Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: sdt
Alias: BP1063, CG12657, CG12658, CG15339, CG15340, CG15341, CG15342, CG1617, CG32717, Dmel\CG32717, PALS1, Pals1, Sdt, Std, anon-EST:fe2E6, cGUK1, cMAGUK1, l(1)7Ef, pal1, std, stardust, BP1063, CG32717-PB, CG32717-PD, CG32717-PE, CG32717-PF, CG32717-PG, CG32717-PH, CG32717-PI, CG32717-PJ, CG32717-PK, CG32717-PL, CG32717-PM, CG32717-PN, CG32717-PO, CG32717-PP, anon-fast-evolving-2E6, sdt-PB, sdt-PD, sdt-PE, sdt-PF, sdt-PG, sdt-PH, sdt-PI, sdt-PJ, sdt-PK, sdt-PL, sdt-PM, sdt-PN, sdt-PO, sdt-PP
Species: fruit fly
- Hong Y, Stronach B, Perrimon N, Jan L, Jan Y. Drosophila Stardust interacts with Crumbs to control polarity of epithelia but not neuroblasts. Nature. 2001;414:634-8 pubmed..discovered in the landmark genetic screen for Drosophila developmental mutants, bazooka, crumbs, shotgun and stardust mutants exhibit severe disruption in apicobasal polarity in embryonic epithelia, resulting in multilayered ..
- Knust E, Bossinger O. Composition and formation of intercellular junctions in epithelial cells. Science. 2002;298:1955-9 pubmed..Comparisons between fly, worm, and vertebrate epithelia reveal marked similarities with respect to the molecules used, and pronounced differences in the organization of the junctions themselves. ..
- Nam S, Choi K. Domain-specific early and late function of Dpatj in Drosophila photoreceptor cells. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1501-7 pubmed..localizes to the apical cell membrane and forms a protein complex with cell polarity proteins, Crumbs (Crb) and Stardust (Sdt)...
- BACHMANN A, Grawe F, Johnson K, Knust E. Drosophila Lin-7 is a component of the Crumbs complex in epithelia and photoreceptor cells and prevents light-induced retinal degeneration. Eur J Cell Biol. 2008;87:123-36 pubmed publisher..components of the complex are the transmembrane protein Crumbs, the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) Stardust and the scaffolding protein DPATJ...
- Walther R, Pichaud F. Crumbs/DaPKC-dependent apical exclusion of Bazooka promotes photoreceptor polarity remodeling. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1065-74 pubmed publisher..This depends on the intertwined function of Bazooka (Baz), Par6-DaPKC, and the Crumbs (Crb)-Stardust (Sdt)-PATJ complex...
- Horne Badovinac S, Bilder D. Dynein regulates epithelial polarity and the apical localization of stardust A mRNA. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e8 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that Dynein acts through the cytoplasmic scaffolding protein Stardust (Sdt) to localize the transmembrane protein Crumbs, in part through the apical targeting of specific sdt mRNA ..
- Cho K. Wolbachia bacteria, the cause for false vesicular staining pattern in Drosophila melanogaster. Gene Expr Patterns. 2004;5:167-70 pubmed..Thus, combinatorial use of contaminated antisera and Wolbachia-infected flies can result in serious misinterpretations, which can be avoided by curing laboratory strains of Wolbachia. ..
- Wodarz A, Hinz U, Engelbert M, Knust E. Expression of crumbs confers apical character on plasma membrane domains of ectodermal epithelia of Drosophila. Cell. 1995;82:67-76 pubmed..Our results suggest that crumbs plays a key role in specifying the apical plasma membrane domain of ectodermal epithelial cells of Drosophila. ..
- Richardson E, Pichaud F. Crumbs is required to achieve proper organ size control during Drosophila head development. Development. 2010;137:641-50 pubmed publisher..Overall, our work reveals a novel function for Crb in limiting ligand-dependent transactivation of the N receptor at the epithelial cell membrane. ..
- Krahn M, Bückers J, Kastrup L, Wodarz A. Formation of a Bazooka-Stardust complex is essential for plasma membrane polarity in epithelia. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:751-60 pubmed publisher..the Bazooka (Baz)-PAR-6 (partitioning defective 6)-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) complex and the Crumbs (Crb)-Stardust (Sdt) complex...
- Bachmann A, Schneider M, Theilenberg E, Grawe F, Knust E. Drosophila Stardust is a partner of Crumbs in the control of epithelial cell polarity. Nature. 2001;414:638-43 pubmed..Cells lacking crumbs or the functionally related gene stardust fail to organize a continuous ZA and to maintain cell polarity...
