Gene Symbol: scw
Description: screw
Alias: BcDNA:LD30945, CG31695, Dmel\CG31695, SCW, Scw, l(2)37Ff, l(2)IG76, mor2, screw, CG31695-PA, CG31695-PB, morphological defects 2, scw-PA, scw-PB
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Dorfman R, Shilo B. Biphasic activation of the BMP pathway patterns the Drosophila embryonic dorsal region. Development. 2001;128:965-72 pubmed
    ..This accumulation of pMad requires the ligand Screw (Scw), the Short gastrulation (Sog) protein, and cleavage of their complex by Tolloid (Tld)...
  2. Newfeld S, Wisotzkey R, Kumar S. Molecular evolution of a developmental pathway: phylogenetic analyses of transforming growth factor-beta family ligands, receptors and Smad signal transducers. Genetics. 1999;152:783-95 pubmed
    ..We discuss these findings with respect to the coevolution of physically interacting genes. ..
  3. O Connor M, Umulis D, Othmer H, Blair S. Shaping BMP morphogen gradients in the Drosophila embryo and pupal wing. Development. 2006;133:183-93 pubmed
    ..Because these signaling pathway components are all conserved, these observations should shed light on how BMP signaling is modulated in vertebrate development. ..
  4. Shimmi O, Ralston A, Blair S, O Connor M. The crossveinless gene encodes a new member of the Twisted gastrulation family of BMP-binding proteins which, with Short gastrulation, promotes BMP signaling in the crossveins of the Drosophila wing. Dev Biol. 2005;282:70-83 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these studies suggest that Sog and Cv promote BMP signaling by transporting a BMP heterodimer from the longitudinal veins into the crossvein regions. ..
  5. Staehling Hampton K, Laughon A, Hoffmann F. A Drosophila protein related to the human zinc finger transcription factor PRDII/MBPI/HIV-EP1 is required for dpp signaling. Development. 1995;121:3393-403 pubmed
    ..We conclude that shn function is critical for cells to respond properly to dpp and propose that shn protein is the first identified downstream component of the signal transduction pathway used by dpp and its receptors. ..
  6. Arora K, Levine M, O Connor M. The screw gene encodes a ubiquitously expressed member of the TGF-beta family required for specification of dorsal cell fates in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 1994;8:2588-601 pubmed
    ..Null mutations in the screw (scw) gene are phenotypically similar to moderate dpp mutants and cause dorsal cells to adopt ventral fates...
  7. Arora K, Dai H, Kazuko S, Jamal J, O Connor M, Letsou A, et al. The Drosophila schnurri gene acts in the Dpp/TGF beta signaling pathway and encodes a transcription factor homologous to the human MBP family. Cell. 1995;81:781-90 pubmed
    ..Genetic interactions and the strikingly similar phenotypes of mutations in shn and the dpp receptors encoded by thick veins and punt suggest that shn plays a downstream role in dpp signaling. ..
  8. Shimmi O, Umulis D, Othmer H, O Connor M. Facilitated transport of a Dpp/Scw heterodimer by Sog/Tsg leads to robust patterning of the Drosophila blastoderm embryo. Cell. 2005;120:873-86 pubmed
    Patterning the dorsal surface of the Drosophila blastoderm embryo requires Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Screw (Scw), two BMP family members...
  9. Fritsch C, Lanfear R, Ray R. Rapid evolution of a novel signalling mechanism by concerted duplication and divergence of a BMP ligand and its extracellular modulators. Dev Genes Evol. 2010;220:235-50 pubmed publisher
    ..and Glass bottom boat (Gbb), which are the orthologues of vertebrate BMP2/4 and BMP5/6/7/8, respectively, and Screw (Scw), which, at the sequence level, is equally divergent from Dpp and Gbb...

More Information


  1. Gurdon J, Bourillot P. Morphogen gradient interpretation. Nature. 2001;413:797-803 pubmed
  2. Stronach B, Perrimon N. Investigation of leading edge formation at the interface of amnioserosa and dorsal ectoderm in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2001;128:2905-13 pubmed
    ..of genes such as u-shaped and hindsight, which are direct transcriptional targets of the early Decapentaplegic/Screw patterning gradient, to establish a competency zone from which LE arises...
