Gene Symbol: rpr
Description: reaper
Alias: CG4319, Dmel\CG4319, RPR, Reaper, Rpr, anon-WO0162936.19, reaper, CG4319-PA, reaper L, rpr-PA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Brachmann C, Cagan R. Patterning the fly eye: the role of apoptosis. Trends Genet. 2003;19:91-6 pubmed
    ..But, we have yet to understand how this signaling is regulated spatially to result in such precision. In this article, we describe and speculate on the role of selective cell death during maturation of the fly eye. ..
  2. Lee C, Cooksey B, Baehrecke E. Steroid regulation of midgut cell death during Drosophila development. Dev Biol. 2002;250:101-11 pubmed
    ..Dying midguts express the rpr, hid, ark, dronc, and crq cell death genes, suggesting that the core cell death machinery is involved in larval ..
  3. Lohmann I, McGinnis N, Bodmer M, McGinnis W. The Drosophila Hox gene deformed sculpts head morphology via direct regulation of the apoptosis activator reaper. Cell. 2002;110:457-66 pubmed
    ..Dfd accomplishes this by directly activating the cell death promoting gene reaper (rpr)...
  4. Wells B, Yoshida E, Johnston L. Compensatory proliferation in Drosophila imaginal discs requires Dronc-dependent p53 activity. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1606-15 pubmed
    ..and sustains the response through a positive feedback loop with Dronc and the apoptosis-inducing factors Hid and Reaper. How cell death and cell proliferation are coordinated during development and after stress is a fundamental ..
  5. Broughton S, Piper M, Ikeya T, Bass T, Jacobson J, Driege Y, et al. Longer lifespan, altered metabolism, and stress resistance in Drosophila from ablation of cells making insulin-like ligands. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:3105-10 pubmed
    ..However, the ablated flies show an extension of median and maximal lifespan and increased resistance to oxidative stress and starvation. ..
  6. Quinn L, Dorstyn L, Mills K, Colussi P, Chen P, Coombe M, et al. An essential role for the caspase dronc in developmentally programmed cell death in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:40416-24 pubmed
    ..death and an ablated eye phenotype that can be suppressed by halving the dosage of the genes in the H99 complex (reaper, hid, and grim) and enhanced by mutations in diap1...
  7. Shlevkov E, Morata G. A dp53/JNK-dependant feedback amplification loop is essential for the apoptotic response to stress in Drosophila. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:451-60 pubmed publisher
    ..as a cascade of events in which an initial stimulus activates one or more of the proapoptotic genes (hid, rpr, grim), which in turn activate caspases...
  8. Newquist G, Drennan J, Lamanuzzi M, Walker K, Clemens J, Kidd T. Blocking apoptotic signaling rescues axon guidance in Netrin mutants. Cell Rep. 2013;3:595-606 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to the traditional role of Netrin as simply a guidance cue, our results demonstrate that guidance and survival activities may be functionally related. ..
  9. Rusconi J, Fink J, Cagan R. klumpfuss regulates cell death in the Drosophila retina. Mech Dev. 2004;121:537-46 pubmed

More Information


  1. Lee C, Simon C, Woodard C, Baehrecke E. Genetic mechanism for the stage- and tissue-specific regulation of steroid triggered programmed cell death in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2002;252:138-48 pubmed
    ..BR-C, E74A, and E93 loss-of-function mutants indicate that these genes regulate stage-specific transcription of the rpr, hid, ark, dronc, and crq cell death genes...
  2. Lehmann M, Jiang C, Ip Y, Thummel C. AP-1, but not NF-kappa B, is required for efficient steroid-triggered cell death in Drosophila. Cell Death Differ. 2002;9:581-90 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates a role for AP-1 in the stage-specific steroid-triggered programmed cell death of larval tissues during Drosophila metamorphosis. ..
  3. Choi Y, Lee G, Park J. Programmed cell death mechanisms of identifiable peptidergic neurons in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2006;133:2223-32 pubmed
    ..Expression of reaper in vCrz neurons and suppression of vCrz-cell death in a reaper-null mutant suggest that reaper functions are ..
