Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: salm
Description: spalt major
Alias: 3602, B1164, CG6464, Dmel\CG6464, SAL, SALM, SPALT, Sal, SalM, Salm, Spalt, l(2)03602, sal, salII, salM, slam, spalt, spalt major, CG6464-PA, CG6464-PB, Spalt-M, sal major, salm-PA, salm-PB, spalt, spalt M, spalt majr, spalt-major
Species: fruit fly
- Raftery L, Sutherland D. TGF-beta family signal transduction in Drosophila development: from Mad to Smads. Dev Biol. 1999;210:251-68 pubmed..Identification of more ligand sequences and demonstration of a functional Drosophila activin-like signal transduction pathway suggest that all TGF-beta signal transduction pathways are present in flies. ..
- Schmitt S, Prestel M, Paro R. Intergenic transcription through a polycomb group response element counteracts silencing. Genes Dev. 2005;19:697-708 pubmed
- Dorfman R, Glazer L, Weihe U, Wernet M, Shilo B. Elbow and Noc define a family of zinc finger proteins controlling morphogenesis of specific tracheal branches. Development. 2002;129:3585-96 pubmed..ElB also associates with the Groucho protein, indicating that the complex has the capacity to repress transcription of target genes. Indeed, in elB or noc mutants, expanded expression of tracheal branch-specific genes was observed. ..
- Spletter M, Schnorrer F. Transcriptional regulation and alternative splicing cooperate in muscle fiber-type specification in flies and mammals. Exp Cell Res. 2014;321:90-8 pubmed publisher..Thus, research in Drosophila can provide important mechanistic insight into muscle fiber specification, which is relevant to homologous processes in mammals and to the pathology of muscle diseases. ..
- Gurdon J, Bourillot P. Morphogen gradient interpretation. Nature. 2001;413:797-803 pubmed
- Lifanov A, Makeev V, Nazina A, Papatsenko D. Homotypic regulatory clusters in Drosophila. Genome Res. 2003;13:579-88 pubmed..We also discuss the potential of the clustering method in interpreting the differential response of genes to various levels of transcriptional regulators. ..
- Milan M, Perez L, Cohen S. Short-range cell interactions and cell survival in the Drosophila wing. Dev Cell. 2002;2:797-805 pubmed..We also present evidence showing that activation of the Notch signal transduction pathway is involved in triggering apoptosis of cells misspecified for their dorsal-ventral position. ..
- Li Kroeger D, Witt L, Grimes H, Cook T, Gebelein B. Hox and senseless antagonism functions as a molecular switch to regulate EGF secretion in the Drosophila PNS. Dev Cell. 2008;15:298-308 pubmed publisher..As the vertebrate senseless homolog is essential for neural development as well as hematopoiesis, we propose Hox-Senseless antagonism will broadly control cell fate decisions. ..
- Sánchez J, Talamillo A, Gonzalez M, Sanchez Pulido L, Jimenez S, Pirone L, et al. Drosophila Sal and Salr are transcriptional repressors. Biochem J. 2011;438:437-45 pubmed publisherThe SALL (Spalt-like) family of zinc-finger transcription factors is conserved in metazoans...
- Lecuit T, Brook W, Ng M, Calleja M, Sun H, Cohen S. Two distinct mechanisms for long-range patterning by Decapentaplegic in the Drosophila wing. Nature. 1996;381:387-93 pubmed..Both mechanisms are involved in axis formation. ..
- Hu N, Castelli Gair J. Study of the posterior spiracles of Drosophila as a model to understand the genetic and cellular mechanisms controlling morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 1999;214:197-210 pubmed..This results in a spiracle without a lumen and with the tracheal opening located outside it. ..
- Vincent S, Ruberte E, Grieder N, Chen C, Haerry T, Schuh R, et al. DPP controls tracheal cell migration along the dorsoventral body axis of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1997;124:2741-50 pubmed..It is required to control the dorsal expression of the BNL ligand; in addition, the DPP signal recruits groups of dorsal and ventral tracheal cells and programs them to migrate in dorsal and ventral directions. ..
