Gene Symbol: sbr
Description: small bristles
Alias: CG1664, CG17335, CT4634, DNXF-1, Dm nxf1, DmNXF1, Dmel\CG1664, NFX1, NXF1, NXF1-p15, Nxf1, PABPr, dTap, l(1)9Fd, l(1)G1, l(1)ts, l(1)ts403, nxf1, sbt, small bristles, CG1664-PA, locus 1, nuclear export factor 1, sbr-PA, shorter-bristles
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Hurt J, Obar R, Zhai B, Farny N, Gygi S, Silver P. A conserved CCCH-type zinc finger protein regulates mRNA nuclear adenylation and export. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:265-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest a model wherein ZC3H3 interfaces between the polyadenylation machinery, newly poly(A) mRNAs, and factors for transcript export. ..
  2. Gatfield D, Le Hir H, Schmitt C, Braun I, Kocher T, Wilm M, et al. The DExH/D box protein HEL/UAP56 is essential for mRNA nuclear export in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1716-21 pubmed
    ..We conclude that HEL is essential for the export of bulk mRNA in Drosophila. The association of human UAP56 with spliced mRNAs suggests that this protein might provide a functional link between splicing and export. ..
  3. Kozlova N, Braga J, Lundgren J, Rino J, Young P, Carmo Fonseca M, et al. Studies on the role of NonA in mRNA biogenesis. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:2619-30 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that NonA forms a complex with the essential nuclear export factor NXF1 in an RNA-dependent manner...
  4. Herold A, Klymenko T, Izaurralde E. NXF1/p15 heterodimers are essential for mRNA nuclear export in Drosophila. RNA. 2001;7:1768-80 pubmed
    ..Moreover, NXF4 is not expressed at detectable levels in cultured Drosophila cells. We conclude that Dm NXF1/p15 heterodimers only (but not NXF2-NXF4) mediate the export of the majority of mRNAs in Drosophila cells and ..
  5. Herold A, Suyama M, Rodrigues J, Braun I, Kutay U, Carmo Fonseca M, et al. TAP (NXF1) belongs to a multigene family of putative RNA export factors with a conserved modular architecture. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:8996-9008 pubmed
    Vertebrate TAP (also called NXF1) and its yeast orthologue, Mex67p, have been implicated in the export of mRNAs from the nucleus...
  6. Munro T, Kwon S, Schnapp B, St Johnston D. A repeated IMP-binding motif controls oskar mRNA translation and anchoring independently of Drosophila melanogaster IMP. J Cell Biol. 2006;172:577-88 pubmed
    ..Our findings establish a parallel requirement for IBEs in the regulation of localized maternal mRNAs in D. melanogaster and X. laevis. ..
  7. Buszczak M, Spradling A. The Drosophila P68 RNA helicase regulates transcriptional deactivation by promoting RNA release from chromatin. Genes Dev. 2006;20:977-89 pubmed
    ..p68 mutations phenotypically resemble mutations in small bristles (sbr), the Drosophila homolog of the human mRNA export factor NXF1...
  8. Wilkie G, Zimyanin V, Kirby R, Korey C, Francis Lang H, Van Vactor D, et al. Small bristles, the Drosophila ortholog of NXF-1, is essential for mRNA export throughout development. RNA. 2001;7:1781-92 pubmed
    We identified a temperature-sensitive allele of small bristles (sbr), the Drosophila ortholog of human TAP/NXF-1 and yeast Mex67, in a screen for mutants defective in mRNA export...
  9. Korey C, Wilkie G, Davis I, Van Vactor D. small bristles is required for the morphogenesis of multiple tissues during Drosophila development. Genetics. 2001;159:1659-70 pubmed
    We found that mutations in small bristles (sbr) affect several tissues during the development of the fruit fly. In sbr embryos, neurons have defects in pathfinding and the body wall muscles have defective morphology...

