Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Sas-4
Description: Spindle assembly abnormal 4
Alias: CG10061, CPAP, D-Sas4, D-sas4, DSAS-4, DSas-4, DSas4, Dmel\CG10061, Dsas-4, Dsas4, SAS-4, SAS4, Sas4, d-SAS-4, dsas-4, l(3)S2214, l(3)s2214, sas-4, sas4, spindle assembly abnormal 4, CG10061-PA, DSas-4, Sas-4-PA, drosophila Sas-4, lethal (3) s2214, spindle assembly abnormal 4 ortholog
Species: fruit fly
- Castellanos E, Dominguez P, Gonzalez C. Centrosome dysfunction in Drosophila neural stem cells causes tumors that are not due to genome instability. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1209-14 pubmed publisher..We propose that such tumors might be caused by impaired asymmetric division of neural stem cells . These results show that centrosome loss, far from being innocuous, is a potentially dangerous condition in flies...
- Fu J, Glover D. Structured illumination of the interface between centriole and peri-centriolar material. Open Biol. 2012;2:120104 pubmed publisher..Although they occupy different spatial compartments on the G2 centriole, Cnn, Spd-2 and ?-tubulin become diminished at the centriole upon entry into meiosis to become part of PCM clouds...
- Conduit P, Feng Z, Richens J, Baumbach J, Wainman A, Bakshi S, et al. The centrosome-specific phosphorylation of Cnn by Polo/Plk1 drives Cnn scaffold assembly and centrosome maturation. Dev Cell. 2014;28:659-69 pubmed publisher..We conclude that Polo/Plk1 initiates the phosphorylation-dependent assembly of a Cnn scaffold around centrioles that is essential for efficient centrosome maturation in flies. ..
- Rodrigues Martins A, Riparbelli M, Callaini G, Glover D, Bettencourt Dias M. From centriole biogenesis to cellular function: centrioles are essential for cell division at critical developmental stages. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:11-6 pubmed..This heterogeneity should be taken into account both in reaching an understanding of spindle function and when designing drugs that target cell division. ..
- Dix C, Raff J. Drosophila Spd-2 recruits PCM to the sperm centriole, but is dispensable for centriole duplication. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1759-64 pubmed..We speculate that the SPD-2 family of proteins might only be absolutely essential for the recruitment of centriole duplication factors and PCM to the centriole(s) that enter the egg with the fertilizing sperm...
- Peel N, Stevens N, Basto R, Raff J. Overexpressing centriole-replication proteins in vivo induces centriole overduplication and de novo formation. Curr Biol. 2007;17:834-43 pubmed..Here, we investigate the effects of overexpressing the three proteins known to be required for centriole replication in Drosophila-DSas-6, DSas-4, and Sak...
- Dzhindzhev N, Yu Q, Weiskopf K, Tzolovsky G, Cunha Ferreira I, Riparbelli M, et al. Asterless is a scaffold for the onset of centriole assembly. Nature. 2010;467:714-8 pubmed publisher..with the cryptic Polo box of Plk4 whereas the carboxy terminus interacts with the centriolar protein Sas-4 (CPAP in humans)...
- Stevens N, Roque H, Raff J. DSas-6 and Ana2 coassemble into tubules to promote centriole duplication and engagement. Dev Cell. 2010;19:913-9 pubmed publisher..We conclude that DSas-6 and Ana2 normally cooperate to drive the formation of the centriole inner cartwheel and that they promote both centriole duplication and centriole cohesion in a Sak/Plk4-dependent manner...
- Carvalho Santos Z, Machado P, Branco P, Tavares Cadete F, Rodrigues Martins A, Pereira Leal J, et al. Stepwise evolution of the centriole-assembly pathway. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:1414-26 pubmed publisher..an evolutionarily cohesive and ancestral module, which we term UNIMOD and is defined by three components (SAS6, SAS4/CPAP and BLD10/CEP135), that correlates with the occurrence of CBBs...
- Goodwin S, Vale R. Patronin regulates the microtubule network by protecting microtubule minus ends. Cell. 2010;143:263-74 pubmed publisher..We propose that Patronin caps and stabilizes microtubule minus ends, an activity that serves a critical role in the organization of the microtubule cytoskeleton. ..