- Tanimoto H, Itoh S, ten Dijke P, Tabata T. Hedgehog creates a gradient of DPP activity in Drosophila wing imaginal discs. Mol Cell. 2000;5:59-71 pubmed..We suggest that regulation of tkv by HH is a key part of the mechanism that controls the level and distribution of DPP. ..
- de Celis J, Barrio R, Kafatos F. Regulation of the spalt/spalt-related gene complex and its function during sensory organ development in the Drosophila thorax. Development. 1999;126:2653-62 pubmedThe nuclear proteins Spalt and Spalt-related belong to a conserved family of transcriptional regulators characterised by the presence of double zinc-finger domains...
- Podos S, Ferguson E. Morphogen gradients: new insights from DPP. Trends Genet. 1999;15:396-402 pubmed..These reports identity additional genes and genetic circuitry necessary for this patterning system, and they highlight variations that might reflect developmental constraints within individual target cell fields. ..
- de Celis J, Barrio R, Kafatos F. A gene complex acting downstream of dpp in Drosophila wing morphogenesis. Nature. 1996;381:421-4 pubmed..Here we show that spalt and spalt-related (sal and salr), two closely related genes that encode transcription factors, are expressed in ..
- Galant R, Walsh C, Carroll S. Hox repression of a target gene: extradenticle-independent, additive action through multiple monomer binding sites. Development. 2002;129:3115-26 pubmed..Here, we show that Ubx directly regulates a flight appendage-specific cis-regulatory element of the spalt (sal) gene...
- Umemori M, Takemura M, Maeda K, Ohba K, Adachi Yamada T. Drosophila T-box transcription factor Optomotor-blind prevents pathological folding and local overgrowth in wing epithelium through confining Hh signal. Dev Biol. 2007;308:68-81 pubmed..These are the mechanisms for generating secondary phenotypes when a single signaling factor Omb fails to function. ..
- Makeev V, Lifanov A, Nazina A, Papatsenko D. Distance preferences in the arrangement of binding motifs and hierarchical levels in organization of transcription regulatory information. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:6016-26 pubmed..We discuss the role of the hierarchy in understanding transcriptional regulation and in detection of transcription regulatory regions in genomes. ..
- Haerry T, Khalsa O, O Connor M, Wharton K. Synergistic signaling by two BMP ligands through the SAX and TKV receptors controls wing growth and patterning in Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:3977-87 pubmed..gradient of DPP has been proposed to determine the transcriptional response thresholds of the downstream genes sal and omb...
- de Celis J, Barrio R. Function of the spalt/spalt-related gene complex in positioning the veins in the Drosophila wing. Mech Dev. 2000;91:31-41 pubmedb>Spalt and Spalt-related encode conserved Zn-finger proteins that mediate the function of the TGF-beta molecule Decapentaplegic during the positioning of veins in the Drosophila wing...
- Marty T, Muller B, Basler K, Affolter M. Schnurri mediates Dpp-dependent repression of brinker transcription. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:745-9 pubmed..The existence of several Shn-like proteins in vertebrates and the observation that Brk functions in BMP signalling in Xenopus indicates that a similar regulatory cascade may be conserved in higher organisms. ..
- Choo S, White R, Russell S. Genome-wide analysis of the binding of the Hox protein Ultrabithorax and the Hox cofactor Homothorax in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e14778 pubmed publisher..Overall, we define a set of direct Ubx targets in the haltere imaginal disc and suggest that chromatin accessibility has important implications for Hox target selection and for transcription factor binding in general. ..
- Cook T, Pichaud F, Sonneville R, Papatsenko D, Desplan C. Distinction between color photoreceptor cell fates is controlled by Prospero in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2003;4:853-64 pubmed..Furthermore, this study provides transcriptional targets for pros that may lend insight into its role in regulating neuronal development in flies and vertebrates. ..
- Wagner Bernholz J, Wilson C, Gibson G, Schuh R, Gehring W. Identification of target genes of the homeotic gene Antennapedia by enhancer detection. Genes Dev. 1991;5:2467-80 pubmed..The expression of this newly discovered gene, spalt major (salm) is strongly repressed in gain-of-function mutants that express Antp in the antennal disc...