  4. Miguel Aliaga I, Thor S. Segment-specific prevention of pioneer neuron apoptosis by cell-autonomous, postmitotic Hox gene activity. Development. 2004;131:6093-105 pubmed
    ..pioneer neuron death postmitotically and cell-autonomously by repressing the RHG-motif cell death activators reaper and grim...
  5. Bergantiños C, Corominas M, Serras F. Cell death-induced regeneration in wing imaginal discs requires JNK signalling. Development. 2010;137:1169-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Using Gal4/Gal80 and UAS-rpr constructs, targeted ablation of a region of the disc could be performed and regeneration monitored without the ..
  6. Yin V, Thummel C, Bashirullah A. Down-regulation of inhibitor of apoptosis levels provides competence for steroid-triggered cell death. J Cell Biol. 2007;178:85-92 pubmed
    ..of larval salivary glands during Drosophila metamorphosis through a transcriptional cascade that converges on reaper (rpr) and head involution defective (hid) induction, resulting in caspase activation and cell death...
  7. Jassim O, Fink J, Cagan R. Dmp53 protects the Drosophila retina during a developmentally regulated DNA damage response. EMBO J. 2003;22:5622-32 pubmed
    ..In contrast, we found that Reaper had no effect on UV sensitivity...
  8. Kanda H, Igaki T, Okano H, Miura M. Conserved metabolic energy production pathways govern Eiger/TNF-induced nonapoptotic cell death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:18977-82 pubmed publisher
    ..of energy production-related genes did not affect the cell death triggered by proapoptotic genes, such as reaper, hid, or debcl, indicating that the energy production-related genes have a specific role in Eiger-induced ..
  9. Wang L, Lam G, Thummel C. Med24 and Mdh2 are required for Drosophila larval salivary gland cell death. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:954-64 pubmed publisher
    ..ecdysone triggers the rapid destruction of larval tissues through transcriptional cascades that culminate in rpr and hid expression and caspase activation...
  10. Truscott M, Islam A, Lopez Bigas N, Frolov M. mir-11 limits the proapoptotic function of its host gene, dE2f1. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1820-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, miR-11 repressed the expression of the proapoptotic genes reaper (rpr) and head involution defective (hid), which are directly regulated by dE2F1 upon DNA damage...
  11. Wing J, Karres J, Ogdahl J, Zhou L, Schwartz L, Nambu J. Drosophila sickle is a novel grim-reaper cell death activator. Curr Biol. 2002;12:131-5 pubmed
    The Drosophila genes reaper, head involution defective (hid), and grim all reside at 75C on chromosome three and encode related proteins that have crucial functions in programmed cell death (reviewed in )...
  12. Sandu C, Ryoo H, Steller H. Drosophila IAP antagonists form multimeric complexes to promote cell death. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:1039-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, caspase activation depends on the IAP antagonists, Reaper (Rpr), Head involution defective (Hid), and Grim...
  13. Freel C, Richardson D, Thomenius M, Gan E, Horn S, Olson M, et al. Mitochondrial localization of Reaper to promote inhibitors of apoptosis protein degradation conferred by GH3 domain-lipid interactions. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:367-79 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, disruption of IAP function by Reaper, HID, and Grim (RHG) proteins is sufficient to induce cell death...
  14. Muro I, Means J, Clem R. Cleavage of the apoptosis inhibitor DIAP1 by the apical caspase DRONC in both normal and apoptotic Drosophila cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:18683-8 pubmed
    ..negative effect on the ability of overexpressed DIAP1 to prevent apoptosis stimulated by the proapoptotic protein Reaper or by UV light...
  15. Suissa Y, Ziv O, Dinur T, Arama E, Gerlitz O. The NAB-Brk signal bifurcates at JNK to independently induce apoptosis and compensatory proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:15556-64 pubmed publisher
    ..One triggers apoptosis through the pro-apoptotic proteins Reaper and Hid, which in turn promote activation of caspases by the apoptosome components Ark and Dronc...
  16. Tan Y, Yamada Mabuchi M, Arya R, St Pierre S, Tang W, Tosa M, et al. Coordinated expression of cell death genes regulates neuroblast apoptosis. Development. 2011;138:2197-206 pubmed publisher
    ..neuroblast apoptosis during embryogenesis requires the coordinated expression of the cell death genes grim and reaper, and possibly sickle...