  3. Harland R. Developmental biology. A twist on embryonic signalling. Nature. 2001;410:423-4 pubmed
  4. Shimmi O, Matsuda S, Hatakeyama M. Insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying diversified wing venation among insects. Proc Biol Sci. 2014;281:20140264 pubmed publisher
    ..Extension of these observations in some winged insects will provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying diversified wing venation among insects. ..
  5. Twombly V, Bangi E, Le V, Malnic B, Singer M, Wharton K. Functional analysis of saxophone, the Drosophila gene encoding the BMP type I receptor ortholog of human ALK1/ACVRL1 and ACVR1/ALK2. Genetics. 2009;183:563-79, 1SI-8SI pubmed publisher
  6. Dale L. Pattern formation: a new twist to BMP signalling. Curr Biol. 2000;10:R671-3 pubmed
    ..Twisted Gastrulation has now been added to the list of proteins that regulate the activity of these molecules, providing new insights into how BMPs are made available to their signalling receptors. ..
  7. PELUSO C, Umulis D, Kim Y, O Connor M, Serpe M. Shaping BMP morphogen gradients through enzyme-substrate interactions. Dev Cell. 2011;21:375-83 pubmed publisher
  8. Künnapuu J, Tauscher P, Tiusanen N, Nguyen M, Löytynoja A, Arora K, et al. Cleavage of the Drosophila screw prodomain is critical for a dynamic BMP morphogen gradient in embryogenesis. Dev Biol. 2014;389:149-59 pubmed publisher
    ..of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) composed of two ligands, decapentaplegic (Dpp) a BMP2/4 ortholog and screw (Scw) a BMP5/6/7/8 family member...
  9. Brugger S, Merrill A, Torres Vazquez J, Wu N, Ting M, Cho J, et al. A phylogenetically conserved cis-regulatory module in the Msx2 promoter is sufficient for BMP-dependent transcription in murine and Drosophila embryos. Development. 2004;131:5153-65 pubmed
  10. Wright A, Fox A, Johnson K, Zinn K. Systematic screening of Drosophila deficiency mutations for embryonic phenotypes and orphan receptor ligands. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12288 pubmed publisher
    ..In the future, these deficiency kits will allow Drosophila researchers to rapidly and efficiently execute genome-wide anatomical screens that require examination of individual embryos at high magnification. ..
  11. Beckwith E, Gorostiza E, Berni J, Rezaval C, Pérez Santángelo A, Nadra A, et al. Circadian period integrates network information through activation of the BMP signaling pathway. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001733 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that coherence in the circadian network arises from integration in PDF neurons of both the pace of the cell-autonomous molecular clock and information derived from circadian-relevant neurons through release of BMP ligands. ..
  12. Raftery L, Sutherland D. Gradients and thresholds: BMP response gradients unveiled in Drosophila embryos. Trends Genet. 2003;19:701-8 pubmed
    ..The transition between two gradients of different shape yields new insights into the progression of Drosophila dorsal-ventral patterning and raises new issues about the mechanisms of gradient formation. ..
  13. Srinivasan S, Rashka K, Bier E. Creation of a Sog morphogen gradient in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Cell. 2002;2:91-101 pubmed
    ..In addition, we find that Dynamin-dependent retrieval of Sog acts in parallel with degradation by Tld as a dorsal sink for active Sog. ..
  14. Bartoszewski S, Luschnig S, Desjeux I, Grosshans J, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C. Drosophila p24 homologues eclair and baiser are necessary for the activity of the maternally expressed Tkv receptor during early embryogenesis. Mech Dev. 2004;121:1259-73 pubmed
    ..The dependence of maternal Tkv protein on the products of p24 genes may serve as an in vivo model for studying p24 proteins. ..
  15. Decotto E, Ferguson E. A positive role for Short gastrulation in modulating BMP signaling during dorsoventral patterning in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2001;128:3831-41 pubmed
    ..a BMP activity gradient formed by synergistic signaling between the BMP family members Decapentaplegic (DPP) and Screw (SCW)...
  16. Bickel D, Shah R, Gesualdi S, Haerry T. Drosophila Follistatin exhibits unique structural modifications and interacts with several TGF-beta family members. Mech Dev. 2008;125:117-29 pubmed
    ..We find that mutants of daw are rescued in significant numbers by expression of vertebrate FS proteins. Since two PiggyBac insertions in dfs are not lethal, it appears that the function of dFS is non-essential or functionally redundant. ..