- Richard M, Muschalik N, Grawe F, Ozüyaman S, Knust E. A role for the extracellular domain of Crumbs in morphogenesis of Drosophila photoreceptor cells. Eur J Cell Biol. 2009;88:765-77 pubmed publisher..They are in line with previous observations, which showed that mutations in the extracellular domain of human CRB1 are associated with retinitis pigmentosa 12 and Leber congenital amaurosis, two severe forms of retinal dystrophy. ..
- Médina E, Lemmers C, Lane Guermonprez L, Le Bivic A. Role of the Crumbs complex in the regulation of junction formation in Drosophila and mammalian epithelial cells. Biol Cell. 2002;94:305-13 pubmed..protein conserved in mammals and that it interacts by its cytoplasmic domain with two cortical modular proteins, Stardust (Sdt) and Discs lost (Dlt) that are also essential for the correct assembly of the ZA...
- Tepass U. Crumbs, a component of the apical membrane, is required for zonula adherens formation in primary epithelia of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1996;177:217-25 pubmed..A second specific marker for primary epithelia is the Crumbs protein, which in concert with the gene product of stardust is required to maintain epithelial polarity...
- Benton R, St Johnston D. Drosophila PAR-1 and 14-3-3 inhibit Bazooka/PAR-3 to establish complementary cortical domains in polarized cells. Cell. 2003;115:691-704 pubmed..Lateral exclusion by PAR-1/14-3-3 cooperates with apical anchoring by Crumbs/Stardust to restrict Bazooka localization, and loss of both pathways disrupts epithelial polarity...
- Grawe F, Wodarz A, Lee B, Knust E, Skaer H. The Drosophila genes crumbs and stardust are involved in the biogenesis of adherens junctions. Development. 1996;122:951-9 pubmed..Loss-of-function mutations in the Drosophila genes crumbs and stardust lead to the loss of cell polarity in most ectodermally derived epithelia, followed in some, such as the epidermis,..
- Tepass U. Adherens junctions: new insight into assembly, modulation and function. Bioessays. 2002;24:690-5 pubmed..Scaffolding proteins encoded by the stardust gene are novel components of the Crumbs complex, which plays a critical role in ZA assembly...
- Bulgakova N, Kempkens O, Knust E. Multiple domains of Stardust differentially mediate localisation of the Crumbs-Stardust complex during photoreceptor development in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:2018-26 pubmed publisherDrosophila Stardust (Sdt), a member of the MAGUK family of scaffolding proteins, is a constituent of the evolutionarily conserved Crumbs-Stardust (Crb-Sdt) complex that controls epithelial cell polarity in the embryo and morphogenesis of ..
- BACHMANN A, Timmer M, Sierralta J, Pietrini G, Gundelfinger E, Knust E, et al. Cell type-specific recruitment of Drosophila Lin-7 to distinct MAGUK-based protein complexes defines novel roles for Sdt and Dlg-S97. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:1899-909 pubmedb>Stardust (Sdt) and Discs-Large (Dlg) are membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) involved in the organization of supramolecular protein complexes at distinct epithelial membrane compartments in Drosophila...
- Margolis B, Borg J. Apicobasal polarity complexes. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:5157-9 pubmed
- Berger S, Bulgakova N, Grawe F, Johnson K, Knust E. Unraveling the genetic complexity of Drosophila stardust during photoreceptor morphogenesis and prevention of light-induced degeneration. Genetics. 2007;176:2189-200 pubmedDrosophila Stardust, a membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK), recruits the transmembrane protein Crumbs and the cytoplasmic proteins DPATJ and DLin-7 into an apically localized protein scaffold...
- Kempkens O, Médina E, Fernandez Ballester G, Ozüyaman S, Le Bivic A, Serrano L, et al. Computer modelling in combination with in vitro studies reveals similar binding affinities of Drosophila Crumbs for the PDZ domains of Stardust and DmPar-6. Eur J Cell Biol. 2006;85:753-67 pubmed..and mammalian epithelial cells, is composed of the transmembrane protein Crumbs/Crb3 and the scaffolding proteins Stardust/Pals1 and DPATJ/PATJ, respectively, and localises apically to the zonula adherens...
- Wang Q, Hurd T, Margolis B. Tight junction protein Par6 interacts with an evolutionarily conserved region in the amino terminus of PALS1/stardust. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:30715-21 pubmed..Two evolutionarily conserved multiprotein complexes, Crumbs-PALS1 (Stardust)-PATJ and Cdc42-Par6-Par3-atypical protein kinase C, have been implicated in the assembly of tight junctions and ..
