Gene Symbol: rut
Description: rutabaga
Alias: Ac12F, CG9533, Dmel\CG9533, EP1603, RUT, Rut, Rut-AC, rutabaga, CG9533-PA, CG9533-PB, CG9533-PC, CG9533-PD, CG9533-PE, CG9533-PF, CG9533-PG, RUTABAGA, adenylyl cyclase, rut-PA, rut-PB, rut-PC, rut-PD, rut-PE, rut-PF, rut-PG, rutabage
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Cann M, Chung E, Levin L. A new family of adenylyl cyclase genes in the male germline of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Genes Evol. 2000;210:200-6 pubmed
    We describe the cloning and characterization of a new gene family of adenylyl cyclase related genes in Drosophila. The five adenylyl cyclase-like genes that define this family are clearly distinct from previously known adenylyl cyclases...
  2. Mao Z, Roman G, Zong L, Davis R. Pharmacogenetic rescue in time and space of the rutabaga memory impairment by using Gene-Switch. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:198-203 pubmed
    ..This line was used to drive the expression of a rutabaga cDNA in otherwise rutabaga mutant flies...
  3. Ueda A, Wu C. Role of rut adenylyl cyclase in the ensemble regulation of presynaptic terminal excitability: reduced synaptic strength and precision in a Drosophila memory mutant. J Neurogenet. 2009;23:185-99 pubmed publisher
    ..of the learning mutant rutabaga (rut) suggests a tight regulation of presynaptic terminal excitability by rut adenylyl cyclase (AC) that is responsible for Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent cAMP synthesis...
  4. Tomchik S, Davis R. Dynamics of learning-related cAMP signaling and stimulus integration in the Drosophila olfactory pathway. Neuron. 2009;64:510-21 pubmed publisher
    ..revealed a synergistic increase in cAMP in the mushroom body lobes, which was dependent on the rutabaga adenylyl cyclase. This synergy was restricted to the axons of mushroom body neurons, and occurred only following forward ..
  5. Shuai Y, Lu B, Hu Y, Wang L, Sun K, Zhong Y. Forgetting is regulated through Rac activity in Drosophila. Cell. 2010;140:579-89 pubmed publisher
    ..This forgetting mechanism does not affect memory acquisition and is independent of Rutabaga adenylyl cyclase-mediated memory formation mechanisms...
  6. Zhong Y, Wu C. Altered synaptic plasticity in Drosophila memory mutants with a defective cyclic AMP cascade. Science. 1991;251:198-201 pubmed
    Synaptic transmission was examined in Drosophila mutants deficient in memory function. These mutants, dunce and rutabaga, are defective in different steps of the cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) cascade...
  7. Lebreton S, Martin J. Mutations affecting the cAMP transduction pathway disrupt the centrophobism behavior. J Neurogenet. 2009;23:225-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that disturbing this pathway by using different mutants, such as dnc, rut, PKA, or amn, lead to centrophobism defect...
  8. Akalal D, Wilson C, Zong L, Tanaka N, Ito K, Davis R. Roles for Drosophila mushroom body neurons in olfactory learning and memory. Learn Mem. 2006;13:659-68 pubmed
    ..We expressed the rutabaga (rut)-encoded adenylyl cyclase in either the gamma or alpha/beta neurons and examined the effects on restoring olfactory associative ..
  9. Heisenberg M. Mushroom body memoir: from maps to models. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2003;4:266-75 pubmed

More Information


  1. Moore M, DeZazzo J, Luk A, Tully T, Singh C, Heberlein U. Ethanol intoxication in Drosophila: Genetic and pharmacological evidence for regulation by the cAMP signaling pathway. Cell. 1998;93:997-1007 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results provide functional evidence for the involvement of the cAMP signal transduction pathway in the behavioral response to intoxicating levels of ethanol. ..
  2. Engel J, Wu C. Altered habituation of an identified escape circuit in Drosophila memory mutants. J Neurosci. 1996;16:3486-99 pubmed
    ..Mutations of rutabaga that diminish cAMP synthesis reduced the rate of habituation, whereas dunce mutations that increase cAMP levels ..
  3. Tully T, Preat T, Boynton S, del Vecchio M. Genetic dissection of consolidated memory in Drosophila. Cell. 1994;79:35-47 pubmed
    ..LTM showed no appreciable decay over 7 days, was sensitive to CXM, and was not disrupted by the radish mutation. ..