  17. Ferguson E, Anderson K. Localized enhancement and repression of the activity of the TGF-beta family member, decapentaplegic, is necessary for dorsal-ventral pattern formation in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1992;114:583-97 pubmed
    ..We propose that the tolloid, shrew and sog genes are required to generate a gradient of dpp activity, which directly specifies the pattern of the dorsal 40% of the embryo. ..
  18. Nicholls R, Gelbart W. Identification of chromosomal regions involved in decapentaplegic function in Drosophila. Genetics. 1998;149:203-15 pubmed
    ..As neither of these regions has been previously implicated in dpp function, we propose that each of the deficiencies removes a novel factor or factors required for dpp function. ..
  19. Sawala A, Sutcliffe C, Ashe H. Multistep molecular mechanism for bone morphogenetic protein extracellular transport in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:11222-7 pubmed publisher
    ..protein (BMP) morphogen gradient requires transport of a heterodimer of the BMPs Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Screw (Scw) in a protein shuttling complex...
  20. Derynck R, Feng X. TGF-beta receptor signaling. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1333:F105-50 pubmed
  21. Mason E, Williams S, Grotendorst G, Marsh J. Combinatorial signaling by Twisted Gastrulation and Decapentaplegic. Mech Dev. 1997;64:61-75 pubmed
    ..The interaction between TSG and DPP defines a novel type of combinatorial synergism. ..
  22. Ashe H. BMP signalling: visualisation of the Sog protein gradient. Curr Biol. 2002;12:R273-5 pubmed
    ..Direct visualisation in the Drosophila embryo of Sog, a Dpp/Scw inhibitor, has now revealed a graded distribution established by degradation and endocytosis.
  23. Krueger N, Van Vactor D, Wan H, Gelbart W, Goodman C, Saito H. The transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase DLAR controls motor axon guidance in Drosophila. Cell. 1996;84:611-22 pubmed
    ..SNd motor axons also make pathfinding errors, while SNa and SNc axons appear normal. Thus, DLAR controls the ability of certain motor axons to navigate specific choices points in the developing Drosophila nervous system. ..
  24. Frydman H, Spradling A. The receptor-like tyrosine phosphatase lar is required for epithelial planar polarity and for axis determination within drosophila ovarian follicles. Development. 2001;128:3209-20 pubmed
    ..Our studies suggest that positional information can be stored transiently in the ECM. A major function of Lar may be to transduce such signals. ..
  25. Merabet S, Catala F, Pradel J, Graba Y. A green fluorescent protein reporter genetic screen that identifies modifiers of Hox gene function in the Drosophila embryo. Genetics. 2002;162:189-202 pubmed
    ..Five of them encode products acting in or in connection with signal transduction pathways, which suggests an extensive use of signaling in the control of Hox gene function. ..
  26. Hughes A. Phylogenies of developmentally important proteins do not support the hypothesis of two rounds of genome duplication early in vertebrate history. J Mol Evol. 1999;48:565-76 pubmed
    ..Taken together with other recently published phylogenies of developmentally important genes, these results provide strong evidence against the 2R hypothesis...
  27. Jones B, McGinnis W. A new Drosophila homeobox gene, bsh, is expressed in a subset of brain cells during embryogenesis. Development. 1993;117:793-806 pubmed
  28. Ashe H. BMP signalling: synergy and feedback create a step gradient. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R375-7 pubmed
    ..More than a decade ago, genetic evidence predicted the existence of a Dpp gradient in the early Drosophila embryo. Two recent studies finally reveal Dpp distribution, providing further insights into the mechanism of BMP gradient formation. ..
  29. Lilja T, Qi D, Stabell M, Mannervik M. The CBP coactivator functions both upstream and downstream of Dpp/Screw signaling in the early Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 2003;262:294-302 pubmed the amount of Drosophila CBP (dCBP) leads to a specific loss of signaling by the TGF-beta molecules Dpp and Screw in the early embryo...
  30. Hamaguchi T, Yabe S, Uchiyama H, Murakami R. Drosophila Tbx6-related gene, Dorsocross, mediates high levels of Dpp and Scw signal required for the development of amnioserosa and wing disc primordium. Dev Biol. 2004;265:355-68 pubmed
    ..the Drosophila embryo primarily depends on a graded BMP signaling activity generated by Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Screw (Scw)...
