Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Sce
Description: Sex combs extra
Alias: CG5595, DRING, Ding, Dmel\CG5595, Dring, RING, RING/Sce, RING1, Ring, Ring/Sce, Rnf2, SCE, Sce/dRing, dRING, dRING1, dRing, dRing1, dring, sce, Sex combs extra, CG5595-PA, Sce-PA, Sex comb extra, dRING1, ring
Species: fruit fly
- Gambetta M, Oktaba K, Muller J. Essential role of the glycosyltransferase sxc/Ogt in polycomb repression. Science. 2009;325:93-6 pubmed publisher..Polycomb repression appears to be a critical function of Sxc/Ogt in Drosophila and may be mediated by the glycosylation of Polyhomeotic. ..
- Francis N, Saurin A, Shao Z, Kingston R. Reconstitution of a functional core polycomb repressive complex. Mol Cell. 2001;8:545-56 pubmed..One subunit, PSC, can also inhibit chromatin remodeling on its own. These PcG proteins create a chromatin structure that has normal nucleosome organization and is accessible to nucleases but excludes hSWI/SNF. ..
- Mohd Sarip A, van der Knaap J, Wyman C, Kanaar R, Schedl P, Verrijzer C. Architecture of a polycomb nucleoprotein complex. Mol Cell. 2006;24:91-100 pubmed..Indeed, chromatin immunoprecipitations (ChIPs) and nuclease mapping demonstrated that PREs are nucleosome depleted in vivo. We discuss the implications of these findings for models explaining PRE function. ..
- Randsholt N, Maschat F, Santamaria P. polyhomeotic controls engrailed expression and the hedgehog signaling pathway in imaginal discs. Mech Dev. 2000;95:89-99 pubmed..We suggest that PcG targets are not exclusively regulated by an on/off mechanism, but that the PcG also exerts negative transcriptional control on active genes. ..
- Papp B, Muller J. Histone trimethylation and the maintenance of transcriptional ON and OFF states by trxG and PcG proteins. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2041-54 pubmed
- Mohd Sarip A, Lagarou A, Doyen C, van der Knaap J, Aslan U, Bezstarosti K, et al. Transcription-independent function of Polycomb group protein PSC in cell cycle control. Science. 2012;336:744-7 pubmed publisher..Thus, PSC appears to mediate both developmental gene silencing and posttranslational control of mitosis. Direct regulation of cell cycle progression might be a crucial part of the PcG system's function in development and cancer. ..
- Oktaba K, Gutierrez L, Gagneur J, Girardot C, Sengupta A, Furlong E, et al. Dynamic regulation by polycomb group protein complexes controls pattern formation and the cell cycle in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2008;15:877-89 pubmed publisher..Analysis of cell cycle regulators indicates that the PcG system also dynamically modulates the expression levels of certain genes, providing a possible explanation for the tumor phenotype of PcG mutants. ..
- Fritsch C, Beuchle D, Muller J. Molecular and genetic analysis of the Polycomb group gene Sex combs extra/Ring in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 2003;120:949-54 pubmed..Formation of stable PRC1 requires Ring, the product of a gene for which no mutations have been described. Here, we show that Sex combs extra (Sce) encodes Ring and that Sce/Ring function is critically required for PcG silencing.
- Wang H, Wang L, Erdjument Bromage H, Vidal M, Tempst P, Jones R, et al. Role of histone H2A ubiquitination in Polycomb silencing. Nature. 2004;431:873-8 pubmed..Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated colocalization of dRing with ubiquitinated H2A at the PRE and promoter regions of the Drosophila Ubx gene in wing imaginal discs...
- Strübbe G, Popp C, Schmidt A, Pauli A, Ringrose L, Beisel C, et al. Polycomb purification by in vivo biotinylation tagging reveals cohesin and Trithorax group proteins as interaction partners. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5572-7 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, our analysis revealed an association of PcG protein complexes with the cohesin complex and showed that Polycomb-dependent silencing of a transgenic reporter depends on cohesin function. ..
- Simon J, Chiang A, Bender W. Ten different Polycomb group genes are required for spatial control of the abdA and AbdB homeotic products. Development. 1992;114:493-505 pubmed..sex combs (esc), Enhancer of zeste [E(z)], polyhomeotic (ph), Sex comb on midleg (Scm), Polycomb-like (Pcl), Sex comb extra (Sce), Additional sex combs (Asx), Posterior sex combs (Psc) and pleiohomeotic (pho) were examined...