  4. Lee J, Wu C. Orchestration of stepwise synaptic growth by K+ and Ca2+ channels in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2010;30:15821-33 pubmed publisher
    ..slowpoke and seizure satellites were both suppressed by rutabaga mutations that disrupt Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent adenylyl cyclase, demonstrating a convergence of K(+) channels of different functional categories in regulation of ..
  5. Paranjpe P, Rodrigues V, Vijayraghavan K, Ramaswami M. Gustatory habituation in Drosophila relies on rutabaga (adenylate cyclase)-dependent plasticity of GABAergic inhibitory neurons. Learn Mem. 2012;19:627-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We explain why these data provide significant and independent support for a general model in which inhibitory potentiation underlies habituation in multiple neural systems and species. ..
  6. Zars T, Fischer M, Schulz R, Heisenberg M. Localization of a short-term memory in Drosophila. Science. 2000;288:672-5 pubmed
    ..The rutabaga adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme that is ubiquitously expressed in the Drosophila brain and that mediates synaptic plasticity, is ..
  7. Han P, Meller V, Davis R. The Drosophila brain revisited by enhancer detection. J Neurobiol. 1996;31:88-102 pubmed
    ..The expression patterns produced by 12 different insertions at the rutabaga locus were found to be extremely similar in the brain and offer strong evidence that the enhancer detector ..
  8. Skoulakis E, Kalderon D, Davis R. Preferential expression in mushroom bodies of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and its role in learning and memory. Neuron. 1993;11:197-208 pubmed
    ..suggested by the aberrant behavioral phenotypes of the mutants dunce (cAMP phosphodiesterase) and rutabaga (adenylyl cyclase)...
  9. Koon A, Ashley J, Barria R, Dasgupta S, Brain R, Waddell S, et al. Autoregulatory and paracrine control of synaptic and behavioral plasticity by octopaminergic signaling. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:190-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a mechanism for global regulation of excitatory synapses, presumably to maintain synaptic and behavioral plasticity in a dynamic range. ..
  10. Tully T, Quinn W. Classical conditioning and retention in normal and mutant Drosophila melanogaster. J Comp Physiol A. 1985;157:263-77 pubmed
    ..The mutants amnesiac, rutabaga and dunce showed appreciable learning acquisition, but their memories decayed very rapidly during the first 30 ..
  11. Tempel B, Bonini N, Dawson D, Quinn W. Reward learning in normal and mutant Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:1482-6 pubmed
    ..Two other mutants, dunce and rutabaga, which were isolated because they failed to learn the shock-avoidance task, learn normally in response to sucrose ..
  12. Preat T. Decreased odor avoidance after electric shock in Drosophila mutants biases learning and memory tests. J Neurosci. 1998;18:8534-8 pubmed
    The Drosophila mutants amnesiac, dunce (dnc), and rutabaga were isolated after associative conditioning tests, during which animals were trained to associate the presence of an odor with that of electric shocks (ES)...
  13. Crittenden J, Skoulakis E, Han K, Kalderon D, Davis R. Tripartite mushroom body architecture revealed by antigenic markers. Learn Mem. 1998;5:38-51 pubmed eight proteins expressed preferentially in the mushroom bodies: DAMB, DCO, DRK, FASII, LEO, OAMB, PKA RII, and RUT. Previous to this work, four axonal lobes, two projecting dorsally (alpha and alpha') and two medially (beta and ..
  14. Hong S, Bang S, Hyun S, Kang J, Jeong K, Paik D, et al. cAMP signalling in mushroom bodies modulates temperature preference behaviour in Drosophila. Nature. 2008;454:771-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Preferred temperatures were affected by the level of cAMP and PKA activity in the MBs in various PKA pathway mutants...
  15. McGuire S, Le P, Osborn A, Matsumoto K, Davis R. Spatiotemporal rescue of memory dysfunction in Drosophila. Science. 2003;302:1765-8 pubmed
    ..The transient expression of the rutabaga-encoded adenylyl cyclase in the mushroom bodies of the adult brain was necessary and sufficient to rescue the rutabaga memory deficit, ..
  16. Renger J, Ueda A, Atwood H, Govind C, Wu C. Role of cAMP cascade in synaptic stability and plasticity: ultrastructural and physiological analyses of individual synaptic boutons in Drosophila memory mutants. J Neurosci. 2000;20:3980-92 pubmed
    Mutations of the genes rutabaga (rut) and dunce (dnc) affect the synthesis and degradation of cAMP, respectively, and disrupt learning in Drosophila...