  31. Affolter M, Marty T, Vigano M, Jazwinska A. Nuclear interpretation of Dpp signaling in Drosophila. EMBO J. 2001;20:3298-305 pubmed
    ..It remains to be seen whether similar molecular mechanisms operate in the nucleus in vertebrate systems. ..
  32. Nguyen M, Park S, Marques G, Arora K. Interpretation of a BMP activity gradient in Drosophila embryos depends on synergistic signaling by two type I receptors, SAX and TKV. Cell. 1998;95:495-506 pubmed
    ..We present evidence that a second BMP ligand, SCW, potentiates DPP activity...
  33. Chang T, Mazotta J, Dumstrei K, Dumitrescu A, Hartenstein V. Dpp and Hh signaling in the Drosophila embryonic eye field. Development. 2001;128:4691-704 pubmed
    ..We discuss the similarities between vertebrate systems and Drosophila with regard to the fate map of the anterior brain/eye anlage, and its partitioning by Dpp and Hh signaling. ..
  34. Padgett R, Savage C, Das P. Genetic and biochemical analysis of TGF beta signal transduction. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 1997;8:1-9 pubmed
    ..This rapid progress has been the result of a synergy between classical genetic approaches and biochemical approaches, and this combined approach is likely to propel future understanding of the signaling pathway used by TGF beta. ..
  35. Hariharan I, Hu K, Asha H, Quintanilla A, Ezzell R, Settleman J. Characterization of rho GTPase family homologues in Drosophila melanogaster: overexpressing Rho1 in retinal cells causes a late developmental defect. EMBO J. 1995;14:292-302 pubmed
    ..This phenotype is modified by mutations at several other loci that have been implicated in signal transduction, but not by mutations in ras pathway components. ..
  36. Thisse C, Thisse B. Dorsoventral development of the Drosophila embryo is controlled by a cascade of transcriptional regulators. Dev Suppl. 1992;:173-81 pubmed
    ..In addition, in cultured cells twist has been shown to be a transcriptional activator. Thus, the first events of embryonic development along the D/V axis are controlled at the transcriptional level. ..
  37. Neul J, Ferguson E. Spatially restricted activation of the SAX receptor by SCW modulates DPP/TKV signaling in Drosophila dorsal-ventral patterning. Cell. 1998;95:483-94 pubmed
    Dorsal-ventral patterning within the embryonic ectoderm of Drosophila requires two TGFbeta ligands, DPP and SCW, and two type I TGFbeta receptors, TKV and SAX...
  38. Wang X, Harris R, Bayston L, Ashe H. Type IV collagens regulate BMP signalling in Drosophila. Nature. 2008;455:72-7 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of our findings that human type IV collagen binds BMP4, we predict that this role of type IV collagens will be conserved. ..
  39. Rusch J, Levine M. Threshold responses to the dorsal regulatory gradient and the subdivision of primary tissue territories in the Drosophila embryo. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1996;6:416-23 pubmed
  40. Bier E, De Robertis E. EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT. BMP gradients: A paradigm for morphogen-mediated developmental patterning. Science. 2015;348:aaa5838 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Review, we summarize the variety of mechanisms that contribute to generating reliable developmental responses to BMP gradients and other morphogen systems. ..
  41. Serpe M, Ralston A, Blair S, O Connor M. Matching catalytic activity to developmental function: tolloid-related processes Sog in order to help specify the posterior crossvein in the Drosophila wing. Development. 2005;132:2645-56 pubmed
    ..The major function of Tld is to augment the activity of Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Screw (Scw), two members of the Bmp subgroup of the Tgf beta superfamily, by cleaving the Bmp inhibitor Short ..
  42. Umulis D, Serpe M, O Connor M, Othmer H. Robust, bistable patterning of the dorsal surface of the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:11613-8 pubmed
    ..In the model, cells interpret the morphogen distribution by differentiating according to the history of their exposure rather than to a threshold concentration in a static spatial gradient of the morphogen. ..
  43. Padgett R, Das P, Krishna S. TGF-beta signaling, Smads, and tumor suppressors. Bioessays. 1998;20:382-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, genetic and biochemical studies suggest a very simple signaling pathway, in which Smads are the primary downstream participant. ..
  44. Pentek J, Parker L, Wu A, Arora K. Follistatin preferentially antagonizes activin rather than BMP signaling in Drosophila. Genesis. 2009;47:261-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In assays targeting endogenous BMP signaling, we find no evidence that fs can antagonize BMP activity. We conclude that fs functions primarily as an inhibitor of activin rather than BMP ligands. ..