More Information


  1. Le Hir H, Gatfield D, Braun I, Forler D, Izaurralde E. The protein Mago provides a link between splicing and mRNA localization. EMBO Rep. 2001;2:1119-24 pubmed
    ..Mago/Y14 heterodimers are essential in cultured Drosophila cells. Taken together, these results suggest that, in addition to its specialized function in mRNA localization, Mago plays an essential role in other steps of mRNA metabolism. ..
  2. Zhang Y, Roote J, Brogna S, Davis A, Barbash D, Nash D, et al. stress sensitive B encodes an adenine nucleotide translocase in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1999;153:891-903 pubmed
    ..This hypothesis is not supported by our study of the ANT genes of D. melanogaster. ..
  3. Barbash D, Roote J, Ashburner M. The Drosophila melanogaster hybrid male rescue gene causes inviability in male and female species hybrids. Genetics. 2000;154:1747-71 pubmed
    ..melanogaster mothers. Implications of our findings for understanding Haldane's rule-the observation that hybrid breakdown is often specific to the heterogametic sex-are also discussed. ..
  4. Tikhomirova M, Mazur E, Barabanova L, Mamon L. [Temperature modification of the mutation process and heat shock proteins]. Genetika. 1993;29:280-7 pubmed
    ..The correlation between heat shock protein synthesis and the effect of synergism in the action of radiation and heat shock was revealed. It was concluded that HSPs are one of the components in mutagenic processes. ..
  5. Ivankova N, Tretyakova I, Lyozin G, Avanesyan E, Zolotukhin A, Zatsepina O, et al. Alternative transcripts expressed by small bristles, the Drosophila melanogaster nxf1 gene. Gene. 2010;458:11-9 pubmed publisher
    The tissue-specific accumulation of small bristles (Dm nxf1) transcripts at different developmental stages of Drosophila melanogaster was analyzed by Northern blots and RT PCR. We identified four distinct transcripts: ubiquitous (3...
  6. Boylan K, Mische S, Li M, Marques G, Morin X, Chia W, et al. Motility screen identifies Drosophila IGF-II mRNA-binding protein--zipcode-binding protein acting in oogenesis and synaptogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e36 pubmed publisher
    ..In oocytes, where Imp function is not essential, we implicate a specific Imp domain in the establishment of dorsoventral polarity. ..
  7. Vernì F, Somma M, Gunsalus K, Bonaccorsi S, Belloni G, Goldberg M, et al. Feo, the Drosophila homolog of PRC1, is required for central-spindle formation and cytokinesis. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1569-75 pubmed
    ..The phenotype of Feo-depleted telophases suggests that Feo interacts with the plus ends of central spindle MTs so as to maintain their precise interdigitation during anaphase-telophase MT elongation and antiparallel sliding. ..
  8. Gruntenko N, Wilson T, Monastirioti M, Rauschenbach I. Stress-reactivity and juvenile hormone degradation in Drosophila melanogaster strains having stress-related mutations. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2000;30:775-83 pubmed
    ..Thus, the impairments in any component of the Drosophila stress reaction result in changes in the reponse of JH degradation system to stress. The role of JH in the development of the insect stress reaction is discussed. ..
  9. Strashniuk V, Taglina O, Shakhbazov V. [Parallel changes in the puffing of polytene chromosomes and bioelectric properties of salivary gland cell nuclei in Drosophila melanogaster after heat shock]. Genetika. 1990;26:874-8 pubmed
    ..The parallel changes of these characters and interlinear differences affected by ts mutation were found. Positive correlation between heat shock puff size and cell nuclei electrophoretic mobility was detected. ..
  10. Nikitina E, Tokmacheva E, Savvateeva Popova E. [Heat shock during the development of brain structures of Drosophila: the memory development in the l(1)ts403 mutant of Drosophila melanogaster]. Genetika. 2003;39:33-40 pubmed
    ..The observed memory defects may result from alterations both in mRNA transport and in the functions of molecular chaperones in the l(1)ts403 mutant. ..