- Januschke J, Reina J, Llamazares S, Bertran T, Rossi F, Roig J, et al. Centrobin controls mother-daughter centriole asymmetry in Drosophila neuroblasts. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:241-8 pubmed publisher..They also reveal an interphase function for POLO in this process that seems to have co-opted part of the protein network involved in mitotic centrosome maturation. ..
- Gopalakrishnan J, Mennella V, Blachon S, Zhai B, Smith A, Megraw T, et al. Sas-4 provides a scaffold for cytoplasmic complexes and tethers them in a centrosome. Nat Commun. 2011;2:359 pubmed publisher..In summary, PCM assembly begins in the cytosol where Sas-4 provides a scaffold for pre-assembled cytoplasmic complexes before tethering of the complexes in a centrosome. ..
- Stevens N, Dobbelaere J, Wainman A, Gergely F, Raff J. Ana3 is a conserved protein required for the structural integrity of centrioles and basal bodies. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:355-63 pubmed publisher..Thus, Ana3 defines a conserved family of centriolar proteins and plays an important part in ensuring the structural integrity of centrioles and basal bodies. ..
- Stevens N, Raposo A, Basto R, St Johnston D, Raff J. From stem cell to embryo without centrioles. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1498-503 pubmed..Thus, centrosomes are dispensable for oogenesis but essential for early embryogenesis. These results reveal that asymmetric centrosome behavior is not an essential feature of stem cell divisions. ..
- Moutinho Pereira S, Debec A, Maiato H. Microtubule cytoskeleton remodeling by acentriolar microtubule-organizing centers at the entry and exit from mitosis in Drosophila somatic cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2796-808 pubmed publisher..Our data reveal a new form of cell cycle-regulated MTOCs that contribute for MT cytoskeleton remodeling during mitotic spindle assembly/disassembly in animal somatic cells, independently of centrioles. ..
- Hsu W, Hung L, Tang C, Su C, Chang Y, Tang T. Functional characterization of the microtubule-binding and -destabilizing domains of CPAP and d-SAS-4. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:2591-602 pubmed publisherWe previously identified a novel centrosomal protein CPAP, which carries a 112-residue motif that is essential for microtubule destabilization...
- Basto R, Lau J, Vinogradova T, Gardiol A, Woods C, Khodjakov A, et al. Flies without centrioles. Cell. 2006;125:1375-86 pubmed..Thus, centrioles are essential for the formation of centrosomes, cilia, and flagella, but, remarkably, they are not essential for most aspects of Drosophila development. ..
- Conduit P, Brunk K, Dobbelaere J, Dix C, Lucas E, Raff J. Centrioles regulate centrosome size by controlling the rate of Cnn incorporation into the PCM. Curr Biol. 2010;20:2178-86 pubmed publisher..This mechanism can explain how centrosome size is regulated during the cell cycle and also allows mother and daughter centrioles to set centrosome size independently of one another. ..
- Baumbach J, Levesque M, Raff J. Centrosome loss or amplification does not dramatically perturb global gene expression in Drosophila. Biol Open. 2012;1:983-93 pubmed publisher..These observations indicate that centrosome defects can predispose fly brain cells to form tumours without, at least initially, dramatically altering their physiology. ..
- Noguchi T, Koizumi M, Hayashi S. Sustained elongation of sperm tail promoted by local remodeling of giant mitochondria in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2011;21:805-14 pubmed publisher..Sperm cell elongation can proceed in the absence of an axoneme, suggesting that a mechanism besides intraflagellar transport emerged to sustain it...
- Stevens N, Dobbelaere J, Brunk K, Franz A, Raff J. Drosophila Ana2 is a conserved centriole duplication factor. J Cell Biol. 2010;188:313-23 pubmed publisher..In Drosophila melanogaster and humans, Sak/Plk4, DSas-6/hSas-6, and DSas-4/CPAP-orthologues of ZYG-1, SAS-6, and SAS-4, respectively-are required for centriole duplication...
- Basto R, Brunk K, Vinadogrova T, Peel N, Franz A, Khodjakov A, et al. Centrosome amplification can initiate tumorigenesis in flies. Cell. 2008;133:1032-42 pubmed publisher..Thus, centrosome amplification can initiate tumorigenesis in flies. ..
