precursors induced by the mutation shaggy (sgg; also known as zeste-white 3) was examined in the developing wing blade of imaginal and pupal Drosophila...
  49. Yanagawa S, Lee J, Haruna T, Oda H, Uemura T, Takeichi M, et al. Accumulation of Armadillo induced by Wingless, Dishevelled, and dominant-negative Zeste-White 3 leads to elevated DE-cadherin in Drosophila clone 8 wing disc cells. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:25243-51 pubmed
    ..In addition, overexpression of DE-cadherin elevated Arm levels by stabilizing Arm at cell-cell junctions. ..
  50. Wehrli M, Tomlinson A. Independent regulation of anterior/posterior and equatorial/polar polarity in the Drosophila eye; evidence for the involvement of Wnt signaling in the equatorial/polar axis. Development. 1998;125:1421-32 pubmed
    ..Further, we show that the polarizing information acting in this equatorial/polar axis (Eq/Pl) is established in at least two steps - the activity of one signaling molecule functions to establish the graded activity of a second signal. ..
  51. Cliffe A, Mieszczanek J, Bienz M. Intracellular shuttling of a Drosophila APC tumour suppressor homolog. BMC Cell Biol. 2004;5:37 pubmed
    ..The shuttling of GFP-E-APC to and from the plasma membrane is unaltered in mutants of Drosophila glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), which mimic constitutive Wingless signalling...
  52. Hazelett D, Bourouis M, Walldorf U, Treisman J. decapentaplegic and wingless are regulated by eyes absent and eyegone and interact to direct the pattern of retinal differentiation in the eye disc. Development. 1998;125:3741-51 pubmed
    ..These results provide a link between the early specification and later differentiation of the eye disc. ..
  53. Kaplan N, Tolwinski N. Spatially defined Dsh-Lgl interaction contributes to directional tissue morphogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:3157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that apical-basal proteins, used to establish polarity within a cell, can be independently co-opted to function in epithelial morphogenesis. ..
  54. Cadigan K, Nusse R. wingless signaling in the Drosophila eye and embryonic epidermis. Development. 1996;122:2801-12 pubmed
    ..However, we present evidence that wingless signaling still occurs normally in the complete absence of Notch protein in the embryonic epidermis. Thus, in the simplest model for wingless signalling, a direct role for Notch is unlikely. ..
  55. Takaesu N, Herbig E, Zhitomersky D, O Connor M, Newfeld S. DNA-binding domain mutations in SMAD genes yield dominant-negative proteins or a neomorphic protein that can activate WG target genes in Drosophila. Development. 2005;132:4883-94 pubmed
    ..From a larger perspective, our study shows that the genetic characterization of missense mutations, particularly in modular proteins, requires experimental verification. ..
  56. Katanaev V, Ponzielli R, Semeriva M, Tomlinson A. Trimeric G protein-dependent frizzled signaling in Drosophila. Cell. 2005;120:111-22 pubmed
    ..Thus, Go is likely part of a trimeric G protein complex that directly transduces Fz signals from the membrane to downstream components. ..
  57. Tomlinson A, Strapps W, Heemskerk J. Linking Frizzled and Wnt signaling in Drosophila development. Development. 1997;124:4515-21 pubmed
    ..In addition, we show that overexpression of Shaggy (Sgg - another component of the Wnt pathway) in the eye also causes a phenotype similar to Fz and Dsh...
  58. McCartney B, McEwen D, Grevengoed E, Maddox P, Bejsovec A, Peifer M. Drosophila APC2 and Armadillo participate in tethering mitotic spindles to cortical actin. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:933-8 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that APC2, Armadillo and alpha-catenin provide an important link between spindles and cortical actin, and that this link is regulated by Zeste-white 3 kinase. ..
  59. Ruel L, Bourouis M, Heitzler P, Pantesco V, Simpson P. Drosophila shaggy kinase and rat glycogen synthase kinase-3 have conserved activities and act downstream of Notch. Nature. 1993;362:557-60 pubmed
    ..Possible intracellular transduction events mediating signals from Notch are, however, unknown. shaggy is also required for the lateral signal and encodes serine/threonine protein kinases with homology to the glycogen ..
  60. Ruel L, Gallet A, Raisin S, Truchi A, Staccini Lavenant L, Cervantes A, et al. Phosphorylation of the atypical kinesin Costal2 by the kinase Fused induces the partial disassembly of the Smoothened-Fused-Costal2-Cubitus interruptus complex in Hedgehog signalling. Development. 2007;134:3677-89 pubmed
    ..This study provides new insight into the mechanistic regulation of the protein complex that mediates Hh signalling and a unique antibody tool for directly monitoring Hh receptor activity in all activated cells. ..