  17. van Swinderen B. Attention-like processes in Drosophila require short-term memory genes. Science. 2007;315:1590-3 pubmed
    ..These processes were modulated by genes involved in short-term memory formation, namely dunce and rutabaga. Attention defects in these mutants were associated with distinct optomotor effects in behavioral assays.
  18. Schwaerzel M, Heisenberg M, Zars T. Extinction antagonizes olfactory memory at the subcellular level. Neuron. 2002;35:951-60 pubmed
    ..Thus, unreinforced presentation of learned odorants antagonizes intracellularly the signaling cascade underlying memory formation. ..
  19. Duerr J, Quinn W. Three Drosophila mutations that block associative learning also affect habituation and sensitization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982;79:3646-50 pubmed
    ..The dunce, turnip, and rutabaga mutants all habituate less than normal flies...
  20. Tinette S, Zhang L, Robichon A. Cooperation between Drosophila flies in searching behavior. Genes Brain Behav. 2004;3:39-50 pubmed
    ..Future investigations of the neuronal signaling involved in this behavior will help us to understand the complexities of this aspect of Drosophila social behaviour. ..
  21. Feany M. Rescue of the learning defect in dunce, a Drosophila learning mutant, by an allele of rutabaga, a second learning mutant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:2795-9 pubmed
    ..Selection of mutations that suppress dunce sterility has led to the isolation of two rutabaga alleles. The alleles (rut2 and rut3) decrease basal adenylate cyclase activity [Bellen, H. J., Gregory, B. K...
  22. Zhang L, Tinette S, Robichon A. Drosophila NO-dependent guanylyl cyclase is finely regulated by sequential order of coincidental signaling. J Cell Biochem. 2002;85:392-402 pubmed
  23. Pan Y, Zhou Y, Guo C, Gong H, Gong Z, Liu L. Differential roles of the fan-shaped body and the ellipsoid body in Drosophila visual pattern memory. Learn Mem. 2009;16:289-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Localized expression of rutabaga adenylyl cyclase in either the fan-shaped body or the ellipsoid body is sufficient to rescue the memory defect of the rut(2080)..
  24. Rothenfluh A, Heberlein U. Drugs, flies, and videotape: the effects of ethanol and cocaine on Drosophila locomotion. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2002;12:639-45 pubmed
    ..Surprising similarities between flies and mammals have begun to emerge at the behavioral, neurochemical and molecular levels. ..
  25. Ueda A, Wu C. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate metabolism in synaptic growth, strength, and precision: neural and behavioral phenotype-specific counterbalancing effects between dnc phosphodiesterase and rut adenylyl cyclase mutations. J Neurogenet. 2012;26:64-81 pubmed publisher
    Two classic learning mutants in Drosophila, rutabaga (rut) and dunce (dnc), are defective in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis and degradation, respectively, exhibiting a variety of neuronal and behavioral defects...
  26. Ueno K, Kidokoro Y. Adenylyl cyclase encoded by AC78C participates in sugar perception in Drosophila melanogaster. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:1956-66 pubmed publisher
    ..2006). Because DGsalpha is a homolog of Gs, we hypothesized that the sugar receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase (AC) in Drosophila. The aim of this study was to identify the AC that participates in sugar perception...
  27. Neuser K, Triphan T, Mronz M, Poeck B, Strauss R. Analysis of a spatial orientation memory in Drosophila. Nature. 2008;453:1244-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The S6KII signalling pathway therefore seems to be acutely required in the ring neurons for spatial orientation memory in flies. ..
  28. Lu Y, Lu Y, Shuai Y, Feng C, Tully T, Xie Z, et al. The AKAP Yu is required for olfactory long-term memory formation in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:13792-7 pubmed
    ..These observations lead us to conclude that proper localization of PKA by Yu AKAP in MB neurons is required for the formation of LTM. ..
  29. Dubnau J, Tully T. Gene discovery in Drosophila: new insights for learning and memory. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1998;21:407-44 pubmed
    ..Second, because core cellular mechanisms of simple forms of learning are evolutionarily conserved, biological pathways discovered in invertebrates are likely to be conserved in vertebrate systems as well. ..