- Barrio R, de Celis J. Regulation of spalt expression in the Drosophila wing blade in response to the Decapentaplegic signaling pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:6021-6 pubmed..Here, we analyze the enhancer that drives expression of the Drosophila gene spalt in the wing blade...
- Shen J, Dahmann C, Pflugfelder G. Spatial discontinuity of optomotor-blind expression in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc disrupts epithelial architecture and promotes cell sorting. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:23 pubmed publisher..Graded Omb expression is necessary for normal cell morphogenesis and cell affinity and sharp spatial discontinuities must be avoided to allow normal wing development. ..
- Llimargas M. Wingless and its signalling pathway have common and separable functions during tracheal development. Development. 2000;127:4407-17 pubmed..These functions are achieved through the regulation of target genes, such as spalt in the dorsal trunk and escargot in the fusion cells...
- de Navas L, Reed H, Akam M, Barrio R, Alonso C, Sánchez Herrero E. Integration of RNA processing and expression level control modulates the function of the Drosophila Hox gene Ultrabithorax during adult development. Development. 2011;138:107-16 pubmed publisher..The analysis of the DNA-binding profiles of Ubx isoforms to a natural Ubx target, spalt, shows no major differences in isoform DNA-binding activities, suggesting that alternative splicing might ..
- del Alamo Rodríguez D, Terriente Felix J, Diaz Benjumea F. The role of the T-box gene optomotor-blind in patterning the Drosophila wing. Dev Biol. 2004;268:481-92 pubmed..veins (tkv) to repress the expression of the gene master of thick veins and also to activate the expression of spalt (sal) and vestigial (vg), two decapentaplegic target genes...
- Sweetman D, Munsterberg A. The vertebrate spalt genes in development and disease. Dev Biol. 2006;293:285-93 pubmedThe spalt proteins are encoded by a family of evolutionarily conserved genes found in species as diverse as Drosophila, C. elegans and vertebrates...
- Caviglia S, Luschnig S. The ETS domain transcriptional repressor Anterior open inhibits MAP kinase and Wingless signaling to couple tracheal cell fate with branch identity. Development. 2013;140:1240-9 pubmed publisher..the branch-specific choice between the two seamless tube types depends on the tracheal branch identity gene spalt major, which is sufficient to inhibit TC specification...
- Sprecher S, Pichaud F, Desplan C. Adult and larval photoreceptors use different mechanisms to specify the same Rhodopsin fates. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2182-95 pubmed..Furthermore, the combinatorial action of the transcription factors Spalt, Seven-up, and Orthodenticle specifies the two PR subtypes...
- Walsh C, Carroll S. Collaboration between Smads and a Hox protein in target gene repression. Development. 2007;134:3585-92 pubmed publisher..effectors of the Drosophila Dpp/TGF-beta pathway, that are genetically required for the activation of the spalt (sal) gene in the wing, collaborate with the Hox protein Ultrabithorax (Ubx) to directly repress sal in the ..
- Cantera R, Lüer K, Rusten T, Barrio R, Kafatos F, Technau G. Mutations in spalt cause a severe but reversible neurodegenerative phenotype in the embryonic central nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2002;129:5577-86 pubmedThe gene spalt is expressed in the embryonic central nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster but its function in this tissue is still unknown...
- Xie B, Charlton Perkins M, McDonald E, Gebelein B, Cook T. Senseless functions as a molecular switch for color photoreceptor differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 2007;134:4243-53 pubmed..Interestingly, Pros has recently been shown to function as a tumor suppressor, whereas Gfi1 is a well-characterized oncogene. Thus, we propose that sens/pros antagonism is important for regulating many biological processes. ..
- Sánchez Higueras C, Sotillos S, Castelli Gair Hombría J. Common origin of insect trachea and endocrine organs from a segmentally repeated precursor. Curr Biol. 2014;24:76-81 pubmed publisher..We propose that the arthropod ectodermal endocrine glands and respiratory organs arose through an extreme process of divergent evolution from a metameric repeated structure. ..