- Tolhuis B, de Wit E, Muijrers I, Teunissen H, Talhout W, van Steensel B, et al. Genome-wide profiling of PRC1 and PRC2 Polycomb chromatin binding in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Genet. 2006;38:694-9 pubmed..We used a genome-wide approach to map binding patterns of PcG proteins (Pc, esc and Sce) in Drosophila melanogaster Kc cells...
- Scheuermann J, de Ayala Alonso A, Oktaba K, Ly Hartig N, McGinty R, Fraterman S, et al. Histone H2A deubiquitinase activity of the Polycomb repressive complex PR-DUB. Nature. 2010;465:243-7 pubmed publisher..Among those, Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and the related dRing-associated factors (dRAF) complex contain an E3 ligase activity for monoubiquitination of histone H2A (refs 1-4)...
- Wang R, Taylor A, Leal B, Chadwell L, Ilangovan U, Robinson A, et al. Polycomb group targeting through different binding partners of RING1B C-terminal domain. Structure. 2010;18:966-75 pubmed publisher..Further, a mutation engineered to disrupt binding on the Drosophila dRING1 protein prevents chromatin association and PcG function in vivo...
- Lagarou A, Mohd Sarip A, Moshkin Y, Chalkley G, Bezstarosti K, Demmers J, et al. dKDM2 couples histone H2A ubiquitylation to histone H3 demethylation during Polycomb group silencing. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2799-810 pubmed publisher..This pathway was uncovered through the identification of dRING-associated factors (dRAF), a novel Polycomb group (PcG) silencing complex harboring the histone H2A ubiquitin ..
- Beuchle D, Struhl G, Muller J. Polycomb group proteins and heritable silencing of Drosophila Hox genes. Development. 2001;128:993-1004 pubmed..Some PcG proteins may be required to define and propagate this mark; others may function to repress the transcription of Hox genes that bear the mark. ..
- Gaytán de Ayala Alonso A, Gutierrez L, Fritsch C, Papp B, Beuchle D, Muller J. A genetic screen identifies novel polycomb group genes in Drosophila. Genetics. 2007;176:2099-108 pubmed..The results of the mutant screen reported here suggest that the majority of nonredundant Drosophila genes with strong classic PcG phenotypes have been identified. ..
- Francis N, Follmer N, Simon M, Aghia G, Butler J. Polycomb proteins remain bound to chromatin and DNA during DNA replication in vitro. Cell. 2009;137:110-22 pubmed publisher..Retention of Polycomb proteins through DNA replication may contribute to maintenance of transcriptional silencing through cell division. ..
- Maeda R, Karch F. The ABC of the BX-C: the bithorax complex explained. Development. 2006;133:1413-22 pubmed..This primer attempts to distill and explain our current knowledge about this classic, complex locus. ..
- Kharchenko P, Alekseyenko A, Schwartz Y, Minoda A, Riddle N, Ernst J, et al. Comprehensive analysis of the chromatin landscape in Drosophila melanogaster. Nature. 2011;471:480-5 pubmed publisher..This systematic profiling and integrative analysis of chromatin signatures provides insights into how genomic elements are regulated, and will serve as a resource for future experimental investigations of genome structure and function. ..
- Lo S, Ahuja N, Francis N. Polycomb group protein Suppressor 2 of zeste is a functional homolog of Posterior Sex Combs. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:515-25 pubmed publisher..Our results establish Suppressor 2 of zeste as a functional homolog of Posterior Sex Combs and suggest that the two proteins operate via similar molecular mechanisms. ..
- Balicky E, Young L, Orr Weaver T, Bickel S. A proposed role for the Polycomb group protein dRING in meiotic sister-chromatid cohesion. Chromosoma. 2004;112:231-9 pubmed..To identify proteins that interact with ORD, we conducted a yeast two-hybrid screen using an ORD bait and isolated dRING, a core subunit of the Drosophila Polycomb repressive complex 1...
- Bejarano F, González I, Vidal M, Busturia A. The Drosophila RYBP gene functions as a Polycomb-dependent transcriptional repressor. Mech Dev. 2005;122:1118-29 pubmed..A putative participant in the regulation of this process is the murine RYBP (Ring and YY1 Binding Protein) gene...
- Breen T, Duncan I. Maternal expression of genes that regulate the bithorax complex of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1986;118:442-56 pubmed..The genes studied include Additional sex combs (Asx), Polycomblike (Pcl), Sex comb extra (Sce), Sex comb on midleg (Scm), and lethal(4)29 [l(4)29]...