  30. Zars T, Wolf R, Davis R, Heisenberg M. Tissue-specific expression of a type I adenylyl cyclase rescues the rutabaga mutant memory defect: in search of the engram. Learn Mem. 2000;7:18-31 pubmed
    ..We have used the Drosophila rutabaga type I Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent adenylyl cyclase (AC) gene to determine in which CNS region AC expression is sufficient for memory formation...
  31. Shakiryanova D, Levitan E. Prolonged presynaptic posttetanic cyclic GMP signaling in Drosophila motoneurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:13610-3 pubmed publisher
    ..However, mutations that inhibit rutabaga Ca(2+)-stimulated adenylyl cyclase and dunce cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) have no effect...
  32. Isabel G, Pascual A, Preat T. Exclusive consolidated memory phases in Drosophila. Science. 2004;304:1024-7 pubmed
    ..We propose that ARM acts as a gating mechanism that ensures that LTM is formed only after repetitive and spaced training. ..
  33. Zars T. Behavioral functions of the insect mushroom bodies. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2000;10:790-5 pubmed
    ..In addition, the mushroom bodies are necessary for context generalization in visual learning and for regulating the transition from walking to rest. ..
  34. de Belle J, Heisenberg M. Associative odor learning in Drosophila abolished by chemical ablation of mushroom bodies. Science. 1994;263:692-5 pubmed
    ..This deficit cannot be attributed to reductions in olfactory sensitivity, shock reactivity, or locomotor behavior. The results demonstrate that MBs mediate associative odor learning in flies. ..
  35. Das S, Sadanandappa M, Dervan A, Larkin A, Lee J, Sudhakaran I, et al. Plasticity of local GABAergic interneurons drives olfactory habituation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E646-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Both short-term (STH) and long-term (LTH) forms of olfactory habituation require function of the rutabaga-encoded adenylate cyclase in multiglomerular local interneurons (LNs) that mediate GABAergic inhibition in the ..
  36. Schwaerzel M, Monastirioti M, Scholz H, Friggi Grelin F, Birman S, Heisenberg M. Dopamine and octopamine differentiate between aversive and appetitive olfactory memories in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2003;23:10495-502 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that in associative conditioning, different memories are formed of the same odor under different circumstances, and that they are linked to the respective motivational systems by their specific modulatory pathways...
  37. Gerber B, Tanimoto H, Heisenberg M. An engram found? Evaluating the evidence from fruit flies. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2004;14:737-44 pubmed
    ..With regard to olfactory learning in flies, we argue that the notion of the olfactory memory trace being localized to the Kenyon cells of the mushroom bodies is a reasonable working hypothesis. ..
  38. Corfas G, Dudai Y. Adaptation and fatigue of a mechanosensory neuron in wild-type Drosophila and in memory mutants. J Neurosci. 1990;10:491-9 pubmed
    ..This sensory fatigue depends on the duration of the stimuli and the rate of stimulation. Two mutants, rutabaga (rut) and dunce (dnc), which are defective in learning and in the activity of the cAMP cascade, show altered ..
  39. Hall J. The mating of a fly. Science. 1994;264:1702-14 pubmed
    ..Further behavioral mutations seemed originally to be courtship-specific, turned out not to have that property, and have led to a broadened perspective on the nature and action of Drosophila's sex-determination genes. ..
  40. Wolf F, Rodan A, Tsai L, Heberlein U. High-resolution analysis of ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2002;22:11035-44 pubmed
    ..The effects of ethanol on locomotion are comparable in flies and mammals, suggesting that Drosophila is a suitable model system to study the underlying mechanisms. ..
  41. Yu D, Keene A, Srivatsan A, Waddell S, Davis R. Drosophila DPM neurons form a delayed and branch-specific memory trace after olfactory classical conditioning. Cell. 2005;123:945-57 pubmed
    ..DPM neurons are therefore "odor generalists" and form a delayed, branch-specific, and amnesiac-dependent memory trace that may guide behavior after acquisition. ..
  42. Cho W, Heberlein U, Wolf F. Habituation of an odorant-induced startle response in Drosophila. Genes Brain Behav. 2004;3:127-37 pubmed
    ..Finally, habituation is impaired in rutabaga, an adenylyl cyclase mutant isolated based on a defect in olfactory associative learning...