- Macdonald S, Long A. Fine scale structural variants distinguish the genomes of Drosophila melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura. Genome Biol. 2006;7:R67 pubmed..Further examination of other Drosophila genome sequences will likely identify an array of novel microinversion events. ..
- Moser M, Campbell G. Generating and interpreting the Brinker gradient in the Drosophila wing. Dev Biol. 2005;286:647-58 pubmed..pMad is part of a complex which directly represses brk. sal and omb are targets of Brk and are, thus, only expressed medially with their domains extending mediolaterally into ..
- Lawrence P, Struhl G. Morphogens, compartments, and pattern: lessons from drosophila?. Cell. 1996;85:951-61 pubmed
- Schönbauer C, Distler J, Jährling N, Radolf M, Dodt H, Frasch M, et al. Spalt mediates an evolutionarily conserved switch to fibrillar muscle fate in insects. Nature. 2011;479:406-9 pubmed publisher..Here we identify the transcription factor Spalt major (Salm) as a master regulator of fibrillar flight muscle fate in Drosophila...
- Widmann T, Dahmann C. Dpp signaling promotes the cuboidal-to-columnar shape transition of Drosophila wing disc epithelia by regulating Rho1. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:1362-73 pubmed publisher..Our results identify a cell-autonomous role for Dpp signaling in promoting and maintaining the elongated columnar shape of wing disc cells and suggest that Dpp signaling acts by regulating Rho1 and MRLC. ..
- Bradley P, Andrew D. ribbon encodes a novel BTB/POZ protein required for directed cell migration in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2001;128:3001-15 pubmed..Directed cell migration of the salivary gland and dorsal epidermis are also affected in ribbon mutants, suggesting that conserved mechanisms may be employed to orient cell migrations in multiple tissues during development. ..
- Merabet S, Hombria J, Hu N, Pradel J, Graba Y. Hox-controlled reorganisation of intrasegmental patterning cues underlies Drosophila posterior spiracle organogenesis. Development. 2005;132:3093-102 pubmed..These changes in expression patterns confer axial specificity to otherwise reiteratively used segmental patterning cues, linking intrasegmental polarity and acquisition of segment identity. ..
- Hauenschild A, Ringrose L, Altmutter C, Paro R, Rehmsmeier M. Evolutionary plasticity of polycomb/trithorax response elements in Drosophila species. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e261 pubmed publisher..By demonstrating that PRE evolution is not limited to the adaptation of preexisting elements, these findings document a novel dimension of cis-regulatory evolution. ..
- de Celis J, Barrio R. Regulation and function of Spalt proteins during animal development. Int J Dev Biol. 2009;53:1385-98 pubmed publisherThe genes of the spalt (sal) family play fundamental roles during animal development...
- Nellen D, Burke R, Struhl G, Basler K. Direct and long-range action of a DPP morphogen gradient. Cell. 1996;85:357-68 pubmed..Further, we show that two genes, optomotor-blind and spalt are transcriptionally activated at different distances from DPP-secreting cells and provide evidence that these ..
- Lunde K, Biehs B, Nauber U, Bier E. The knirps and knirps-related genes organize development of the second wing vein in Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:4145-54 pubmed..kni and knrl L2 stripes abut the anterior border of the broad central expression domain of the Dpp target gene spalt major (salm)...
- Teleman A, Cohen S. Dpp gradient formation in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc. Cell. 2000;103:971-80 pubmed..The pMAD gradient adjusted to compartment size when this was experimentally altered. These observations suggest that the Dpp activity gradient may be shaped at the level of receptor activation. ..
- Akam M. Hox genes: from master genes to micromanagers. Curr Biol. 1998;8:R676-8 pubmed
- Barrio R, López Varea A, Casado M, de Celis J. Characterization of dSnoN and its relationship to Decapentaplegic signaling in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2007;306:66-81 pubmed
- Barrio R, de Celis J, Bolshakov S, Kafatos F. Identification of regulatory regions driving the expression of the Drosophila spalt complex at different developmental stages. Dev Biol. 1999;215:33-47 pubmedThe zinc finger transcription factors Spalt and Spalt-related have been implicated in multiple developmental processes...