  17. Oshima K, Takeda M, Kuranaga E, Ueda R, Aigaki T, Miura M, et al. IKK epsilon regulates F actin assembly and interacts with Drosophila IAP1 in cellular morphogenesis. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1531-7 pubmed
    ..This IKK epsilon function involves the negative regulation of the nonapoptotic activity of DIAP1. ..
  18. Kuranaga E, Kanuka H, Igaki T, Sawamoto K, Ichijo H, Okano H, et al. Reaper-mediated inhibition of DIAP1-induced DTRAF1 degradation results in activation of JNK in Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:705-10 pubmed
    ..Drosophila melanogaster tumour-necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 (DTRAF1) is a dominant suppressor of Reaper-induced cell death...
  19. Wildonger J, Sosinsky A, Honig B, Mann R. Lozenge directly activates argos and klumpfuss to regulate programmed cell death. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1034-9 pubmed
    ..These results provide novel insights into the control of programmed cell death (PCD) by Lz during Drosophila eye development. ..
  20. Wells B, Johnston L. Maintenance of imaginal disc plasticity and regenerative potential in Drosophila by p53. Dev Biol. 2012;361:263-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings place p53 in a role as master coordinator of DNA and tissue repair following IR. ..
  21. Moon N, Di Stefano L, Dyson N. A gradient of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling determines the sensitivity of rbf1 mutant cells to E2F-dependent apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7601-15 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that a gradient of DER/ras/raf signaling that occurs naturally during development provides the contextual signals that determine when and where the inactivation of rbf1 results in dE2F1-dependent apoptosis. ..
  22. Kim S, Rulifson E. Conserved mechanisms of glucose sensing and regulation by Drosophila corpora cardiaca cells. Nature. 2004;431:316-20 pubmed
    ..Thus, Drosophila CC cells are crucial regulators of glucose homeostasis and they use glucose-sensing and response mechanisms similar to islet cells...
  23. Ma X, Huang J, Yang L, Yang Y, Li W, Xue L. NOPO modulates Egr-induced JNK-independent cell death in Drosophila. Cell Res. 2012;22:425-31 pubmed publisher
    ..modulates Egr-induced Caspase-mediated cell death through transcriptional activation of pro-apoptotic genes reaper and hid...
  24. Peng H, Slattery M, Mann R. Transcription factor choice in the Hippo signaling pathway: homothorax and yorkie regulation of the microRNA bantam in the progenitor domain of the Drosophila eye imaginal disc. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2307-19 pubmed publisher
    ..In the eye disc, Hth and Tsh provide spatial information to this pathway, promoting cell proliferation and survival in the progenitor domain. ..
  25. Gutierrez E, Wiggins D, Fielding B, Gould A. Specialized hepatocyte-like cells regulate Drosophila lipid metabolism. Nature. 2007;445:275-80 pubmed
    ..These findings provide evidence that some lipid-processing functions of the mammalian liver are performed in insects by oenocytes...
  26. Kolahgar G, Bardet P, Langton P, Alexandre C, Vincent J. Apical deficiency triggers JNK-dependent apoptosis in the embryonic epidermis of Drosophila. Development. 2011;138:3021-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This leads to transcriptional activation of the pro-apoptotic gene reaper and to apoptosis...
  27. Berman B, Nibu Y, Pfeiffer B, Tomancak P, Celniker S, Levine M, et al. Exploiting transcription factor binding site clustering to identify cis-regulatory modules involved in pattern formation in the Drosophila genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:757-62 pubmed
    ..We tested one of the newly identified clusters, mapping upstream of the gap gene giant (gt), and show that it acts as an enhancer that recapitulates the posterior expression pattern of gt. ..
  28. Cao C, Liu Y, Lehmann M. Fork head controls the timing and tissue selectivity of steroid-induced developmental cell death. J Cell Biol. 2007;176:843-52 pubmed
    ..event that is mediated by the 20E-induced BR-C gene, and that renders the key death regulators hid and reaper hormone responsive. These results implicate the D...