  11. Mamon L, Komarova A, Bondarenko L, Barabanova L, Tikhomirova M. [Development of thermotolerance in Drosophila melanogaster line l(1) ts403 with a defect in heat shock protein synthesis]. Genetika. 1998;34:920-8 pubmed
  12. Arking R. Temperature-sensitive cell-lethal mutants of drosophila: isolation and characterization. Genetics. 1975;:519-37 pubmed
    ..In addition, 15 of the mutants are ts female sterile mutants. Only one of these 15 mutants can recover its fertility when shifted back down to the permissive temperature (22degrees). ..
  13. Snee M, Benz D, Jen J, Macdonald P. Two distinct domains of Bruno bind specifically to the oskar mRNA. RNA Biol. 2008;5:1-9 pubmed
    ..A similar mislocalization of endogenous Bruno occurs when mRNA export is blocked. Thus, Bruno shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm, and may first bind oskar mRNA in the nucleus. ..
  14. Zhang Z, Satterly N, Fontoura B, Chook Y. Evolutionary development of redundant nuclear localization signals in the mRNA export factor NXF1. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:4657-68 pubmed publisher
    In human cells, the mRNA export factor NXF1 resides in the nucleoplasm and at nuclear pore complexes...
  15. Roth P, Xylourgidis N, Sabri N, Uv A, Fornerod M, Samakovlis C. The Drosophila nucleoporin DNup88 localizes DNup214 and CRM1 on the nuclear envelope and attenuates NES-mediated nuclear export. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:701-6 pubmed
    ..We propose that a major function of DNup88 is to anchor DNup214 and CRM1 on the nuclear envelope and thereby attenuate NES-mediated nuclear export. ..
  16. Zeng Y, Yi R, Cullen B. MicroRNAs and small interfering RNAs can inhibit mRNA expression by similar mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9779-84 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that miRNAs and siRNAs can use similar mechanisms to repress mRNA expression and that the choice of mechanism may be largely or entirely determined by the degree of complementary of the RNA target. ..
  17. Golubkova E, Atsapkina A, Mamon L. [THE ROLE OF sbr/Dm nxf1 GENE DURING SYNCYTIAL PERIODS OF DEVELOPMENT IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER]. Tsitologiia. 2015;57:294-304 pubmed
    ..The sbr (small bristles) gene of D...
  18. Tret iakova I, Lezin G, Markova E, Evgen ev M, Mamon L. [The sbr gene product in Drosophila melanogaster and its orthologs in yeast (Mex67p) and human (TAP)]. Genetika. 2001;37:725-36 pubmed
    ..melanogaster genome showed that the cloned DNA part contains gene sbr and adjacent sequences...
  19. Forler D, Rabut G, Ciccarelli F, Herold A, Kocher T, Niggeweg R, et al. RanBP2/Nup358 provides a major binding site for NXF1-p15 dimers at the nuclear pore complex and functions in nuclear mRNA export. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:1155-67 pubmed
    Metazoan NXF1-p15 heterodimers promote the nuclear export of bulk mRNA across nuclear pore complexes (NPCs)...
  20. K ergaard A, Mamon L. [Hyperthermia of male Drosophila melanogaster meiocytes induces abnormalities in both paternal and maternal sex chromosome sets of the offspring]. Genetika. 2007;43:1379-87 pubmed
    ..The frequency of abnormal chromosome sets in the offspring of male carriers of the sbr10 mutation is about two times higher than in the offspring of males without this mutation. ..
  21. Mamon L, Barabanova L, Kostromina N. [Frequency of non-disjunction and loss of sex chromosomes in oogenesis in the Drosophila melanogaster mutant I(1) ts 403 with a defect in the heat-shock protein system in anoxia and at high temperature]. Genetika. 1992;28:64-71 pubmed
    ..The role of HSP in the recovery of HS-induced disruptions (chromosomal proteins and meiotic division apparatus) which can lead to chromosome non-disjunction and losses is discussed. ..