- Mollereau B, Dominguez M, Webel R, Colley N, Keung B, de Celis J, et al. Two-step process for photoreceptor formation in Drosophila. Nature. 2001;412:911-3 pubmed..Here, we show that the spalt (sal) gene complex encodes two transcription factors that are required late in pupation for photoreceptor ..
- Brummel T, Abdollah S, Haerry T, Shimell M, Merriam J, Raftery L, et al. The Drosophila activin receptor baboon signals through dSmad2 and controls cell proliferation but not patterning during larval development. Genes Dev. 1999;13:98-111 pubmed..Our results define a novel Drosophila Activin/TGF-beta pathway that is analogous to its vertebrate counterpart and show that this pathway functions to promote cellular growth with minimal effects on patterning. ..
- Cooper M, Bray S. Frizzled regulation of Notch signalling polarizes cell fate in the Drosophila eye. Nature. 1999;397:526-30 pubmed
- Chihara T, Hayashi S. Control of tracheal tubulogenesis by Wingless signaling. Development. 2000;127:4433-42 pubmed..signal transducer, Armadillo, have multiple functions, including specifying the dorsal trunk through activation of Spalt expression and inducing differentiation of fusion cells in all fusion branches...
- Rusten T, Cantera R, Urban J, Technau G, Kafatos F, Barrio R. Spalt modifies EGFR-mediated induction of chordotonal precursors in the embryonic PNS of Drosophila promoting the development of oenocytes. Development. 2001;128:711-22 pubmedGenes of the spalt family encode nuclear zinc finger proteins. In Drosophila melanogaster, they are necessary for the establishment of head/trunk identity, correct tracheal migration and patterning of the wing imaginal disc...
- Entchev E, Schwabedissen A, Gonzalez Gaitan M. Gradient formation of the TGF-beta homolog Dpp. Cell. 2000;103:981-91 pubmed
- Domingos P, Mlodzik M, Mendes C, Brown S, Steller H, Mollereau B. Spalt transcription factors are required for R3/R4 specification and establishment of planar cell polarity in the Drosophila eye. Development. 2004;131:5695-702 pubmed..Here, we show that the spalt zinc-finger transcription factors (spalt major and spalt-related) are part of the molecular mechanisms regulating R3/R4 specification and planar cell polarity ..
- Minami M, Kinoshita N, Kamoshida Y, Tanimoto H, Tabata T. brinker is a target of Dpp in Drosophila that negatively regulates Dpp-dependent genes. Nature. 1999;398:242-6 pubmed..Among the gene targets that it regulates are optomotor blind (omb), spalt (sal), and daughters against dpp (dad)...
- Jazwinska A, Kirov N, Wieschaus E, Roth S, Rushlow C. The Drosophila gene brinker reveals a novel mechanism of Dpp target gene regulation. Cell. 1999;96:563-73 pubmed..brk itself is negatively regulated by Dpp. Dpp signaling might relieve brk's repression of low-level target genes either by transcriptional repression of brk or by antagonizing a repressor function of brk at the target gene promoters. ..
- Takaesu N, Bulanin D, Johnson A, Orenic T, Newfeld S. A combinatorial enhancer recognized by Mad, TCF and Brinker first activates then represses dpp expression in the posterior spiracles of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2008;313:829-43 pubmed..Intriguingly, several aspects of dpp posterior spiracle expression and function are similar to demonstrated roles for Wnt and BMP signaling in proximal-distal outgrowth of the mammalian embryonic lung. ..
- Muller B, Hartmann B, Pyrowolakis G, Affolter M, Basler K. Conversion of an extracellular Dpp/BMP morphogen gradient into an inverse transcriptional gradient. Cell. 2003;113:221-33 pubmed..Together, our results provide the molecular framework for a mechanism by which the extracellular Dpp/BMP morphogen establishes a finely tuned, graded read-out of transcriptional repression. ..