- Simoes Da Silva C, Fereres S, Simón R, Busturia A. Drosophila SCE/dRING E3-ligase inhibits apoptosis in a Dp53 dependent manner. Dev Biol. 2017;429:81-91 pubmed publisher..In this work we describe the effects of modulating levels of SCE/dRING, a conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase and member of the PcG known to mono-ubiquitylate histone H2A...
- Demakov S, Vatolina T, Babenko V, Semeshin V, Belyaeva E, Zhimulev I. Protein composition of interband regions in polytene and cell line chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:566 pubmed publisher..Our observations suggest strikingly similar organization of interband chromatin in polytene chromosomes and in chromosomes from cell lines thereby reflecting the existence of a universal principle of interphase chromosome organization. ..
- Campbell R, Sinclair D, Couling M, Brock H. Genetic interactions and dosage effects of Polycomb group genes of Drosophila. Mol Gen Genet. 1995;246:291-300 pubmed..Additional sex combs (Asx), Pc, Polycomblike (Pcl), Posterior sex combs (Psc), Sex combs on midleg (Scm), and Sex combs extra (Sce) have similar functions in some imaginal tissues...
- Atchison L, Ghias A, Wilkinson F, Bonini N, Atchison M. Transcription factor YY1 functions as a PcG protein in vivo. EMBO J. 2003;22:1347-58 pubmed..Finally, we found that YY1, as well as Polycomb, required the co-repressor protein CtBP for repression in vivo. These results provide a mechanism for recruitment of vertebrate PcG complexes to DNA and demonstrate new functions for YY1. ..
- Wani A, Boettiger A, Schorderet P, Ergun A, MÃ¼nger C, Sadreyev R, et al. Chromatin topology is coupled to Polycomb group protein subnuclear organization. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10291 pubmed publisher..Both perturbations also alter gene expression. Organization of PcG proteins into small, abundant clusters on chromatin through Ph SAM polymerization activity may shape genome architecture through chromatin interactions. ..
- Lee H, Kahn T, Simcox A, Schwartz Y, Pirrotta V. Genome-wide activities of Polycomb complexes control pervasive transcription. Genome Res. 2015;25:1170-81 pubmed publisher..of histone H2A ubiquitylated at lysine 118 (H2AK118ub) outside of canonical PcG target regions, dependent on the RING/Sce subunit of PRC1-type complexes...
- Mallin D, Myung J, Patton J, Geyer P. Polycomb group repression is blocked by the Drosophila suppressor of Hairy-wing [su(Hw)] insulator. Genetics. 1998;148:331-9 pubmed..These studies suggest that one role of the su(Hw) protein may be to restrict the range of action of repressors, such as the Polycomb group proteins, throughout the euchromatic regions of the genome...
- Pindyurin A, Moorman C, de Wit E, Belyakin S, Belyaeva E, Christophides G, et al. SUUR joins separate subsets of PcG, HP1 and B-type lamin targets in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:2344-51 pubmed..Finally, SUUR target genes are repressed in Drosophila embryos and gradually activated later in development. Together these results suggest that SUUR is a ubiquitous marker of heterochromatin in different cell types. ..
- Peterson A, Mallin D, Francis N, Ketel C, Stamm J, Voeller R, et al. Requirement for sex comb on midleg protein interactions in Drosophila polycomb group repression. Genetics. 2004;167:1225-39 pubmed..These results suggest that SCM, although not a core component of PRC1, interacts and functions with PRC1 in gene silencing. ..
- Mills A. Throwing the cancer switch: reciprocal roles of polycomb and trithorax proteins. Nat Rev Cancer. 2010;10:669-82 pubmed publisher..Recent work highlights the dynamic interplay between these opposing classes of proteins, providing new avenues for understanding how these epigenetic regulators function in tumorigenesis. ..
- Mollaaghababa R, Sipos L, Tiong S, Papoulas O, Armstrong J, Tamkun J, et al. Mutations in Drosophila heat shock cognate 4 are enhancers of Polycomb. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:3958-63 pubmed..HSC4 might be needed for the proper folding of a component of the Polycomb repression complex, or it may be a functional member of that complex...