  29. Olson M, Holley C, Yoo S, Huh J, Hay B, Kornbluth S. Reaper is regulated by IAP-mediated ubiquitination. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:4028-34 pubmed
    ..caspase inhibition has been shown to be an important activity for pro-apoptotic proteins in Drosophila (Reaper, HID, and Grim) and in mammalian cells (Smac/DIABLO and Omi/HtrA2)...
  30. Yin V, Thummel C. A balance between the diap1 death inhibitor and reaper and hid death inducers controls steroid-triggered cell death in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8022-7 pubmed
    ..We show here that ecdysone-induced expression of the death activator genes reaper (rpr) and head involution defective (hid) is required for destruction of the larval midgut and salivary glands ..
  31. Olson M, Holley C, Gan E, COLON RAMOS D, Kaplan B, Kornbluth S. A GH3-like domain in reaper is required for mitochondrial localization and induction of IAP degradation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:44758-68 pubmed
    b>Reaper is a potent pro-apoptotic protein originally identified in a screen for Drosophila mutants defective in apoptotic induction...
  32. Yokokura T, Dresnek D, Huseinovic N, Lisi S, Abdelwahid E, Bangs P, et al. Dissection of DIAP1 functional domains via a mutant replacement strategy. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:52603-12 pubmed
    ..The central cell death regulators Reaper and Hid induce apoptosis very rapidly by inhibiting DIAP1 function...
  33. Lee G, Park J. Hemolymph sugar homeostasis and starvation-induced hyperactivity affected by genetic manipulations of the adipokinetic hormone-encoding gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2004;167:311-23 pubmed
    ..From these findings, we propose another role for AKH in the regulation of starvation-induced foraging behavior. ..
  34. Yang C, Sinenko S, Thomenius M, Robeson A, Freel C, Horn S, et al. The deubiquitinating enzyme DUBAI stabilizes DIAP1 to suppress Drosophila apoptosis. Cell Death Differ. 2014;21:604-11 pubmed publisher
    ..DUBAI, therefore, represents a novel locus of apoptotic regulation in Drosophila, antagonizing cell death signals that would otherwise result in DIAP1 degradation. ..
  35. Morris E, Michaud W, Ji J, Moon N, Rocco J, Dyson N. Functional identification of Api5 as a suppressor of E2F-dependent apoptosis in vivo. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e196 pubmed
    ..Therefore, inhibition of Api5 function might offer a possible mechanism for antitumor exploitation. ..
  36. Moon N, Di Stefano L, Morris E, Patel R, White K, Dyson N. E2F and p53 induce apoptosis independently during Drosophila development but intersect in the context of DNA damage. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000153 pubmed publisher
    ..and from dE2F/dDP-induced apoptosis in un-irradiated rbf1 mutant eye discs) by being dependent on both hid and reaper. These results show that pro-apoptotic activities of dE2F1 and dp53 are surprisingly separable: dp53 is required ..
  37. Wilson R, Goyal L, Ditzel M, Zachariou A, Baker D, Agapite J, et al. The DIAP1 RING finger mediates ubiquitination of Dronc and is indispensable for regulating apoptosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:445-50 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila melanogaster, the pro-apoptotic proteins Reaper (Rpr), Grim and Hid (head involution defective) all induce cell death by antagonizing the anti-apoptotic activity ..
  38. Mendes C, Levet C, Chatelain G, Dourlen P, Fouillet A, Dichtel Danjoy M, et al. ER stress protects from retinal degeneration. EMBO J. 2009;28:1296-307 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that an immediate consequence of the UPR not only limits the accumulation of misfolded proteins but also protects tissues from harmful exogenous stresses. ..
  39. LaFever L, Drummond Barbosa D. Direct control of germline stem cell division and cyst growth by neural insulin in Drosophila. Science. 2005;309:1071-3 pubmed
    ..We also reveal a crucial direct role of DILPs in controlling germline cyst growth and vitellogenesis. ..
  40. Kuranaga E, Kanuka H, Tonoki A, Takemoto K, Tomioka T, Kobayashi M, et al. Drosophila IKK-related kinase regulates nonapoptotic function of caspases via degradation of IAPs. Cell. 2006;126:583-96 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that DmIKKvarepsilon is a determinant of DIAP1 protein levels and that it establishes the threshold of activity required for the execution of nonapoptotic caspase functions...