- Van de Bor V, Zimniak G, Cerezo D, Schaub S, Noselli S. Asymmetric localisation of cytokine mRNA is essential for JAK/STAT activation during cell invasiveness. Development. 2011;138:1383-93 pubmed publisher..These findings reveal a novel post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism of JAK/STAT signalling in the control of epithelial cell invasiveness. ..
- Liu J. Intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase in Drosophila. J Genet Genomics. 2010;37:281-96 pubmed publisher..The observation of compartmentation of CTP synthase now permits a broad range of questions to be addressed concerning not only the structure and function of cytoophidia but also the organization and regulation of CTP synthesis. ..
- Nguyen M, Stone M, Rolls M. Microtubules are organized independently of the centrosome in Drosophila neurons. Neural Dev. 2011;6:38 pubmed publisher..We conclude that the centrosome is not a major site of microtubule nucleation in Drosophila neurons, and is not required for maintenance of neuronal microtubule organization in these cells. ..
- Gopalakrishnan J, Chim Y, Ha A, Basiri M, Lerit D, Rusan N, et al. Tubulin nucleotide status controls Sas-4-dependent pericentriolar material recruitment. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:865-73 pubmed publisher..On the basis of its guanine-bound state, tubulin can act as a molecular switch in PCM recruitment. ..
- Zhao T, Graham O, Raposo A, St Johnston D. Growing microtubules push the oocyte nucleus to polarize the Drosophila dorsal-ventral axis. Science. 2012;336:999-1003 pubmed publisher..Nuclear migration and DV axis formation therefore depend on centrosome positioning early in oogenesis and are independent of anterior-posterior axis formation. ..
- Roth M, Roubinet C, IfflÃ¤nder N, Ferrand A, Cabernard C. Asymmetrically dividing Drosophila neuroblasts utilize two spatially and temporally independent cytokinesis pathways. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6551 pubmed publisher..These results support the model that two spatially and temporally separate pathways control different key aspects during asymmetric cell division, ensuring correct cell fate determinant segregation and neuroblast self-renewal. ..
- Wang C, Li S, Januschke J, Rossi F, Izumi Y, Garcia Alvarez G, et al. An ana2/ctp/mud complex regulates spindle orientation in Drosophila neuroblasts. Dev Cell. 2011;21:520-33 pubmed publisher..Our findings reveal that the centrosomal proteins Ana2 and Ctp regulate Mud function to orient the mitotic spindle during NB asymmetric division. ..
- Matos I, Pereira A, Lince Faria M, Cameron L, Salmon E, Maiato H. Synchronizing chromosome segregation by flux-dependent force equalization at kinetochores. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:11-26 pubmed publisher..We propose that flux-dependent equalization of kinetochore tensions ensures a timely and uniform maturation of kinetochore-microtubule interfaces necessary for error-free and coordinated segregation of chromosomes in anaphase. ..
- Winkler F, Gummalla M, KÃ¼nneke L, Lv Z, Zippelius A, Aspelmeier T, et al. Fluctuation Analysis of Centrosomes Reveals a Cortical Function of Kinesin-1. Biophys J. 2015;109:856-68 pubmed publisher..Kinesin-1 may mediate linkage of the microtubule (+)-ends to the actin cortex. Consistent with this model is our finding that Kinesin-1-GFP accumulates at the cortical actin caps. ..
- Zheng X, Gooi L, Wason A, Gabriel E, Mehrjardi N, Yang Q, et al. Conserved TCP domain of Sas-4/CPAP is essential for pericentriolar material tethering during centrosome biogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E354-63 pubmed publisher..During PCM recruitment, the conserved centrosomal protein Sas-4/CPAP/MCPH6, known to play a role in centriole formation, acts as a scaffold for cytoplasmic PCM complexes to bind and ..
- Conduit P, Wainman A, Novak Z, Weil T, Raff J. Re-examining the role of Drosophila Sas-4 in centrosome assembly using two-colour-3D-SIM FRAP. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher..We show here, however, that Cnn, Spd-2 and Asl are not recruited to the mother centriole as part of a complex with Sas-4. Thus, PCM recruitment in fly embryos does not appear to require cytosolic S-CAP complexes. ..
- Lerit D, Rusan N. PLP inhibits the activity of interphase centrosomes to ensure their proper segregation in stem cells. J Cell Biol. 2013;202:1013-22 pubmed publisher..Finally, we conclude that, although asymmetric centrosome maturation is not required for asymmetric cell division, it is required for proper centrosome segregation to the two daughter cells. ..