  45. Ray R, Wharton K. Twisted perspective: new insights into extracellular modulation of BMP signaling during development. Cell. 2001;104:801-4 pubmed
  46. Podos S, Ferguson E. Morphogen gradients: new insights from DPP. Trends Genet. 1999;15:396-402 pubmed
    ..These reports identity additional genes and genetic circuitry necessary for this patterning system, and they highlight variations that might reflect developmental constraints within individual target cell fields. ..
  47. Biehs B, Francois V, Bier E. The Drosophila short gastrulation gene prevents Dpp from autoactivating and suppressing neurogenesis in the neuroectoderm. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2922-34 pubmed
  48. Wharton K. How many receptors does it take?. Bioessays. 1995;17:13-6 pubmed
    ..tkv and sax encode type I receptors, which appear to directly bind ligand, unlike what has been observed for other type I receptors. ..
  49. Kawabata M, Imamura T, Miyazono K. Signal transduction by bone morphogenetic proteins. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 1998;9:49-61 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila melanogaster, Decapentaplegic (Dpp) is a homologue of mammalian BMPs. In this review, mechanism of action of Dpp will be discussed in comparison with that of BMPs. ..
  50. Eldar A, Dorfman R, Weiss D, Ashe H, Shilo B, Barkai N. Robustness of the BMP morphogen gradient in Drosophila embryonic patterning. Nature. 2002;419:304-8 pubmed
    ..Computational search for networks that support robustness shows that transport of the BMP class ligands (Scw and Dpp) into the dorsal midline by the BMP inhibitor Sog is the key event in this patterning process...
  51. Cornell R, Ohlen T. Vnd/nkx, ind/gsh, and msh/msx: conserved regulators of dorsoventral neural patterning?. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2000;10:63-71 pubmed
    ..The three-column expression pattern may thus represent a developmental mechanism that is more resistant to evolutionary changes than genetic events upstream or downstream of it. ..
  52. Capdevila J, lzpisúa Belmonte J. Extracellular modulation of the Hedgehog, Wnt and TGF-beta signalling pathways during embryonic development. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:427-33 pubmed
  53. Francois V, Solloway M, O Neill J, Emery J, Bier E. Dorsal-ventral patterning of the Drosophila embryo depends on a putative negative growth factor encoded by the short gastrulation gene. Genes Dev. 1994;8:2602-16 pubmed
    ..These putative soluble Sog peptides may then diffuse into the dorsal region to antagonize the activity of Dpp, leading to the subdivision of the dorsal territory into amnioserosa and dorsal ectoderm. ..
  54. Umulis D, Shimmi O, O Connor M, Othmer H. Organism-scale modeling of early Drosophila patterning via bone morphogenetic proteins. Dev Cell. 2010;18:260-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that using bioimages to build and optimize a three-dimensional model provides significant insights into mechanisms that guide tissue patterning. ..
  55. Su M, Wisotzkey R, Newfeld S. A screen for modifiers of decapentaplegic mutant phenotypes identifies lilliputian, the only member of the Fragile-X/Burkitt's Lymphoma family of transcription factors in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2001;157:717-25 pubmed
    ..dpp phenotype are also dominant maternal enhancers of recessive embryonic lethal alleles of dpp and screw. lilli zygotic mutant embryos exhibit a partially ventralized phenotype similar to dpp embryonic lethal mutations...
  56. Raftery L, Twombly V, Wharton K, Gelbart W. Genetic screens to identify elements of the decapentaplegic signaling pathway in Drosophila. Genetics. 1995;139:241-54 pubmed
    ..for genetic interactions in the zygote have identified an allele of tolloid, as well as two novel alleles of screw, a gene recently shown to encode another bone morphogenetic protein-like polypeptide...
  57. Fritsch C, Sawala A, Harris R, Maartens A, Sutcliffe C, Ashe H, et al. Different requirements for proteolytic processing of bone morphogenetic protein 5/6/7/8 ligands in Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:5942-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we study processing of BMP5/6/7/8 proteins, including the Drosophila orthologs Glass Bottom Boat (Gbb) and Screw (Scw) and human BMP7...
  58. Ashe H, Mannervik M, Levine M. Dpp signaling thresholds in the dorsal ectoderm of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2000;127:3305-12 pubmed
    ..different cell types by an activity gradient of two TGF(&bgr;) signaling molecules, Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Screw (Scw)...
