Gene Symbol: sc
Description: scute
Alias: AS-C T4, AS-C T4sc, CG3827, DROACS2, Dmel\CG3827, EG:198A6.1, SC_DA, T4 AS-C, ascT4, bHLHc28, l(1)1Ba, sc/T4, scalpha, scute/sisterlessB, sis b, sis-b, sisB, sisb, scute, Achaete/Scute, CG3827-PA, Hairy-wing, achaete-scute, asc, sc-PA, scute alpha, scute-T4-transcript, scute/sisterless-b, sisterless-b
Species: fruit fly
Products:     sc

Top Publications

  1. Modolell J, Campuzano S. The achaete-scute complex as an integrating device. Int J Dev Biol. 1998;42:275-82 pubmed
    ..a large extent, they are defined by the highly resolved sites of expression of the proneural genes of the achaete-scute complex (AS-C)...
  2. Rodriguez I, Hernandez R, Modolell J, Ruiz Gomez M. Competence to develop sensory organs is temporally and spatially regulated in Drosophila epidermal primordia. EMBO J. 1990;9:3583-92 pubmed
    ..Its deployment requires the expression of the achaete (ac) and scute (sc) genes...
  3. Alonso M, Cabrera C. The achaete-scute gene complex of Drosophila melanogaster comprises four homologous genes. EMBO J. 1988;7:2585-91 pubmed
    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of two genes of the achaete - scute complex (AS-C) and show that they are homologous to two previously sequenced members of the same locus...
  4. Marcellini S, Gibert J, Simpson P. achaete, but not scute, is dispensable for the peripheral nervous system of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2005;285:545-53 pubmed
    The achaete-scute complex of Drosophila has been the focus of extensive genetic and developmental analysis. Of the four genes at this locus, achaete and scute appear to act redundantly to specify the peripheral nervous system...
  5. Biryukova I, Heitzler P. The Drosophila LIM-homeo domain protein Islet antagonizes pro-neural cell specification in the peripheral nervous system. Dev Biol. 2005;288:559-70 pubmed
    ..SO) in Drosophila depends on the activity of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcriptional activators Achaete/Scute (Ac/Sc) that are expressed in clusters of cells (pro-neural clusters) and provide the cells with the potential to ..
  6. Lai E, Bodner R, Posakony J. The enhancer of split complex of Drosophila includes four Notch-regulated members of the bearded gene family. Development. 2000;127:3441-55 pubmed
    ..Finally, we present our initial studies of the structure, expression and regulation of the newest member of the Brd gene family, Ocho, which is located in the recently identified Bearded Complex. ..
  7. Yang M, Hatton Ellis E, Simpson P. The kinase Sgg modulates temporal development of macrochaetes in Drosophila by phosphorylation of Scute and Pannier. Development. 2012;139:325-34 pubmed publisher
    ..are associated with changes in both the temporal and spatial expression of the proneural genes achaete (ac) and scute (sc)...
  8. Deshpande G, Stukey J, Schedl P. scute (sis-b) function in Drosophila sex determination. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:4430-40 pubmed
    ..One of these genes, sisterless-b (sis-b), corresponds to the scute (sc) locus of the achaete-scute complex, and it encodes a helix-loop-helix transcription factor...
  9. Chang P, Hsiao Y, Tien A, Li Y, Pi H. Negative-feedback regulation of proneural proteins controls the timing of neural precursor division. Development. 2008;135:3021-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The G2-M defect in phyl mutants is rescued by reducing the ac and sc gene doses. Misexpression of phyl downregulates proneural protein levels in a sina-dependent manner...

More Information


  1. Schubiger M, Carré C, Antoniewski C, Truman J. Ligand-dependent de-repression via EcR/USP acts as a gate to coordinate the differentiation of sensory neurons in the Drosophila wing. Development. 2005;132:5239-48 pubmed
    ..In this way, the ecdysone signal can function as a developmental timer coordinating development within the imaginal disc. ..
  2. Jarman A, Brand M, Jan L, Jan Y. The regulation and function of the helix-loop-helix gene, asense, in Drosophila neural precursors. Development. 1993;119:19-29 pubmed
    asense is a member of the achaete-scute complex (AS-C) of helix-loop-helix genes involved in Drosophila neurogenesis...