  22. Kopytova D, Popova V, Kurshakova M, Shidlovskii Y, Nabirochkina E, Brechalov A, et al. ORC interacts with THSC/TREX-2 and its subunits promote Nxf1 association with mRNP and mRNA export in Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:4920-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, ORC was associated with mRNP, which was facilitated by TREX-2. ORC subunits interacted with the Nxf1 receptor mediating the bulk mRNA export...
  23. Qurashi A, Li W, Zhou J, Peng J, Jin P. Nuclear accumulation of stress response mRNAs contributes to the neurodegeneration caused by Fragile X premutation rCGG repeats. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002102 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these findings suggest that abnormal nuclear accumulation of these mRNAs, likely as a result of impaired nuclear export, could contribute to FXTAS pathogenesis. ..
  24. Golubkova E, Markova E, Markov A, Avanesyan E, Nokkala S, Mamon L. Dm nxf1/sbr gene affects the formation of meiotic spindle in female Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosome Res. 2009;17:833-45 pubmed publisher
    The small bristles (sbr) gene of Drosophila melanogaster belongs to the family of nuclear export factor (NXF) genes that participate in mRNA nuclear export...
  25. Yakimova A, Pugacheva O, Golubkova E, Mamon L. Cytoplasmic localization of SBR (Dm NXF1) protein and its zonal distribution in the ganglia of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Invert Neurosci. 2016;16:9 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila gene Dm nxf1 (nuclear export factor 1) previously known as small bristles (sbr) controls nuclear export of various mRNA transcripts...
  26. Mamon L, Barabanova L. [Non-random distribution of spontaneous and high temperature-induced recessive lethal mutations in the X-chromosome of Drosophila]. Genetika. 1991;27:1541-6 pubmed
    ..This correlates with non-random distribution of mobile elements in the X-chromosome of D. melanogaster (Leibovich, 1990). ..
  27. Kutskova I, Mamon L. [Consequences of exposure to extreme conditions in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster under conditions of disturbed synthesis of heat shock proteins]. Genetika. 1996;32:1406-16 pubmed
    ..Different mechanisms responsible for induction of chromosome abnormalities (premature condensation of interphase chromosomes or disturbed condensation of mitotic chromosomes) and different roles of HSP in these processes are discussed. ..
  28. Zhimulev I, Pokholkova G, Bgatov A, Semeshin V, Belyaeva E. Fine cytogenetical analysis of the band 10A1-2 and the adjoining regions in the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome. II. Genetical analysis. Chromosoma. 1981;82:25-40 pubmed
    ..About 70% of the band's DNA was found to be silent. - Using the set of chromosome rearrangements removing different parts of the band it was shown that these five sequences may function independently from each other. ..
  29. Atsapkina A, Golubkova E, Kasatkina V, Avanesian E, Ivankova N, Mamon L. [Spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster: the role of the basic transport receptor of the mRNA (Dm NXF1)]. Tsitologiia. 2010;52:574-9 pubmed
    ..It becomes apparent in the existence of testis specific NXF (nuclear export factor). We have shown that the Dm NXF1 (SBR) protein is present in considerable amounts at all stages of the spermatogenesis...
  30. Snee M, Wilson W, Zhu Y, Chen S, Wilson B, Kseib C, et al. Collaborative Control of Cell Cycle Progression by the RNA Exonuclease Dis3 and Ras Is Conserved Across Species. Genetics. 2016;203:749-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, reduction, but not absence, of dis3 activity can enhance cell proliferation in higher organisms. ..
  31. Evgen ev M, Denisenko O. [The effect of ts-mutation on expression of genes induced by heat shock in Drosophila melanogaster. III. Synthesis of proteins cognate to HSP70]. Genetika. 1990;26:266-71 pubmed
    ..weight 72 KDa was observed after heat-shock. This protein belongs to highly abundant heat-shock cognate proteins (HSCP) which are usually not induced by temperature elevation. ..
  32. Ginanova V, Golubkova E, Kliver S, Bychkova E, Markoska K, Ivankova N, et al. Testis-specific products of the Drosophila melanogaster sbr gene, encoding nuclear export factor 1, are necessary for male fertility. Gene. 2016;577:153-60 pubmed publisher
    The evolutionarily conserved nuclear export factor 1 (NXF1) provides mRNA export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm...