- Tepass U, Knust E. Crumbs and stardust act in a genetic pathway that controls the organization of epithelia in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1993;159:311-26 pubmedWe provide evidence that the genes crumbs (crb) and stardust (sdt) encode critical components of a pathway that acts at the apical pole of epithelial cells to control the cytoarchitecture of ectodermally derived epithelia of the ..
- Sotillos S, Diaz Meco M, Caminero E, Moscat J, Campuzano S. DaPKC-dependent phosphorylation of Crumbs is required for epithelial cell polarity in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:549-57 pubmed..In Drosophila, this complex colocalizes with the Crumbs-Stardust (Sdt)-Pals1-associated TJ protein (Patj) complex...
- Muller H, Wieschaus E. armadillo, bazooka, and stardust are critical for early stages in formation of the zonula adherens and maintenance of the polarized blastoderm epithelium in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1996;134:149-63 pubmed..We show that embryos mutant for both stardust (sdt) and bazooka (baz) fail to form a ZA...
- Johnson K, Wodarz A. A genetic hierarchy controlling cell polarity. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:12-4 pubmed
- Hong Y, Ackerman L, Jan L, Jan Y. Distinct roles of Bazooka and Stardust in the specification of Drosophila photoreceptor membrane architecture. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:12712-7 pubmed..Bazooka (Baz), and the regionalization of apical membrane into stalk membranes and rhabdomeres that requires Stardust (Sdt)...
- Wang Y, Riechmann V. The role of the actomyosin cytoskeleton in coordination of tissue growth during Drosophila oogenesis. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1349-55 pubmed..Myosin is activated at the apical cortex by localized Rho kinase and inhibited at the basolateral cortex by PP1beta9C. In addition, our data indicate that active myosin is apically anchored by the Baz/Par-6/aPKC complex. ..
- Fichelson P, Jagut M, Lepanse S, Lepesant J, Huynh J. lethal giant larvae is required with the par genes for the early polarization of the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 2010;137:815-24 pubmed publisher..We conclude that, despite sharing many similarities with other model systems at the genetic and cellular levels, the polarization of the early oocyte relies on a specific subset of polarity proteins. ..
- Pinheiro E, Montell D. Requirement for Par-6 and Bazooka in Drosophila border cell migration. Development. 2004;131:5243-51 pubmed..Taken together, these results indicate that cells need not lose apical/basal polarity in order to invade neighboring tissues and in some cases even require such polarity for proper motility. ..
- Tepass U. Epithelial differentiation in Drosophila. Bioessays. 1997;19:673-82 pubmed..The combination of embryological and genetic/molecular tools in Drosophila will help us to elucidate the complex events that determine epithelial cell structure and how they relate to morphogenesis and other developmental processes. ..
- Mack N, Georgiou M. The interdependence of the Rho GTPases and apicobasal cell polarity. Small Gtpases. 2014;5:10 pubmed publisher..Regarding this latter theme, we provide further discussion of the potential plasticity of the cell polarity machinery and as a result the possible implications for human disease. ..
- Leandro L, Szewczyk N, Benguria A, Herranz R, LaVan D, Medina F, et al. Comparative analysis of Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans gene expression experiments in the European Soyuz flights to the International Space Station. Adv Space Res. 2007;40:506-512 pubmed
- Neumüller R, Wirtz Peitz F, Lee S, Kwon Y, BUCKNER M, Hoskins R, et al. Stringent analysis of gene function and protein-protein interactions using fluorescently tagged genes. Genetics. 2012;190:931-40 pubmed publisher..Finally, we show that fluorescent traps, paired with recombinant nanobodies and mass spectrometry, allow the study of endogenous protein complexes in Drosophila. ..
- Laprise P. Emerging role for epithelial polarity proteins of the Crumbs family as potential tumor suppressors. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011;2011:868217 pubmed publisher..Thereby, these studies provide a molecular basis explaining how regulation of epithelial polarity is coupled to tumorogenesis. ..
- Pichaud F, Desplan C. Cell biology: a new view of photoreceptors. Nature. 2002;416:139-40 pubmed
- Lin Y, Currinn H, Pocha S, Rothnie A, Wassmer T, Knust E. AP-2-complex-mediated endocytosis of Drosophila Crumbs regulates polarity by antagonizing Stardust. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:4538-49 pubmed publisher..2 (AP-2) complex binds to a motif in the cytoplasmic tail of Crumbs that overlaps with the binding site of Stardust, a protein known to stabilize Crumbs on the surface...