- Lopez A, Higuet D, Rosset R, Deutsch J, Peronnet F. corto genetically interacts with Pc-G and trx-G genes and maintains the anterior boundary of Ultrabithorax expression in Drosophila larvae. Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;266:572-83 pubmed..Our results provide evidence that corto maintains the anterior border of Ubx expression in third-instar larvae. We suggest that this regulation is accomplished through an interaction with the products of the Pc-G and trx-G genes. ..
- Frey F, Sheahan T, Finkl K, Stoehr G, Mann M, Benda C, et al. Molecular basis of PRC1 targeting to Polycomb response elements by PhoRC. Genes Dev. 2016;30:1116-27 pubmed publisher..Together, this suggests that PRE-tethered Sfmbt-SAM nucleates PRC1 recruitment and that Scm-SAM/Ph-SAM-mediated polymerization then results in the formation of PRC1-compacted chromatin. ..
- Finley J, Miller A, Herman T. Polycomb group genes are required to maintain a binary fate choice in the Drosophila eye. Neural Dev. 2015;10:2 pubmed publisher..Here, we show that loss of the PcG genes Sce, Scm, or Pc specifically affects one of the three binary fate choices that R7 precursors must make: mutant R7s ..
- Pelegri F, Lehmann R. A role of polycomb group genes in the regulation of gap gene expression in Drosophila. Genetics. 1994;136:1341-53 pubmed..Because Pc-G genes are thought to control gene expression by regulating chromatin, we propose that imprinting at the chromatin level underlies the determination of anteroposterior polarity in the early embryo. ..
- Bornemann D, Miller E, Simon J. Expression and properties of wild-type and mutant forms of the Drosophila sex comb on midleg (SCM) repressor protein. Genetics. 1998;150:675-86 pubmed..pupal development. We suggest that the mbt repeat alleles produce altered SCM proteins that incorporate into and impair function of PcG protein complexes. ..
- Sharp E, Martin E, Adler P. Directed overexpression of suppressor 2 of zeste and Posterior Sex Combs results in bristle abnormalities in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1994;161:379-92 pubmed..These data suggest that the bristle abnormalities seen with overexpression of Su(z)2 and Psc may result from altered expression of genes involved in bristle sense organ development that are not normal regulatory targets of these genes. ..
- Bello B, Holbro N, Reichert H. Polycomb group genes are required for neural stem cell survival in postembryonic neurogenesis of Drosophila. Development. 2007;134:1091-9 pubmed..that proliferation in postembryonic neuroblast clones is dramatically reduced in the absence of Polycomb, Sex combs extra, Sex combs on midleg, Enhancer of zeste or Suppressor of zeste 12...
- Li X, Han Y, Xi R. Polycomb group genes Psc and Su(z)2 restrict follicle stem cell self-renewal and extrusion by controlling canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling. Genes Dev. 2010;24:933-46 pubmed publisher..Given evolutionary conservation of PcG genes from Drosophila to mammals, they could have similar functions in mammalian stem cells and cancer. ..
- Simon J. Locking in stable states of gene expression: transcriptional control during Drosophila development. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1995;7:376-85 pubmed
- Hagstrom K, Muller M, Schedl P. A Polycomb and GAGA dependent silencer adjoins the Fab-7 boundary in the Drosophila bithorax complex. Genetics. 1997;146:1365-80 pubmed..The iab-7 PRE silencer is contained within a 0.8-kb fragment that spans a nuclease hypersensitive site, and silencing appears to depend on the chromatin remodeling protein, the GAGA factor. ..
- Bloyer S, Cavalli G, Brock H, Dura J. Identification and characterization of polyhomeotic PREs and TREs. Dev Biol. 2003;261:426-42 pubmed..Our data suggest that ph PRE/TREs are cis-acting DNA elements that modulate rather than silence Pc-G- and trx-G-mediated regulation, enlarging the role of these two groups of genes in transcriptional regulation. ..
- Ali J, Bender W. Cross-regulation among the polycomb group genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7737-47 pubmed..These multiple pathways of cross-regulation help to explain the large size of the Polycomb group family of genes, but they complicate the genetic analysis of any single member. ..
- van Lohuizen M. The trithorax-group and polycomb-group chromatin modifiers: implications for disease. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:355-61 pubmed..This is illustrated by recent mechanistic insights that link Polycomb repression with histone deacetylases and the identification of new target genes that provide a connection to cell cycle control and tumorigenesis. ..
- Muller J. Transcriptional silencing by the Polycomb protein in Drosophila embryos. EMBO J. 1995;14:1209-20 pubmed..The extent of DNA over which the Pc-G machinery acts is quite selective, as silencing established on one enhancer does not necessarily 'spread' to a juxtaposed synthetic enhancer...
