Gene Symbol: sa
Description: spermatocyte arrest
Alias: CG11308, Dmel\CG11308, TAF-like, TAF8L, dTAF8L, gfb, ms(3)VO45, ms(3)VO5, ms(3)sa, tTAF, spermatocyte arrest, CG11308-PA, golfballs, sa-PA, spermatocytes arrest, testis-specific TBP associated factor
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. White Cooper H, Schafer M, Alphey L, Fuller M. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanisms coordinate the onset of spermatid differentiation with meiosis I in Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:125-34 pubmed
    The aly, can, mia and sa genes of Drosophila are essential in males both for the G2-meiosis I transition and for onset of spermatid differentiation...
  2. Vibranovski M, Lopes H, Karr T, Long M. Stage-specific expression profiling of Drosophila spermatogenesis suggests that meiotic sex chromosome inactivation drives genomic relocation of testis-expressed genes. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000731 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest MSCI as a general mechanism affecting the evolution of some testis-expressed genes. ..
  3. Chen X, Lu C, Morillo Prado J, Eun S, Fuller M. Sequential changes at differentiation gene promoters as they become active in a stem cell lineage. Development. 2011;138:2441-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the action of the tMAC and tTAF cell type-specific chromatin and transcription machinery leads to loss of Polycomb and release of stalled Pol II ..
  4. White Cooper H. Molecular mechanisms of gene regulation during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Reproduction. 2010;139:11-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, I discuss the regulation of gene expression during spermatogenesis in Drosophila, focussing on the processes underlying the expression of testis-specific genes in the male germline. ..
  5. Metcalf C, Wassarman D. Nucleolar colocalization of TAF1 and testis-specific TAFs during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2836-43 pubmed
    ..subunits examined (TATA-box binding protein [TBP], TAF1, TAF4, TAF5, and TAF9), only TAF1 colocalized with the tTAF Mia in spermatocyte nucleoli...
  6. Gan Q, Schones D, Ho Eun S, Wei G, Cui K, Zhao K, et al. Monovalent and unpoised status of most genes in undifferentiated cell-enriched Drosophila testis. Genome Biol. 2010;11:R42 pubmed publisher
  7. Goodrich J, Tjian R. Unexpected roles for core promoter recognition factors in cell-type-specific transcription and gene regulation. Nat Rev Genet. 2010;11:549-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, new roles for components of these complexes have been identified beyond development; for example, in mediating interactions with chromatin and in maintaining active gene expression across cell divisions. ..
  8. Barckmann B, Chen X, Kaiser S, Jayaramaiah Raja S, Rathke C, Dottermusch Heidel C, et al. Three levels of regulation lead to protamine and Mst77F expression in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2013;377:33-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the proper spatiotemporal expression pattern of major sperm chromatin components depends on cell-type-specific mechanisms of transcriptional and translational control. ..
  9. Leser K, Awe S, Barckmann B, Renkawitz Pohl R, Rathke C. The bromodomain-containing protein tBRD-1 is specifically expressed in spermatocytes and is essential for male fertility. Biol Open. 2012;1:597-606 pubmed publisher
    ..The nucleolar localisation of tBRD-1 depended on tTAF function but not the other way round...

More Information


  1. Perezgasga L, Jiang J, Bolival B, Hiller M, Benson E, Fuller M, et al. Regulation of transcription of meiotic cell cycle and terminal differentiation genes by the testis-specific Zn-finger protein matotopetli. Development. 2004;131:1691-702 pubmed
  2. Lin T, Viswanathan S, Wood C, Wilson P, Wolf N, Fuller M. Coordinate developmental control of the meiotic cell cycle and spermatid differentiation in Drosophila males. Development. 1996;122:1331-41 pubmed
    Wild-type function of four Drosophila genes, spermatocyte arrest, cannonball, always early and meiosis I arrest, is required both for cell-cycle progression through the G2/M transition of meiosis I in males and for onset of spermatid ..