  3. Brand M, Jarman A, Jan L, Jan Y. asense is a Drosophila neural precursor gene and is capable of initiating sense organ formation. Development. 1993;119:1-17 pubmed
    ..In both cases, this process requires daughterless and the proneural genes achaete, scute and lethal-of-scute of the achaete-scute complex...
  4. Dominguez M, Campuzano S. asense, a member of the Drosophila achaete-scute complex, is a proneural and neural differentiation gene. EMBO J. 1993;12:2049-60 pubmed
    The asense (ase) gene of the achaete-scute complex (AS-C) is expressed in the precursors of all adult sensory organs (SOs), the sensory mother cells (SMCs) and in their immediate progeny...
  5. Powell L, zur Lage P, Prentice D, Senthinathan B, Jarman A. The proneural proteins Atonal and Scute regulate neural target genes through different E-box binding sites. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:9517-26 pubmed
    ..proneural bHLH transcription factors required for the genesis of Drosophila sense organ precursors (Atonal and Scute)...
  6. Gonzalez F, Romani S, Cubas P, Modolell J, Campuzano S. Molecular analysis of the asense gene, a member of the achaete-scute complex of Drosophila melanogaster, and its novel role in optic lobe development. EMBO J. 1989;8:3553-62 pubmed
    The achaete-scute complex (AS-C) comprises five genetic regions: achaete, scute (sc) alpha, lethal of sc, sc beta and sc gamma...
  7. Alifragis P, Poortinga G, Parkhurst S, Delidakis C. A network of interacting transcriptional regulators involved in Drosophila neural fate specification revealed by the yeast two-hybrid system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:13099-104 pubmed
    ..fate specification in Drosophila is promoted by the products of the proneural genes, such as those of the achaete-scute complex, and antagonized by the products of the Enhancer of split [E(spl)] complex, hairy, and extramacrochaetae...
  8. Golovnin A, Biryukova I, Birukova I, Romanova O, Silicheva M, Parshikov A, et al. An endogenous Su(Hw) insulator separates the yellow gene from the Achaete-scute gene complex in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:3249-58 pubmed
    The best characterized chromatin insulator in Drosophila is the Suppressor of Hairy wing binding region contained within the gypsy retrotransposon...
  9. Soshnev A, Li X, Wehling M, Geyer P. Context differences reveal insulator and activator functions of a Su(Hw) binding region. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000159 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings imply that the function of non-gypsy Su(Hw) BRs depends on the genomic environment, predicting that Su(Hw) BRs represent a diverse collection of genomic regulatory elements. ..
  10. Jafar Nejad H, Tien A, Acar M, Bellen H. Senseless and Daughterless confer neuronal identity to epithelial cells in the Drosophila wing margin. Development. 2006;133:1683-92 pubmed
    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proneural proteins Achaete and Scute cooperate with the class I bHLH protein Daughterless to specify the precursors of most sensory bristles in Drosophila...
  11. Gomez Skarmeta J, Rodriguez I, Martinez C, Culi J, Ferres Marco D, Beamonte D, et al. Cis-regulation of achaete and scute: shared enhancer-like elements drive their coexpression in proneural clusters of the imaginal discs. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1869-82 pubmed
    ..of Drosophila is prefigured in the imaginal discs by the pattern of expression of the proneural achaete (ac) and scute (sc) genes, two members of the ac-sc complex (AS-C)...
  12. Cubas P, Modolell J. The extramacrochaetae gene provides information for sensory organ patterning. EMBO J. 1992;11:3385-93 pubmed
    ..Its generation requires the proneural achaete (ac) and scute (sc) genes...
  13. Dawson S, Turner D, Weintraub H, Parkhurst S. Specificity for the hairy/enhancer of split basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins maps outside the bHLH domain and suggests two separable modes of transcriptional repression. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:6923-31 pubmed
    ..used by the Hairy and E(SPL) proteins by assaying the antagonism between wild-type or altered Hairy/E(SPL) and Scute bHLH proteins during sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster...