- Jan Y, Jan L. Asymmetry across species. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:E42-4 pubmed
- Smith O. Development. Nota bene: a SAC of crumbs and stardust. Science. 2001;294:2498 pubmed
- Rashbass P, Skaer H. Cell polarity: Nailing Crumbs to the scaffold. Curr Biol. 2000;10:R234-6 pubmed..The isolation of a human Crumbs homologue required for normal vision revives questions about the role of Crumbs in cell-cell interactions. ..
- Tepass U, Fessler L, Aziz A, Hartenstein V. Embryonic origin of hemocytes and their relationship to cell death in Drosophila. Development. 1994;120:1829-37 pubmed..In mutations with an increased amount of cell death (knirps; stardust; fork head), this figure approaches 100%...
- Bulgakova N, Rentsch M, Knust E. Antagonistic functions of two stardust isoforms in Drosophila photoreceptor cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:3915-25 pubmed publisher..Here, we show that two isoforms of Drosophila stardust, Sdt-H (formerly called Sdt-B2) and Sdt-D, which differ in their N terminus, are expressed in adult ..
- Fletcher G, Lucas E, Brain R, Tournier A, Thompson B. Positive feedback and mutual antagonism combine to polarize Crumbs in the Drosophila follicle cell epithelium. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1116-22 pubmed publisher..In the Drosophila ovarian follicle cell epithelium, apical membranes are specified by Crumbs (Crb), Stardust (Sdt), and the aPKC-Par6-cdc42 complex...
- Perez Mockus G, Roca V, Mazouni K, Schweisguth F. Neuralized regulates Crumbs endocytosis and epithelium morphogenesis via specific Stardust isoforms. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:1405-1420 pubmed publisher..In this study, we identify the Crb complex protein Stardust (Sdt) as a target of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Neuralized (Neur) in Drosophila melanogaster Neur interacts ..
- Chen G, League G, Nam S. Role of spastin in apical domain control along the rhabdomere elongation in Drosophila photoreceptor. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9480 pubmed publisher..These results strongly suggest that spastin is essential for apical domain biogenesis during rhabdomere elongation in Drosophila photoreceptor morphogenesis. ..
- Carhan A, Allen F, Armstrong J, Hortsch M, Goodwin S, O Dell K. Female receptivity phenotype of icebox mutants caused by a mutation in the L1-type cell adhesion molecule neuroglian. Genes Brain Behav. 2005;4:449-65 pubmed..However, both ceb(1) homozygous and ceb(1)/ibx heterozygous females are receptive. The expression of a transgene containing the non-neural isoform of nrg rescues both the receptivity and the brain structure phenotypes of ibx females. ..
- Lammel U, Saumweber H. X-linked loci of Drosophila melanogaster causing defects in the morphology of the embryonic salivary glands. Dev Genes Evol. 2000;210:525-35 pubmed..From these, 39 lines could be assigned to nine complementation groups: armadillo, brinker, folded gastrulation, giant, hindsight, Notch, runt, stardust and twisted gastrulation.
- Courbard J, Djiane A, Wu J, Mlodzik M. The apical/basal-polarity determinant Scribble cooperates with the PCP core factor Stbm/Vang and functions as one of its effectors. Dev Biol. 2009;333:67-77 pubmed publisher..We define a scribble allele that is largely PCP specific. Our data show that Scribble is part of the Stbm/Vang PCP complex and further suggest that it might act as an effector of Stbm/Vang during PCP establishment. ..
- Xu N, Keung B, Myat M. Rho GTPase controls invagination and cohesive migration of the Drosophila salivary gland through Crumbs and Rho-kinase. Dev Biol. 2008;321:88-100 pubmed publisher..function of Rho1 results in the selective loss of the apical proteins, Crumbs (Crb), Drosophila atypical PKC and Stardust during gland invagination and that this is partially due to reduced crb RNA levels and apical localization...
- Koch L, Feicht S, Sun R, Sen A, Krahn M. Domain-specific functions of Stardust in Drosophila embryonic development. R Soc Open Sci. 2016;3:160776 pubmed publisherIn Drosophila, the adaptor protein Stardust is essential for the stabilization of the polarity determinant Crumbs in various epithelial tissues, including the embryonic epidermis, the follicular epithelium and photoreceptor cells ..
- Humbert P, Dow L, Russell S. The Scribble and Par complexes in polarity and migration: friends or foes?. Trends Cell Biol. 2006;16:622-30 pubmed..Based on the known interactions of Scribble and Par complexes with each other and with other signalling pathways, we propose models by which Par and Scribble might interact to regulate cell migration. ..