  3. El Sharnouby S, Redhouse J, White R. Genome-wide and cell-specific epigenetic analysis challenges the role of polycomb in Drosophila spermatogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003842 pubmed publisher
    ..model for the activation mechanism, Polycomb plays a key role silencing these genes in the germline precursors, and tTAF-dependent activation in primary spermatocytes involves the displacement of Polycomb from gene promoters...
  4. Hiller M, Chen X, Pringle M, Suchorolski M, Sancak Y, Viswanathan S, et al. Testis-specific TAF homologs collaborate to control a tissue-specific transcription program. Development. 2004;131:5297-308 pubmed
    ..spermatocytes also express four additional tissue-specific TAFs: nht (homolog of dTAF4), mia (homolog of dTAF6), sa (homolog of dTAF8) and rye (homolog of dTAF12)...
  5. White Cooper H, Leroy D, MacQueen A, Fuller M. Transcription of meiotic cell cycle and terminal differentiation genes depends on a conserved chromatin associated protein, whose nuclear localisation is regulated. Development. 2000;127:5463-73 pubmed
    ..We favour a model where aly may regulate cell cycle progression and terminal differentiation during male gametogenesis by regulating chromatin conformation in primary spermatocytes. ..
  6. Lu C, Kim J, Fuller M. The polyubiquitin gene Ubi-p63E is essential for male meiotic cell cycle progression and germ cell differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 2013;140:3522-31 pubmed publisher
    ..did not strongly affect the spermatocyte transcription program regulated by the testis TBP-associated factor (tTAF) or meiosis arrest complex (tMAC) genes...
  7. Wang Z, Mann R. Requirement for two nearly identical TGIF-related homeobox genes in Drosophila spermatogenesis. Development. 2003;130:2853-65 pubmed
  8. Chen X, Hiller M, Sancak Y, Fuller M. Tissue-specific TAFs counteract Polycomb to turn on terminal differentiation. Science. 2005;310:869-72 pubmed
    ..Testis TAFs also promoted relocalization of Polycomb Repression Complex 1 components to the nucleolus in spermatocytes, implicating subnuclear architecture in the regulation of terminal differentiation. ..
  9. Insco M, Leon A, Tam C, McKearin D, Fuller M. Accumulation of a differentiation regulator specifies transit amplifying division number in an adult stem cell lineage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:22311-6 pubmed publisher
  10. Cann M, Chung E, Levin L. A new family of adenylyl cyclase genes in the male germline of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Genes Evol. 2000;210:200-6 pubmed
    ..Expression from this locus is under the control of the always early, cannonball, meiosis arrest, and spermatocyte arrest genes that are required for the G2/M transition of meiosis I during spermatogenesis, implying a mechanism ..
  11. Boutanaev A, Mikhaylova L, Nurminsky D. Up-regulation of the Ku heterodimer in Drosophila testicular cyst cells. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:1707-15 pubmed
    ..Abundance of Ku in the cyst cell cytoplasm suggests the role for Ku subunits in the regulation of sperm individualization. ..
  12. Matsushita T, Fujii Taira I, Tanaka Y, Homma K, Natori S. Male-specific IDGF, a novel gene encoding a membrane-bound extracellular signaling molecule expressed exclusively in testis of Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:36934-41 pubmed
    ..Analysis using four meiotic arrest mutants, aly, can, mia, and sa suggested that MSI is involved in spermiogenesis, the final differentiation step of spermatogenesis...
  13. Xu S, Hafer N, Agunwamba B, Schedl P. The CPEB protein Orb2 has multiple functions during spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003079 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, analysis of a partial loss of function orb2 mutant suggests that the orb2 differentiation phenotypes are independent of the earlier arrest in meiosis. ..
  14. Moon S, Cho B, Min S, Lee D, Chung Y. The THO complex is required for nucleolar integrity in Drosophila spermatocytes. Development. 2011;138:3835-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The nucleolar distribution of a testis-specific TATA binding protein (TBP)-associated factor (tTAF), SA, which is required for the expression of genes responsible for sperm differentiation, was severely disrupted ..
  15. Katzenberger R, Rach E, Anderson A, Ohler U, Wassarman D. The Drosophila Translational Control Element (TCE) is required for high-level transcription of many genes that are specifically expressed in testes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45009 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings set the stage for determining the mechanism by which the TCE regulates testis-specific transcription and understanding the dual role of the TCE in translational and transcriptional regulation. ..