  59. Rusch J, Levine M. Regulation of a dpp target gene in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1997;124:303-11 pubmed
    In Drosophila, two TGF-beta growth factors, dpp and screw, function synergistically to subdivide the dorsal ectoderm into two embryonic tissues, the amnioserosa and dorsal epidermis...
  60. Raftery L, Sutherland D. TGF-beta family signal transduction in Drosophila development: from Mad to Smads. Dev Biol. 1999;210:251-68 pubmed
    ..include three proteins with homology to vertebrate bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs): Decapentaplegic (Dpp), Screw, and Glass bottom boat-60A...
  61. Wotton K, Alcaine Colet A, Jaeger J, Jimenez Guri E. Evolution and expression of BMP genes in flies. Dev Genes Evol. 2013;223:335-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila melanogaster, there are three BMP-encoding genes: decapentaplegic (dpp), glass bottom boat (gbb) and screw (scw). dpp and gbb are found in all groups of insects...
  62. Ray R, Arora K, Nusslein Volhard C, Gelbart W. The control of cell fate along the dorsal-ventral axis of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1991;113:35-54 pubmed
    ..Two of the genes, dpp and twi, are unaffected by mutations in any of the tested zygotic dorsal-ventral genes, suggesting that dpp and twi are the primary patterning genes for dorsal ectoderm and mesoderm, respectively...
  63. Wang Y, Ferguson E. Spatial bistability of Dpp-receptor interactions during Drosophila dorsal-ventral patterning. Nature. 2005;434:229-34 pubmed
    ..patterning in Drosophila, two members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family, Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Screw (Scw), are broadly transcribed but promote receptor-mediated signalling in a restricted subset of expressing cells...
  64. Nakayama T, Cui Y, Christian J. Regulation of BMP/Dpp signaling during embryonic development. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2000;57:943-56 pubmed
    ..Recent studies have shown that the BMP signal transduction cascade can be modulated at every step of this process. ..
  65. Rushlow C, Levine M. Role of the zerknüllt gene in dorsal-ventral pattern formation in Drosophila. Adv Genet. 1990;27:277-307 pubmed
  66. Groppe J, Rumpel K, Economides A, Stahl N, Sebald W, Affolter M. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of refolded Drosophila DPP, a homolog of bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:29052-65 pubmed
  67. De Robertis E, Sasai Y. A common plan for dorsoventral patterning in Bilateria. Nature. 1996;380:37-40 pubmed
    ..Developmental studies are now revealing some of the characteristics of the ancestral animal that gave rise to the arthropod and mammalian lineages, for which we propose the name Urbilateria. ..
  68. Weyers J, Milutinovich A, Takeda Y, Jemc J, Van Doren M. A genetic screen for mutations affecting gonad formation in Drosophila reveals a role for the slit/robo pathway. Dev Biol. 2011;353:217-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings shed light on the complexities of gonadogenesis and the genetic regulation required for proper organ formation. ..
  69. Tauscher P, Gui J, Shimmi O. Adaptive protein divergence of BMP ligands takes place under developmental and evolutionary constraints. Development. 2016;143:3742-3750 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, BMP5/6/7/8-type ligands, Screw (Scw) and Glass bottom boat (Gbb), form heterodimers with Dpp for DV patterning and PCV development, respectively...
  70. Terracol R, Lengyel J. The thick veins gene of Drosophila is required for dorsoventral polarity of the embryo. Genetics. 1994;138:165-78 pubmed
    ..genes: tkv interacts maternally and zygotically in double heterozygotes with decapentaplegic and zygotically with screw in double homozygotes...
  71. Deshpande G, Willis E, Chatterjee S, Fernandez R, Dias K, Schedl P. BMP signaling and the maintenance of primordial germ cell identity in Drosophila embryos. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e88847 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that one mechanism used to calibrate the effects of BMP signals is dependent on the Ubc9 homolog Lesswright (Lwr). ..
  72. Arora K, Nusslein Volhard C. Altered mitotic domains reveal fate map changes in Drosophila embryos mutant for zygotic dorsoventral patterning genes. Development. 1992;114:1003-24 pubmed
    ..shrew affect cell division only in the dorsalmost cells corresponding to the amnioserosa, while the genes tolloid, screw and decapentaplegic (dpp) affect divisions in both the prospective amnioserosa and the dorsal epidermis...