  14. Ohsako S, Hyer J, Panganiban G, Oliver I, Caudy M. Hairy function as a DNA-binding helix-loop-helix repressor of Drosophila sensory organ formation. Genes Dev. 1994;8:2743-55 pubmed
    ..Together these results indicate that hairy represses sensory organ formation by directly repressing transcription of the ac proneural gene. ..
  15. Van Doren M, Ellis H, Posakony J. The Drosophila extramacrochaetae protein antagonizes sequence-specific DNA binding by daughterless/achaete-scute protein complexes. Development. 1991;113:245-55 pubmed
    ..Proteins encoded by the daughterless (da) gene and three genes of the achaete-scute complex (AS-C) act positively in the determination of the sensory organ precursor cell fate, while the ..
  16. Giagtzoglou N, Alifragis P, Koumbanakis K, Delidakis C. Two modes of recruitment of E(spl) repressors onto target genes. Development. 2003;130:259-70 pubmed Drosophila is controlled by two classes of basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors: the proneural Ac and Sc activators promote neural fate, whereas the E(spl) repressors suppress it...
  17. Grens A, Mason E, Marsh J, Bode H. Evolutionary conservation of a cell fate specification gene: the Hydra achaete-scute homolog has proneural activity in Drosophila. Development. 1995;121:4027-35 pubmed
    Members of the Achaete-scute family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors are involved in cell fate specification in vertebrates and invertebrates...
  18. Louis M, Holm L, Sanchez L, Kaufman M. A theoretical model for the regulation of Sex-lethal, a gene that controls sex determination and dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2003;165:1355-84 pubmed
    ..Numerical simulations of mutant genotypes enable us to reproduce and explain the phenotypic effects of perturbations induced in the dosage of genes whose products participate in the early Sxl promoter activation. ..
  19. Wrischnik L, Timmer J, Megna L, Cline T. Recruitment of the proneural gene scute to the Drosophila sex-determination pathway. Genetics. 2003;165:2007-27 pubmed
    In flies, scute (sc) works with its paralogs in the achaete-scute-complex (ASC) to direct neuronal development...
  20. Culi J, Martin Blanco E, Modolell J. The EGF receptor and N signalling pathways act antagonistically in Drosophila mesothorax bristle patterning. Development. 2001;128:299-308 pubmed
    ..large mesothoracic bristles (macrochaetae) of Drosophila is the expression of the proneural genes of the achaete-scute complex (AS-C) in small groups of cells (proneural clusters) of the wing imaginal disc...
  21. ten Bosch J, Benavides J, Cline T. The TAGteam DNA motif controls the timing of Drosophila pre-blastoderm transcription. Development. 2006;133:1967-77 pubmed publisher
    ..sequences to pre-cellular blastoderm transcription was established through analysis of TAGteam changes in Sxl, scute (an XSE), and the ;ventral repression element' of the pattern-formation gene zerknüllt...
  22. Fisher A, Caudy M. The function of hairy-related bHLH repressor proteins in cell fate decisions. Bioessays. 1998;20:298-306 pubmed
    ..This general function in cell fate specification has been conserved from Drosophila to vertebrates and has implications for human disease pathogenesis. ..
  23. Torres M, Sanchez L. The sisterless-b function of the Drosophila gene scute is restricted to the stage when the X:A ratio determines the activity of Sex-lethal. Development. 1991;113:715-22 pubmed
    The gene scute (sc) has a dual function: the scute function which is involved in neurogenesis and the sisterless-b function which is involved in generating the X:A signal that determines the state of activity of Sxl, a gene that controls ..
  24. Kunisch M, Haenlin M, Campos Ortega J. Lateral inhibition mediated by the Drosophila neurogenic gene delta is enhanced by proneural proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:10139-43 pubmed
    ..This transcriptional activation enhances lateral inhibition and thus helps ensure that cells in the vicinity of prospective neuroblasts will themselves become epidermoblasts. ..
  25. Artavanis Tsakonas S, Simpson P. Choosing a cell fate: a view from the Notch locus. Trends Genet. 1991;7:403-8 pubmed
    ..The Notch locus appears to play a central and general role in the regulative events that control the local architecture of the final cellular pattern in several tissues, among them being the central and peripheral nervous systems. ..