  16. Insco M, Bailey A, Kim J, Olivares G, Wapinski O, Tam C, et al. A self-limiting switch based on translational control regulates the transition from proliferation to differentiation in an adult stem cell lineage. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;11:689-700 pubmed publisher
    ..TRIM-NHL homologs across species facilitate the switch from proliferation to differentiation, suggesting a conserved developmentally programmed tumor suppressor mechanism. ..
  17. Ferguson J, Gomes S, Civetta A. Rapid male-specific regulatory divergence and down regulation of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila species hybrids. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61575 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide evidence that rapid male sex gene regulatory divergence can explain misexpression of spermatogenesis genes in hybrids. ..
  18. Rautureau G, Jouvensal L, Vovelle F, Schoentgen F, Locker D, Decoville M. Expression and characterization of the PEBP homolog genes from Drosophila. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2009;71:55-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, by comparing structural parameters of the six PEBP proteins with those of human PEBP-1, we have established that PEBP CG10298 is most closely related to human PEBP. ..
  19. Inoue Y, do Carmo Avides M, Shiraki M, Deak P, Yamaguchi M, Nishimoto Y, et al. Orbit, a novel microtubule-associated protein essential for mitosis in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 2000;149:153-66 pubmed
  20. Baker J, Adhikarakunnathu S, Kernan M. Mechanosensory-defective, male-sterile unc mutants identify a novel basal body protein required for ciliogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:3411-22 pubmed
    ..UNC is thus specifically required for normal ciliogenesis. Its localization is an early marker for the centriole-basal body transition, a central but enigmatic event in eukaryotic cell differentiation. ..
  21. Eun S, Stoiber P, Wright H, McMurdie K, Choi C, Gan Q, et al. MicroRNAs downregulate Bag of marbles to ensure proper terminal differentiation in the Drosophila male germline. Development. 2013;140:23-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that microRNAs control the stem cell differentiation pathway through regulating Bam, the downregulation of which is crucial for proper spermatid terminal differentiation. ..
  22. Quénerch du E, Anand A, Kai T. The piRNA pathway is developmentally regulated during spermatogenesis in Drosophila. RNA. 2016;22:1044-54 pubmed publisher
  23. Trost M, Blattner A, Léo S, Lehner C. Drosophila dany is essential for transcriptional control and nuclear architecture in spermatocytes. Development. 2016;143:2664-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, as suggested recently for Dan/Danr, we propose that Dany is essential for the coordination of change in cell type-specific expression programs and large-scale spatial chromatin reorganization. ..
  24. Di Cara F, Cavaliere D, Galliero V, Polito L, Digilio F. Expressional and functional analysis of the male-specific cluster mst36F during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Insect Mol Biol. 2010;19:807-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We obtained a reduction of fertility in the transgenic adult males compared to the wild type. These data suggest that the Mst36Fa and Mst36Fb proteins may have an important role in the production of functional sperm. ..
  25. Zhang P, Timakov B, Stankiewicz R, Turgut I. A trans-activator on the Drosophila Y chromosome regulates gene expression in the male germ line. Genetica. 2000;109:141-50 pubmed
    ..In addition, the Y trans-activator appears to act in a tissue-specific manner, functioning only in the male germ line. We propose that the Y trans-activator plays an important role in regulating gene expression during spermatogenesis. ..
  26. Arya G, Lodico M, Ahmad O, Amin R, Tomkiel J. Molecular characterization of teflon, a gene required for meiotic autosome segregation in male Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2006;174:125-34 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these findings, we propose a role for Tef as a bridging molecule that holds autosome bivalents together via heterochromatic connections...
  27. Theofel I, Bartkuhn M, Hundertmark T, Boettger T, Gärtner S, Leser K, et al. tBRD-1 selectively controls gene activity in the Drosophila testis and interacts with two new members of the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e108267 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, comparing the transcriptomes of tbrd-1 and tTAF mutant testes revealed a subset of common target genes...