- Klebba J, Galletta B, Nye J, Plevock K, Buster D, Hollingsworth N, et al. Two Polo-like kinase 4 binding domains in Asterless perform distinct roles in regulating kinase stability. J Cell Biol. 2015;208:401-14 pubmed publisher..Asl not only targets Plk4 to centrioles but also modulates Plk4 stability and activity, explaining the ability of overexpressed Asl to drive centriole amplification. ..
- Galletta B, Fagerstrom C, Schoborg T, McLamarrah T, Ryniawec J, Buster D, et al. A centrosome interactome provides insight into organelle assembly and reveals a non-duplication role for Plk4. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12476 pubmed publisher..We show that Plk4 phosphorylates Cep135 to properly position the essential centriole component Asterless. This interaction landscape affords a critical framework for research of normal and aberrant centrosomes. ..
- Provost E, Hersperger G, Timmons L, Ho W, Hersperger E, Alcazar R, et al. Loss-of-function mutations in a glutathione S-transferase suppress the prune-Killer of prune lethal interaction. Genetics. 2006;172:207-19 pubmed..These alleles are loss-of-function mutations in CG10065, a gene that is predicted to encode a protein with several zinc finger domains and glutathione S-transferase activity. ..
- Chen J, Kao L, Jana S, Sivan Loukianova E, MendonÃ§a S, Cabrera O, et al. Rootletin organizes the ciliary rootlet to achieve neuron sensory function in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2015;211:435-53 pubmed publisher..Ectopically expressed Root resides at the base of mother centrioles in spermatocytes and localizes asymmetrically to mother centrosomes in neuroblasts, both requiring Bld10, a basal body protein with varied functions. ..
- Reschen R, Colombié N, Wheatley L, Dobbelaere J, St Johnston D, Ohkura H, et al. Dgp71WD is required for the assembly of the acentrosomal Meiosis I spindle, and is not a general targeting factor for the Î³-TuRC. Biol Open. 2012;1:422-9 pubmed publisher..Thus, Dgp71WD is not simply a general cofactor required for Î³-TuRC and/or Augmin targeting, and it appears to have a crucial role independent of these complexes in the acentrosomal Meiosis I spindle. ..
- Novak Z, Wainman A, Gartenmann L, Raff J. Cdk1 Phosphorylates Drosophila Sas-4 to Recruit Polo to Daughter Centrioles and Convert Them to Centrosomes. Dev Cell. 2016;37:545-57 pubmed publisher..These observations can explain why daughter centrioles have to pass through mitosis before they can duplicate and organize a centrosome. ..
- Christophorou N, Rubin T, Bonnet I, Piolot T, Arnaud M, Huynh J. Microtubule-driven nuclear rotations promote meiotic chromosome dynamics. Nat Cell Biol. 2015;17:1388-400 pubmed publisher..Our findings reveal a mechanism for chromosome pairing in Drosophila, and indicate that microtubules, centrosomes and associated proteins play a crucial role in the dynamic organization of chromosomes inside the nucleus. ..
- Caous R, Pascal A, RomÃ© P, Richard Parpaillon L, Karess R, Giet R. Spindle assembly checkpoint inactivation fails to suppress neuroblast tumour formation in aurA mutant Drosophila. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8879 pubmed publisher..We report here the existence of an Aurora A-dependent mechanism promoting efficient, timed cyclin B degradation. ..
- Gallaud E, Caous R, Pascal A, Bazile F, Gagné J, Huet S, et al. Ensconsin/Map7 promotes microtubule growth and centrosome separation in Drosophila neural stem cells. J Cell Biol. 2014;204:1111-21 pubmed publisher..In addition, Ensconsin promotes microtubule polymerization during mitosis to control spindle length independent of Kinesin-1. ..
- Guha A, Lin L, Kornberg T. Organ renewal and cell divisions by differentiated cells in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:10832-6 pubmed publisher..We report here that they reinitiate cell divisions during the third instar (L3) to increase the Tr2 population by approximately 10-fold with multipotent cells. ..