  43. Han P, Levin L, Reed R, Davis R. Preferential expression of the Drosophila rutabaga gene in mushroom bodies, neural centers for learning in insects. Neuron. 1992;9:619-27 pubmed
    ..demonstrated that the expression of the rutabaga gene, which encodes a Ca2+/calmodulin-responsive adenylyl cyclase, is markedly elevated in the mushroom bodies of normal flies and that the insertion elements compromised its ..
  44. Livingstone M, Sziber P, Quinn W. Loss of calcium/calmodulin responsiveness in adenylate cyclase of rutabaga, a Drosophila learning mutant. Cell. 1984;37:205-15 pubmed
    ..The mutation possibly affects the catalytic subunit directly. We postulate that there is at least one other type of adenylate cyclase activity that is unaffected by the mutation and insensitive to calcium/calmodulin. ..
  45. Mayford M, Kandel E. Genetic approaches to memory storage. Trends Genet. 1999;15:463-70 pubmed
    ..In these organisms, the effectiveness of genetic approaches in the study of memory has improved significantly in the past five years. Below we review these advances. ..
  46. Blum A, Li W, Cressy M, Dubnau J. Short- and long-term memory in Drosophila require cAMP signaling in distinct neuron types. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1341-50 pubmed publisher
    ..At the neuroanatomical level, however, different temporal stages of memory can engage distinct neural circuits, a notion that has not been conceptually integrated with the cellular view...
  47. Wolfgang W, Clay C, Parker J, Delgado R, Labarca P, Kidokoro Y, et al. Signaling through Gs alpha is required for the growth and function of neuromuscular synapses in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2004;268:295-311 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that Gs alpha-dependent signaling plays a role in the dynamic cellular reorganization that underlies synaptic growth. ..
  48. Claridge Chang A, Roorda R, Vrontou E, Sjulson L, Li H, Hirsh J, et al. Writing memories with light-addressable reinforcement circuitry. Cell. 2009;139:405-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The delineation of core reinforcement circuitry is an essential first step in dissecting the neural mechanisms that compute and represent valuations, store associations, and guide actions. ..
  49. Iourgenko V, Levin L. A calcium-inhibited Drosophila adenylyl cyclase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1495:125-39 pubmed
    Mammals possess a family of transmembrane, G-protein-responsive adenylyl cyclase isoforms (tmACs) encoded by distinct genes differing in their patterns of expression and modes of biochemical regulation...
  50. Zhong Y, Budnik V, Wu C. Synaptic plasticity in Drosophila memory and hyperexcitable mutants: role of cAMP cascade. J Neurosci. 1992;12:644-51 pubmed
    ..and potentiation are disrupted at larval neuromuscular junctions in the memory mutants dunce (dnc) and rutabaga (rut) of Drosophila...
  51. Thum A, Jenett A, Ito K, Heisenberg M, Tanimoto H. Multiple memory traces for olfactory reward learning in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2007;27:11132-8 pubmed
    ..The adenylate cyclase protein, Rutabaga, has been shown to mediate both traces...
  52. Trannoy S, Redt Clouet C, Dura J, Preat T. Parallel processing of appetitive short- and long-term memories in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1647-53 pubmed publisher
    ..neurons; (2) STM information is not transferred from ? neurons to ?? neurons for LTM formation; and (3) the adenylyl cyclase RUT, which is thought to operate as a coincidence detector between the olfactory stimulus and the sugar ..
  53. Levin L, Han P, Hwang P, Feinstein P, Davis R, Reed R. The Drosophila learning and memory gene rutabaga encodes a Ca2+/Calmodulin-responsive adenylyl cyclase. Cell. 1992;68:479-89 pubmed
    Four putative adenylyl cyclase genes from Drosophila melanogaster were identified by virtue of their extensive sequence homology with mammalian cyclases...
  54. Liu X, Buchanan M, Han K, Davis R. The GABAA receptor RDL suppresses the conditioned stimulus pathway for olfactory learning. J Neurosci. 2009;29:1573-9 pubmed publisher
    ..down failed to enhance learning in animals carrying mutations in genes of the cAMP signaling pathway, such as rutabaga and NF1, suggesting that RDL works up stream of these functions in CS/US integration...
  55. Liu G, Seiler H, Wen A, Zars T, Ito K, Wolf R, et al. Distinct memory traces for two visual features in the Drosophila brain. Nature. 2006;439:551-6 pubmed
    ..These can be localized to two groups of neurons extending branches as parallel, horizontal strata in the fan-shaped body. The central location of this memory store is well suited to mediate translational invariance. ..