- Pocha S, Shevchenko A, Knust E. Crumbs regulates rhodopsin transport by interacting with and stabilizing myosin V. J Cell Biol. 2011;195:827-38 pubmed publisher..Our data provide, for the first time, a molecular mechanism for the light-dependent degeneration of PRCs observed in crb mutant retinas. ..
- Müller H. Epithelial polarity in flies: more than just crumbs. Dev Cell. 2003;4:1-3 pubmed..Recent studies in Drosophila shed new light on the functional interactions of these protein complexes during epithelial differentiation in embryogenesis. ..
- Knust E. Control of epithelial cell polarity in Drosophila. Trends Genet. 1994;10:275-80 pubmed
- Luo J, Wang H, Kang D, Guo X, Wan P, Wang D, et al. Dlg5 maintains apical polarity by promoting membrane localization of Crumbs during Drosophila oogenesis. Sci Rep. 2016;6:26553 pubmed publisher..Lastly, the MAGUK core domains of PDZ4-SH3-GUK could be individually targeted to apical, AJ and basolateral membranes. ..
- Padash Barmchi M, Samarasekera G, GILBERT M, Auld V, Zhang B. Magi Is Associated with the Par Complex and Functions Antagonistically with Bazooka to Regulate the Apical Polarity Complex. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0153259 pubmed publisher..Maintaining the balance between the level of Magi and Baz is an important determinant of the levels and localization of apical polarity complex. ..
- Dunlop J, Morin X, Corominas M, Serras F, Tear G. glaikit is essential for the formation of epithelial polarity and neuronal development. Curr Biol. 2004;14:2039-45 pubmed..A mutation in the human homolog of gkt causes the neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia with neuropathy (SCAN1), making it possible that a failure of membrane protein localization is a cause of this disease. ..
- Ohsawa S, Sugimura K, Takino K, Xu T, Miyawaki A, Igaki T. Elimination of oncogenic neighbors by JNK-mediated engulfment in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2011;20:315-28 pubmed publisher..Our data indicate that JNK-mediated cell engulfment could be an evolutionarily conserved intrinsic tumor-suppression mechanism that eliminates premalignant cells from epithelia. ..
- Grzeschik N, Amin N, Secombe J, Brumby A, Richardson H. Abnormalities in cell proliferation and apico-basal cell polarity are separable in Drosophila lgl mutant clones in the developing eye. Dev Biol. 2007;311:106-23 pubmed
- Kumichel A, Knust E. Apical localisation of crumbs in the boundary cells of the Drosophila hindgut is independent of its canonical interaction partner stardust. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e94038 pubmed publisher..of Drosophila Crumbs depends on the interaction of its C-terminal amino acids with the scaffolding protein Stardust. Consequently, embryos lacking either Crumbs or Stardust develop a very similar phenotype, characterised by the ..
- Mishra M, Rentsch M, Knust E. Crumbs regulates polarity and prevents light-induced degeneration of the simple eyes of Drosophila, the ocelli. Eur J Cell Biol. 2012;91:706-16 pubmed publisher..The data will be discussed with respect to the difference in apico-basal organisation of these two cell types. ..
- Peterson S, Krasnow M. Subcellular trafficking of FGF controls tracheal invasion of Drosophila flight muscle. Cell. 2015;160:313-23 pubmed publisher..We propose that tracheal invasion is controlled by an AP-1-dependent switch in FGF trafficking. Thus, subcellular targeting of a chemoattractant can direct outgrowth to specific domains, including inside theÂ cell. ..
- Röper K, Brown N. Maintaining epithelial integrity: a function for gigantic spectraplakin isoforms in adherens junctions. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:1305-15 pubmed..Thus, we identify a new role for spectraplakins in mediating cell-cell adhesion. ..
- Cho K, Kim G, Lee O. Wolbachia bacteria reside in host Golgi-related vesicles whose position is regulated by polarity proteins. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22703 pubmed publisher..Thus, establishment of polarity may be closely linked to the precise insertion of Golgi vesicles into the new membrane addition site. ..
- Peterson F, Penkert R, Volkman B, Prehoda K. Cdc42 regulates the Par-6 PDZ domain through an allosteric CRIB-PDZ transition. Mol Cell. 2004;13:665-76 pubmed..The coupled CRIB and PDZ architecture of Par-6 reveals how simple binding domains can be combined to yield complex regulation. ..
- Rodriguez Boulan E, Müsch A, Le Bivic A. Epithelial trafficking: new routes to familiar places. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2004;16:436-42 pubmed..A promising area of research is the study of trafficking functions of novel polarity genes identified in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans. ..