- Bang C, Cheng J. Dynamic interplay of spectrosome and centrosome organelles in asymmetric stem cell divisions. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0123294 pubmed publisher..We propose that in male GSCs, the spectrosome recruited to the apical end plays a complimentary role in ensuring proper spindle orientation when centrosome function is compromised. ..
- Poulton J, Cuningham J, Peifer M. Acentrosomal Drosophila epithelial cells exhibit abnormal cell division, leading to cell death and compensatory proliferation. Dev Cell. 2014;30:731-45 pubmed publisher..These data reveal the importance of centrosomes in fly epithelia and demonstrate the robust compensatory mechanisms at the cellular and organismal level. ..
- Taniguchi K, Kokuryo A, Imano T, Minami R, Nakagoshi H, Adachi Yamada T. Isoform-specific functions of Mud/NuMA mediate binucleation of Drosophila male accessory gland cells. BMC Dev Biol. 2014;14:46 pubmed publisher..We also propose that Mud(S) is a key regulator triggering cytokinesis skipping in binucleation processes. ..
- Pollarolo G, Schulz J, Munck S, Dotti C. Cytokinesis remnants define first neuronal asymmetry in vivo. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:1525-33 pubmed publisher..This is, to our knowledge, the first molecular study of initial neuronal polarization in vivo. The mechanisms of polarization seem to be defined at the precursor stage. ..
- Venkei Z, Yamashita Y. The centrosome orientation checkpoint is germline stem cell specific and operates prior to the spindle assembly checkpoint in Drosophila testis. Development. 2015;142:62-9 pubmed publisher..This study may provide a framework for identifying and understanding similar mechanisms that might be in place in other asymmetrically dividing cell types. ..
- Conduit P, Richens J, Wainman A, Holder J, Vicente C, Pratt M, et al. A molecular mechanism of mitotic centrosome assembly in Drosophila. elife. 2014;3:e03399 pubmed publisher..These observations suggest a surprisingly simple mechanism of mitotic PCM assembly in flies. ..
- Lecland N, Debec A, Delmas A, Moutinho Pereira S, Malmanche N, Bouissou A, et al. Establishment and mitotic characterization of new Drosophila acentriolar cell lines from DSas-4 mutant. Biol Open. 2013;2:314-23 pubmed publisher..Finally, pilot RNAi experiments open the potential use of these cell lines for the molecular dissection of anastral pathways in spindle and centrosome assembly. ..
- Yuan H, Chiang C, Cheng J, Salzmann V, Yamashita Y. Regulation of cyclin A localization downstream of Par-1 function is critical for the centrosome orientation checkpoint in Drosophila male germline stem cells. Dev Biol. 2012;361:57-67 pubmed publisher..We propose that the regulation of cyclin A localization via Par-1 function plays a critical role in the centrosome orientation checkpoint. ..
- Badano J, Katsanis N. Life without centrioles: cilia in the spotlight. Cell. 2006;125:1228-30 pubmed..New work, including a study in this issue (), highlights the unexpected finding that lack of centrioles does not impede development in the fruit fly. Rather, flies reach maturity but then die because their sensory neurons lack cilia. ..
- Afonso O, Matos I, Pereira A, Aguiar P, Lampson M, Maiato H. Feedback control of chromosome separation by a midzone Aurora B gradient. Science. 2014;345:332-336 pubmed publisher..This allows the correction and reintegration of lagging chromosomes in the main nuclei before completion of NER...
- Blachon S, Khire A, Avidor Reiss T. The origin of the second centriole in the zygote of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2014;197:199-205 pubmed publisher..These observations demonstrate that the PCL is the origin for the second centriole in the Drosophila zygote and that a paternal centriole precursor, without centriolar proteins, is transmitted to the egg during fertilization. ..
- Galletta B, Jacobs K, Fagerstrom C, Rusan N. Asterless is required for centriole length control and sperm development. J Cell Biol. 2016;213:435-50 pubmed publisher..Insights into the role of Asl/Cep152 beyond centriole duplication could help shed light on how Cep152 mutations lead to the development of microcephaly. ..
- Gottardo M, Callaini G, Riparbelli M. Klp10A modulates the localization of centriole-associated proteins during Drosophila male gametogenesis. Cell Cycle. 2016;15:3432-3441 pubmed publisher..Daughter centrioles have often an ectopic position with respect to the proximal end of the mothers and failed to recruit Dplp. ..