  26. Younger Shepherd S, Vaessin H, Bier E, Jan L, Jan Y. deadpan, an essential pan-neural gene encoding an HLH protein, acts as a denominator in Drosophila sex determination. Cell. 1992;70:911-22 pubmed
    ..One major numerator element on the X chromosome is sisterless-b (sis-b), also called scute, which encodes an HLH-type transcription factor...
  27. Cooper M, Tyler D, Furriols M, Chalkiadaki A, Delidakis C, Bray S. Spatially restricted factors cooperate with notch in the regulation of Enhancer of split genes. Dev Biol. 2000;221:390-403 pubmed
  28. Paroush Z, Finley R, Kidd T, Wainwright S, Ingham P, Brent R, et al. Groucho is required for Drosophila neurogenesis, segmentation, and sex determination and interacts directly with hairy-related bHLH proteins. Cell. 1994;79:805-15 pubmed
  29. Parks A, Huppert S, Muskavitch M. The dynamics of neurogenic signalling underlying bristle development in Drosophila melanogaster. Mech Dev. 1997;63:61-74 pubmed
    ..proneural cells is detected prior to the onset of achaete expression and arises normally in the absence of achaete/scute function, indicating that initial Delta expression in the notum is not dependent on proneural gene function...
  30. Cline T. Evidence that sisterless-a and sisterless-b are two of several discrete "numerator elements" of the X/A sex determination signal in Drosophila that switch Sxl between two alternative stable expression states. Genetics. 1988;119:829-62 pubmed
    ..In that same study it was concluded that region 3E8-4F11 of the X chromosome contained especially potent X/A numerator elements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  31. Culi J, Modolell J. Proneural gene self-stimulation in neural precursors: an essential mechanism for sense organ development that is regulated by Notch signaling. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2036-47 pubmed
    ..we have analyzed a very early sign of neural commitment in Drosophila, namely the specific accumulation of achaete-scute complex (AS-C) proneural proteins in the cell that becomes a sensory organ mother cell (SMC)...
  32. Usui K, Pistillo D, Simpson P. Mutual exclusion of sensory bristles and tendons on the notum of dipteran flies. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1047-55 pubmed
    Genes of the achaete-scute complex encode transcription factors whose activity regulates the development of neural cells...
  33. Ramain P, Heitzler P, Haenlin M, Simpson P. pannier, a negative regulator of achaete and scute in Drosophila, encodes a zinc finger protein with homology to the vertebrate transcription factor GATA-1. Development. 1993;119:1277-91 pubmed
    The gene pannier acts as a repressor of achaete and scute, two transcription factors expressed in discrete subsets of cells at the sites where neural precursors develop...
  34. Kaspar M, Schneider M, Chia W, Klein T. Klumpfuss is involved in the determination of sensory organ precursors in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2008;324:177-91 pubmed publisher
    ..clusters, which are defined through the expression pattern of proneural genes such as the genes of the achaete-scute complex (AS-C). The activities of these genes enable each cell within a cluster to become the SOP...
  35. Skaer N, Pistillo D, Gibert J, Lio P, W lbeck C, Simpson P. Gene duplication at the achaete-scute complex and morphological complexity of the peripheral nervous system in Diptera. Trends Genet. 2002;18:399-405 pubmed
    The number of achaete-scute genes increased during insect evolution, particularly in the Diptera lineage. Sequence comparison indicates that the four achaete-scute genes of Drosophila result from three independent duplication events...
  36. Harrison M, Botchan M, Cline T. Grainyhead and Zelda compete for binding to the promoters of the earliest-expressed Drosophila genes. Dev Biol. 2010;345:248-55 pubmed publisher
  37. Villares R, Cabrera C. The achaete-scute gene complex of D. melanogaster: conserved domains in a subset of genes required for neurogenesis and their homology to myc. Cell. 1987;50:415-24 pubmed
    ..We propose that each member of the family functions at an equivalent stage of a unique morphogenetic operation involving the segregation of individual neural lineages from the epidermal anlage. ..
  38. Jarman A, Ahmed I. The specificity of proneural genes in determining Drosophila sense organ identity. Mech Dev. 1998;76:117-25 pubmed
    The proneural genes (atonal and the genes of the achaete-scute complex (AS-C)) are required for the selection of sense organ precursors. They also endow these precursors with sense organ subtype information...