- Cook O, Biehs B, Bier E. brinker and optomotor-blind act coordinately to initiate development of the L5 wing vein primordium in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:2113-24 pubmed..region of the wing, brk helps define the position of the L2 vein in combination with another Dpp target gene, spalt. The similar mechanisms responsible for the induction of L5 and L2 development reveal how boundaries set by dosage-..
- Sprecher S, Desplan C. Switch of rhodopsin expression in terminally differentiated Drosophila sensory neurons. Nature. 2008;454:533-7 pubmed publisher..This fate switch of functioning, terminally differentiated neurons provides a novel, unexpected example of hard-wired sensory plasticity. ..
- Kühnlein R, Schuh R. Dual function of the region-specific homeotic gene spalt during Drosophila tracheal system development. Development. 1996;122:2215-23 pubmedWe report that the region-specific homeotic gene spalt affects the Drosophila tracheal system at two different stages of embryonic development...
- Oas S, Bryantsev A, Cripps R. Arrest is a regulator of fiber-specific alternative splicing in the indirect flight muscles of Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2014;206:895-908 pubmed publisher..Genetically, aret is located downstream of exd (extradenticle), hth (homothorax), and salm (spalt major), transcription factors that control fiber identity...
- Kim J, Johnson K, Chen H, Carroll S, Laughon A. Drosophila Mad binds to DNA and directly mediates activation of vestigial by Decapentaplegic. Nature. 1997;388:304-8 pubmed..Mad also binds to Dpp-response elements in other genes. These results suggest that Dpp signalling regulates gene expression by activating Mad binding to target gene enhancers. ..
- Samakovlis C, Hacohen N, Manning G, Sutherland D, Guillemin K, Krasnow M. Development of the Drosophila tracheal system occurs by a series of morphologically distinct but genetically coupled branching events. Development. 1996;122:1395-407 pubmed..The combined morphological, marker expression and genetic data support a model in which successive branching events are mechanistically and genetically distinct but coupled through the action of a tracheal gene regulatory hierarchy. ..
- Kerszberg M, Wolpert L. Specifying positional information in the embryo: looking beyond morphogens. Cell. 2007;130:205-9 pubmed..It is now becoming clear that additional or alternative mechanisms involving interactions among cells are also crucial for positional specification. ..
- Papadopoulos D, Resendez Perez D, Cárdenas Chávez D, Villanueva Segura K, Canales del Castillo R, Felix D, et al. Functional synthetic Antennapedia genes and the dual roles of YPWM motif and linker size in transcriptional activation and repression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:11959-64 pubmed publisher
- de Navascués J, Modolell J. tailup, a LIM-HD gene, and Iro-C cooperate in Drosophila dorsal mesothorax specification. Development. 2007;134:1779-88 pubmed..Our data support a model in which the EGFR and Dpp signalling pathways, with their respective downstream Iro-C and tup genes, converge and cooperate to commit cells to the notum developmental fate. ..
- Zeng Y, Rahnama M, Wang S, Sosu Sedzorme W, Verheyen E. Drosophila Nemo antagonizes BMP signaling by phosphorylation of Mad and inhibition of its nuclear accumulation. Development. 2007;134:2061-71 pubmed..This is the first example of the inhibition of Drosophila BMP signaling by a MAPK and represents a novel mechanism of Smad inhibition through the phosphorylation of a conserved serine residue within the MH1 domain of Mad. ..
- Domingos P, Brown S, Barrio R, Ratnakumar K, Frankfort B, Mardon G, et al. Regulation of R7 and R8 differentiation by the spalt genes. Dev Biol. 2004;273:121-33 pubmed..During pupation, spalt was previously proposed to promote R7 and R8 terminal differentiation...
- Shen J, Dahmann C. The role of Dpp signaling in maintaining the Drosophila anteroposterior compartment boundary. Dev Biol. 2005;279:31-43 pubmed..We propose that Dpp signaling is required for anterior cells to interpret the Hedgehog signal in order to specify segregation properties important for maintaining the A/P boundary. ..