  61. Helms W, Lee H, Ammerman M, Parks A, Muskavitch M, Yedvobnick B. Engineered truncations in the Drosophila mastermind protein disrupt Notch pathway function. Dev Biol. 1999;215:358-74 pubmed
    ..This system should prove useful for the investigation of the role of Mam within the Notch pathway. ..
  62. Jia J, Amanai K, Wang G, Tang J, Wang B, Jiang J. Shaggy/GSK3 antagonizes Hedgehog signalling by regulating Cubitus interruptus. Nature. 2002;416:548-52 pubmed
    The Drosophila protein Shaggy (Sgg, also known as Zeste-white3, Zw3) and its vertebrate orthologue glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) are inhibitory components of the Wingless (Wg) and Wnt pathways...
  63. Papadopoulou D, Bianchi M, Bourouis M. Functional studies of shaggy/glycogen synthase kinase 3 phosphorylation sites in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:4909-19 pubmed
    Early studies of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) in mammalian systems focused on its pivotal role in glycogen metabolism and insulin-mediated signaling...
  64. Mudher A, Shepherd D, Newman T, Mildren P, Jukes J, Squire A, et al. GSK-3beta inhibition reverses axonal transport defects and behavioural phenotypes in Drosophila. Mol Psychiatry. 2004;9:522-30 pubmed
    ..Co-expression of constitutively active glycogen-synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) enhances and two GSK-3beta inhibitors, lithium and AR-A014418, reverse both the axon transport and locomotor ..
  65. Willert K, Logan C, Arora A, Fish M, Nusse R. A Drosophila Axin homolog, Daxin, inhibits Wnt signaling. Development. 1999;126:4165-73 pubmed
    ..The loss-of-function and overexpression phenotypes show that Daxin, like its mammalian counterpart, acts as a negative regulator of wg/Wnt signaling. ..
  66. Chou T, Perrimon N. Use of a yeast site-specific recombinase to produce female germline chimeras in Drosophila. Genetics. 1992;131:643-53 pubmed
    ..We describe the parameters of FLP-recombinase induced germline mitotic recombination and the use of the "FLP-DFS" technique to analyze the maternal effect of X-linked zygotic lethal mutations. ..
  67. Miech C, Pauer H, He X, Schwarz T. Presynaptic local signaling by a canonical wingless pathway regulates development of the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. J Neurosci. 2008;28:10875-84 pubmed publisher
    ..arrow/LRP (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein), dishevelled, and the glycogen synthase kinase shaggy (GSK3) and regulates the formation of microtubule loops within synaptic boutons as well as the number of synaptic ..
  68. Gögel S, Wakefield S, Tear G, Klämbt C, Gordon Weeks P. The Drosophila microtubule associated protein Futsch is phosphorylated by Shaggy/Zeste-white 3 at an homologous GSK3beta phosphorylation site in MAP1B. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2006;33:188-99 pubmed
    ..of MAP1B is in part regulated by phosphorylation mediated by kinases that include casein kinase 2 and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta)...
  69. Kim E, Edery I. Balance between DBT/CKIepsilon kinase and protein phosphatase activities regulate phosphorylation and stability of Drosophila CLOCK protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:6178-83 pubmed
  70. Franco B, Bogdanik L, Bobinnec Y, Debec A, Bockaert J, Parmentier M, et al. Shaggy, the homolog of glycogen synthase kinase 3, controls neuromuscular junction growth in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2004;24:6573-7 pubmed
    ..We found that Shaggy (Sgg), the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian glycogen synthase kinases 3 alpha and beta, two serine-threonine ..
  71. Packard M, Koo E, Gorczyca M, Sharpe J, Cumberledge S, Budnik V. The Drosophila Wnt, wingless, provides an essential signal for pre- and postsynaptic differentiation. Cell. 2002;111:319-30 pubmed
    ..We suggest that Wg signals the coordinated development of pre- and postsynaptic compartments. ..
  72. Jackson G, Wiedau Pazos M, Sang T, Wagle N, Brown C, Massachi S, et al. Human wild-type tau interacts with wingless pathway components and produces neurofibrillary pathology in Drosophila. Neuron. 2002;34:509-19 pubmed
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