  39. Van Doren M, Powell P, Pasternak D, Singson A, Posakony J. Spatial regulation of proneural gene activity: auto- and cross-activation of achaete is antagonized by extramacrochaetae. Genes Dev. 1992;6:2592-605 pubmed
    The spatially restricted activities of achaete (ac) and scute (sc) are thought to define proneural clusters of potential sensory organ precursor cells in the imaginal discs of Drosophila...
  40. Jafar Nejad H, Acar M, Nolo R, Lacin H, Pan H, Parkhurst S, et al. Senseless acts as a binary switch during sensory organ precursor selection. Genes Dev. 2003;17:2966-78 pubmed
    ..In the presumptive SOPs that express high levels of Sens, it acts as a transcriptional activator and synergizes with proneural proteins. We therefore propose that Sens acts as a binary switch that is fundamental to SOP selection...
  41. Kramatschek B, Campos Ortega J. Neuroectodermal transcription of the Drosophila neurogenic genes E(spl) and HLH-m5 is regulated by proneural genes. Development. 1994;120:815-26 pubmed
    ..The gene products of achaete, scute and lethal of scute, together with that of ventral nervous system condensation defective, act synergistically to ..
  42. Campos Ortega J, Knust E. Molecular analysis of a cellular decision during embryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster: epidermogenesis or neurogenesis. Eur J Biochem. 1990;190:1-10 pubmed
    ..hand, the signal is thought to lead to neural development through the participation of the genes of the achaete-scute complex and daughterless, which are members of a family of DNA-binding regulatory proteins and of the gene vnd ..
  43. Cabrera C, Alonso M. Transcriptional activation by heterodimers of the achaete-scute and daughterless gene products of Drosophila. EMBO J. 1991;10:2965-73 pubmed
    The achaete-scute complex (AS-C) and the daughterless (da) genes encode helix-loop-helix proteins which have been shown to interact in vivo and to be required for neurogenesis...
  44. Campuzano S, Modolell J. Patterning of the Drosophila nervous system: the achaete-scute gene complex. Trends Genet. 1992;8:202-8 pubmed
    The genes of the achaete-scute complex (AS-C) confer on cells the ability to become neural precursors...
  45. Artavanis Tsakonas S, Rand M, Lake R. Notch signaling: cell fate control and signal integration in development. Science. 1999;284:770-6 pubmed
    ..Notch activity affects the implementation of differentiation, proliferation, and apoptotic programs, providing a general developmental tool to influence organ formation and morphogenesis. ..
  46. Kux K, Kiparaki M, Delidakis C. The two Tribolium E(spl) genes show evolutionarily conserved expression and function during embryonic neurogenesis. Mech Dev. 2013;130:207-25 pubmed publisher
    ..arises from neuroectoderm proneural clusters in response to the bHLH activator Ash, a homologue of Achaete-Scute. Here we study the expression and function of two other bHLH proteins, the bHLH-O repressors E(spl)1 and E(spl)3...
  47. Georgiev P, Gerasimova T. Novel genes influencing the expression of the yellow locus and mdg4 (gypsy) in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1989;220:121-6 pubmed
    ..All e(y)n genes are located in different regions of the X chromosome. One may speculate that e(y)n genes are involved in trans-regulation of the yellow locus and possibly of some other loci. ..
  48. Greenwald I. LIN-12/Notch signaling: lessons from worms and flies. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1751-62 pubmed
  49. Artavanis Tsakonas S, Matsuno K, Fortini M. Notch signaling. Science. 1995;268:225-32 pubmed
    ..Several vertebrate Notch receptors have also been discovered recently and play important roles in normal development and tumorigenesis. ..
  50. Calleja M, Renaud O, Usui K, Pistillo D, Morata G, Simpson P. How to pattern an epithelium: lessons from achaete-scute regulation on the notum of Drosophila. Gene. 2002;292:1-12 pubmed
    ..Attention has mainly focused on the regulation of the spatial expression of the genes of the achaete-scute complex (AS-C) that results in a stereotyped bristle pattern...