- Piunti A, Shilatifard A. Epigenetic balance of gene expression by Polycomb and COMPASS families. Science. 2016;352:aad9780 pubmed publisher..In this review, we will discuss the latest findings regarding the properties of the PcG and COMPASS families and the insight they provide into the epigenetic control of transcription under physiological and pathological settings. ..
- Marx J. Developmental biology. Combing over the Polycomb group proteins. Science. 2005;308:624-6 pubmed
- Steffen P, Ringrose L. What are memories made of? How Polycomb and Trithorax proteins mediate epigenetic memory. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2014;15:340-56 pubmed publisher..Several recent studies have advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this epigenetic memory during DNA replication and mitosis. ..
- Chen X, Hiller M, Sancak Y, Fuller M. Tissue-specific TAFs counteract Polycomb to turn on terminal differentiation. Science. 2005;310:869-72 pubmed..Testis TAFs also promoted relocalization of Polycomb Repression Complex 1 components to the nucleolus in spermatocytes, implicating subnuclear architecture in the regulation of terminal differentiation. ..
- Langlais K, Brown J, Kassis J. Polycomb group proteins bind an engrailed PRE in both the "ON" and "OFF" transcriptional states of engrailed. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48765 pubmed publisher..These results show that PcG binding per se does not determine the transcriptional state of engrailed. ..
- Sinclair D, Clegg N, Antonchuk J, Milne T, Stankunas K, Ruse C, et al. Enhancer of Polycomb is a suppressor of position-effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1998;148:211-20 pubmed..However, E(Pc) appears to be an important link between the two groups. We discuss why Asx might act as an enhancer of PEV. ..
- Adler P, Charlton J, Brunk B. Genetic interactions of the suppressor 2 of zeste region genes. Dev Genet. 1989;10:249-60 pubmed..However, we have found that mutations in Su(z)2 do interact in a variety of interesting ways with mutations in Pc group genes. ..
- Shanower G, Muller M, Blanton J, Honti V, Gyurkovics H, Schedl P. Characterization of the grappa gene, the Drosophila histone H3 lysine 79 methyltransferase. Genetics. 2005;169:173-84 pubmed
- Lavigne M, Francis N, King I, Kingston R. Propagation of silencing; recruitment and repression of naive chromatin in trans by polycomb repressed chromatin. Mol Cell. 2004;13:415-25 pubmed..PSC), a subunit of dPCC, inhibits chromatin remodeling and transcription efficiently but requires assembly with dRING1 to recruit chromatin...
- Mulholland N, King I, Kingston R. Regulation of Polycomb group complexes by the sequence-specific DNA binding proteins Zeste and GAGA. Genes Dev. 2003;17:2741-6 pubmed..GAGA does not stably associate with PCC, but nucleosomal templates bound by GAGA are more efficiently bound and more efficiently inhibited by PCC. Thus Zeste and GAGA factor use distinct means to increase repression mediated by PRC1. ..
- Taillebourg E, Dura J. A novel mechanism for P element homing in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:6856-61 pubmed..We also suggest that P element homing could be a more frequent phenomenon than generally assumed and that it could become a powerful tool of Drosophila reverse genetics, for which there is no other described gene targeting technique. ..
- McKeon J, Slade E, Sinclair D, Cheng N, Couling M, Brock H. Mutations in some Polycomb group genes of Drosophila interfere with regulation of segmentation genes. Mol Gen Genet. 1994;244:474-83 pubmed..These results support a role for Pc genes in regulation of some segmentation genes, and suggest that esc may act differently from other Pc group genes. ..
- Cheng N, Sinclair D, Campbell R, Brock H. Interactions of polyhomeotic with Polycomb group genes of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1994;138:1151-62 pubmed..hemizygous for a temperature-sensitive allele, ph2, are lethal when heterozygous with mutants in Asx, Pc, Pcl, Psc, Sce and Scm, and with E(Pc) and Su(z)2...
- Adler P, Martin E, Charlton J, Jones K. Phenotypic consequences and genetic interactions of a null mutation in the Drosophila Posterior Sex Combs gene. Dev Genet. 1991;12:349-61 pubmed..The differences in the phenotypes of the doubly mutant embryos allow us to eliminate one class of molecular models to explain the dramatic synergism seen with mutations in this group of genes. ..