  33. Eeken J, Sobels F, Hyland V, Schalet A. Distribution of MR-induced sex-linked recessive lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1985;150:261-75 pubmed
  34. Mamon L, Nikitina E, Pugacheva O, Golubkova E. [Maternal and paternal effects on the specific mutation l(1)ts403 of thermosensitivity of early Drosophila melanogaster embryos]. Genetika. 1999;35:1078-85 pubmed
    ..Based on this, it was proposed that the product of gene l(1)ts403, which affects early embryonic thermosensitivity, is transmitted both paternally and maternally and shows dosage effect. ..
  35. Monzo K, Papoulas O, Cantin G, Wang Y, Yates J, Sisson J. Fragile X mental retardation protein controls trailer hitch expression and cleavage furrow formation in Drosophila embryos. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:18160-5 pubmed
    ..By using a conditional mutation in small bristles (sbr), which encodes an mRNA nuclear export factor, to disrupt the normal cytoplasmic accumulation of zygotic ..
  36. Braun I, Herold A, Rode M, Izaurralde E. Nuclear export of mRNA by TAP/NXF1 requires two nucleoporin-binding sites but not p15. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:5405-18 pubmed
    Metazoan NXF1/p15 heterodimers promote export of bulk mRNA through nuclear pore complexes (NPC)...
  37. Mamon L, Kutskova I. [Role of heat-shock proteins in recovery of cell proliferation following high temperature treatment of Drosophila melanogaster larvae]. Genetika. 1993;29:791-8 pubmed
    ..These results are n accordance with the hypothesis about the role of HSP's in cell proliferation. ..
  38. Gatfield D, Izaurralde E. REF1/Aly and the additional exon junction complex proteins are dispensable for nuclear mRNA export. J Cell Biol. 2002;159:579-88 pubmed
    The metazoan proteins UAP56, REF1, and NXF1 are thought to bind sequentially to mRNA to promote its export to the cytoplasm: UAP56 is thought to recruit REF1 to nascent mRNA; REF1 acts as an adaptor protein mediating the association of ..
  39. Mamon L, Kutskova I. [Role of heat-shock proteins in the recovery of mitotic chromosome damage induced by high temperature in Drosophila melanogaster]. Genetika. 1993;29:604-12 pubmed
  40. Sreedharan J, Neukomm L, Brown R, Freeman M. Age-Dependent TDP-43-Mediated Motor Neuron Degeneration Requires GSK3, hat-trick, and xmas-2. Curr Biol. 2015;25:2130-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to delineating genetic factors that modify TDP-43 toxicity, these results establish the Drosophila adult leg as a valuable new tool for the in vivo study of adult MN phenotypes. ..
  41. Freibaum B, Lu Y, López González R, Kim N, Almeida S, Lee K, et al. GGGGCC repeat expansion in C9orf72 compromises nucleocytoplasmic transport. Nature. 2015;525:129-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies show that a primary consequence of G4C2 repeat expansion is the compromise of nucleocytoplasmic transport through the nuclear pore, revealing a novel mechanism of neurodegeneration. ..
  42. Mamon L, Mazur E, Churkina I, Barabanova L. [The effect of high temperature on the frequency of nondisjunction and loss of sex chromosomes in females of Drosophila melanogaster strain I(1)ts403 with a defect in the heat shock protein system]. Genetika. 1990;26:554-6 pubmed
    ..The same temperature has no effect on the females from the T line and other earlier studied lines. ..
  43. Shvartsman P, Isaenko O. [Frequency of embryonal lethality in various strains of Drosophila melanogaster under conditions of destabilization of microtubule apparatus and as affected by heat shock]. Genetika. 1999;35:712-5 pubmed
    ..Heat shock followed by the Vb and Gf treatment leads to a reduction in the frequencies of DLM. Conversely, a combination of Cl with heat shock increases the yield of DLM. ..