  51. Fisher A, Ohsako S, Caudy M. The WRPW motif of the hairy-related basic helix-loop-helix repressor proteins acts as a 4-amino-acid transcription repression and protein-protein interaction domain. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:2670-7 pubmed
    ..These results directly demonstrate that Groucho family proteins are active transcriptional corepressors for Hairy-related proteins and are recruited by the 4-amino acid protein-protein interaction domain, WRPW. ..
  52. Lai E. Drosophila tufted is a gain-of-function allele of the proneural gene amos. Genetics. 2003;163:1413-25 pubmed
    ..Unlike other ectopic bristle mutants, Tufted is epistatic to achaete and scute, the proneural genes that normally control the development of these sensory organs...
  53. Erickson J, Cline T. A bZIP protein, sisterless-a, collaborates with bHLH transcription factors early in Drosophila development to determine sex. Genes Dev. 1993;7:1688-702 pubmed
  54. Pomiankowski A, Nöthiger R, Wilkins A. The evolution of the Drosophila sex-determination pathway. Genetics. 2004;166:1761-73 pubmed
    ..Our hypothesis is built on the available data from Drosophila and other insect species, and we point out where it is amenable to further experimental and comparative tests. ..
  55. Ghosh D, Gerasimova T, Corces V. Interactions between the Su(Hw) and Mod(mdg4) proteins required for gypsy insulator function. EMBO J. 2001;20:2518-27 pubmed
    ..The results provide a biochemical basis for the aggregation of multiple insulator sites and support the role of the gypsy insulator in nuclear organization. ..
  56. González Crespo S, Levine M. Interactions between dorsal and helix-loop-helix proteins initiate the differentiation of the embryonic mesoderm and neuroectoderm in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1993;7:1703-13 pubmed
    ..proteins that have been implicated previously in sex determination and neurogenesis (daughterless, achaete, and scute) are shown to be required for the formation of these embryonic tissues...
  57. Bhattacharya A, Baker N. A network of broadly expressed HLH genes regulates tissue-specific cell fates. Cell. 2011;147:881-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar regulation is found in multiple Drosophila tissues and in mammalian cells and therefore is likely to be a conserved general feature of developmental regulation by HLH proteins...
  58. Singson A, Leviten M, Bang A, Hua X, Posakony J. Direct downstream targets of proneural activators in the imaginal disc include genes involved in lateral inhibitory signaling. Genes Dev. 1994;8:2058-71 pubmed
    In Drosophila imaginal discs, the spatially restricted activities of the achaete (ac) and scute (sc) proteins, which are transcriptional activators of the basic-helix-loop-helix class, define proneural clusters (PNCs) of potential ..
  59. Gomez Skarmeta J, Diez Del Corral R, de la Calle Mustienes E, Ferré Marcó D, Modolell J. Araucan and caupolican, two members of the novel iroquois complex, encode homeoproteins that control proneural and vein-forming genes. Cell. 1996;85:95-105 pubmed
    In Drosophila imaginal wing discs, the achaete-scute (ac-sc) proneural genes and rhomboid (veinlet) are expressed in highly resolved patterns that prefigure the positions of sensory organs and wing veins, respectively...
  60. Jimenez G, Ish Horowicz D. A chimeric enhancer-of-split transcriptional activator drives neural development and achaete-scute expression. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:4355-62 pubmed
    ..m7Act causes ectopic transcription of the proneural achaete and scute genes...
  61. Goulding S, White N, Jarman A. cato encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor implicated in the correct differentiation of Drosophila sense organs. Dev Biol. 2000;221:120-31 pubmed
    ..Moreover, in prospero mutants, in which axon and dendrite outgrowth is defective, cato is strongly derepressed in the developing CNS. ..
  62. Simpson P, Woehl R, Usui K. The development and evolution of bristle patterns in Diptera. Development. 1999;126:1349-64 pubmed
    ..We briefly review the current state of knowledge concerning the complex genetic pathways regulating achaete-scute gene expression and bristle pattern in Drosophila melanogaster, and consider mechanisms for the genetic regulation ..
  63. Skaer N, Simpson P. Genetic analysis of bristle loss in hybrids between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans provides evidence for divergence of cis-regulatory sequences in the achaete-scute gene complex. Dev Biol. 2000;221:148-67 pubmed
    ..development and corresponds to the time when the prepattern of expression of genes whose products activate achaete-scute in the proneural clusters preceding bristle precursor formation is established...
  64. Cubadda Y, Heitzler P, Ray R, Bourouis M, Ramain P, Gelbart W, et al. u-shaped encodes a zinc finger protein that regulates the proneural genes achaete and scute during the formation of bristles in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1997;11:3083-95 pubmed
    ..the large sensory bristles on the notum of Drosophila arises as a consequence of the expression of the achaete and scute genes...
  65. Escudero L, Caminero E, Schulze K, Bellen H, Modolell J. Charlatan, a Zn-finger transcription factor, establishes a novel level of regulation of the proneural achaete/scute genes of Drosophila. Development. 2005;132:1211-22 pubmed
    The proneural genes achaete (ac) and scute (sc) are necessary for the formation of the external sensory organs (SOs) of Drosophila. ac and sc are expressed in proneural clusters and impart their cells with neural potential...
  66. Nolo R, Abbott L, Bellen H. Senseless, a Zn finger transcription factor, is necessary and sufficient for sensory organ development in Drosophila. Cell. 2000;102:349-62 pubmed
    ..Sens is then in turn required to further activate and maintain proneural gene expression. This feedback mechanism is essential for selective enhancement and maintenance of proneural gene expression in the SOPs. ..
  67. Garrell J, Modolell J. The Drosophila extramacrochaetae locus, an antagonist of proneural genes that, like these genes, encodes a helix-loop-helix protein. Cell. 1990;61:39-48 pubmed
    ..sensory organ patterning by antagonizing, in a mechanistically unknown way, the neurogenic activity of the achaete-scute complex (AS-C)...
  68. Cubas P, de Celis J, Campuzano S, Modolell J. Proneural clusters of achaete-scute expression and the generation of sensory organs in the Drosophila imaginal wing disc. Genes Dev. 1991;5:996-1008 pubmed
    The proneural genes achaete (ac) and scute (sc) confer to Drosophila epidermal cells the ability to become sensory mother cells (SMCs)...
  69. Jan Y, Jan L. Neuronal cell fate specification in Drosophila. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1994;4:8-13 pubmed
    ..Selective expression of certain neuronal-type selector genes further specifies the type of neuron(s) that a neural precursor will produce. ..
  70. Campuzano S, Carramolino L, Cabrera C, Ruiz Gomez M, Villares R, Boronat A, et al. Molecular genetics of the achaete-scute gene complex of D. melanogaster. Cell. 1985;40:327-38 pubmed
    The achaete-scute gene complex (AS-C), involved in differentiation of the sensory chaetes of D. melanogaster, and the yellow locus have been cloned...
  71. Sturtevant A. Studies on the bristle pattern of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1970;21:48-61 pubmed
  72. García García M, Ramain P, Simpson P, Modolell J. Different contributions of pannier and wingless to the patterning of the dorsal mesothorax of Drosophila. Development. 1999;126:3523-32 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that Pannier directly activates the proneural genes achaete and scute by binding to the enhancer responsible for the expression of these genes in the dorsocentral proneural cluster...
  73. de Celis J, de Celis J, Ligoxygakis P, Preiss A, Delidakis C, Bray S. Functional relationships between Notch, Su(H) and the bHLH genes of the E(spl) complex: the E(spl) genes mediate only a subset of Notch activities during imaginal development. Development. 1996;122:2719-28 pubmed
    ..Transcriptional activation mediated by Suppressor of Hairless and transcriptional repression mediated by Enhancer of split could provide greater diversity in the response of individual genes to Notch activity. ..
  74. Campuzano S, Balcells L, Villares R, Carramolino L, Garcia Alonso L, Modolell J. Excess function hairy-wing mutations caused by gypsy and copia insertions within structural genes of the achaete-scute locus of Drosophila. Cell. 1986;44:303-12 pubmed
    ..They are associated with modifications of the achaete-scute complex that consist, in the mutants studied, of insertions of the transposable elements gypsy (Hw1, HwBS) or ..
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