  41. Abdelwahid E, Yokokura T, Krieser R, Balasundaram S, Fowle W, White K. Mitochondrial disruption in Drosophila apoptosis. Dev Cell. 2007;12:793-806 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that Drosophila mitochondria become permeable in response to the expression of Reaper and Hid, endogenous regulators of developmental apoptosis...
  42. Muro I, Berry D, Huh J, Chen C, Huang H, Yoo S, et al. The Drosophila caspase Ice is important for many apoptotic cell deaths and for spermatid individualization, a nonapoptotic process. Development. 2006;133:3305-15 pubmed
    ..Mutations in Ice also suppress cell death that is induced by expression of Rpr, Wrinkled (previously Hid) and Grim...
  43. Bergmann A, Yang A, Srivastava M. Regulators of IAP function: coming to grips with the grim reaper. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2003;15:717-24 pubmed
    ..The apoptosis-inducing genes grim, reaper and hid modulate these mechanisms, and determine the outcome.
  44. Vernooy S, Chow V, Su J, Verbrugghe K, Yang J, Cole S, et al. Drosophila Bruce can potently suppress Rpr- and Grim-dependent but not Hid-dependent cell death. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1164-8 pubmed
    ..Bruce (dBruce) can potently inhibit cell death induced by the essential Drosophila cell death activators Reaper (Rpr) and Grim but not Head involution defective (Hid)...
  45. Wessells R, Fitzgerald E, Cypser J, Tatar M, Bodmer R. Insulin regulation of heart function in aging fruit flies. Nat Genet. 2004;36:1275-81 pubmed
    ..The aging fly heart is a model for studying the genetics of age-sensitive organ-specific pathology. ..
  46. Gunawardena S, Her L, Brusch R, Laymon R, Niesman I, Gordesky Gold B, et al. Disruption of axonal transport by loss of huntingtin or expression of pathogenic polyQ proteins in Drosophila. Neuron. 2003;40:25-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, disruption of axonal transport by pathogenic polyQ proteins could contribute to early neuropathology in Huntington's and other polyQ expansion diseases. ..
  47. Huh J, Foe I, Muro I, Chen C, Seol J, Yoo S, et al. The Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) DIAP2 is dispensable for cell survival, required for the innate immune response to gram-negative bacterial infection, and can be negatively regulated by the reaper/hid/grim family of IAP-binding apoptosis i. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:2056-68 pubmed
    ..Apoptosis initiates when proteins such as Reaper, Hid, and Grim bind a surface groove in DIAP1 baculovirus IAP repeat domains via an N-terminal IAP-binding motif...
  48. Zachariou A, Tenev T, Goyal L, Agapite J, Steller H, Meier P. IAP-antagonists exhibit non-redundant modes of action through differential DIAP1 binding. EMBO J. 2003;22:6642-52 pubmed
    ..Here we provide biochemical evidence for the non-equivalent mode of action of Reaper, Grim, Hid and Jafrac2...
  49. Broughton S, Slack C, Alic N, Metaxakis A, Bass T, Driege Y, et al. DILP-producing median neurosecretory cells in the Drosophila brain mediate the response of lifespan to nutrition. Aging Cell. 2010;9:336-46 pubmed publisher
  50. Siddall N, Behan K, Crew J, Cheung T, Fair J, Batterham P, et al. Mutations in lozenge and D-Pax2 invoke ectopic patterned cell death in the developing Drosophila eye using distinct mechanisms. Dev Genes Evol. 2003;213:107-19 pubmed
    ..The ectopic cell death evident in D-Pax2 mutants appears to arise from the cell fate transformation of cone cells into secondary pigment cells, either autonomously or as a result of defective signalling. ..
  51. Waldhuber M, Emoto K, Petritsch C. The Drosophila caspase DRONC is required for metamorphosis and cell death in response to irradiation and developmental signals. Mech Dev. 2005;122:914-27 pubmed
    ..The levels of ecdysone-inducible transcripts such as E75A and Reaper (Rpr) are normal in the absence of DRONC, suggesting that DRONC acts downstream of these genes...
  52. Lu W, Chapo J, Roig I, Abrams J. Meiotic recombination provokes functional activation of the p53 regulatory network. Science. 2010;328:1278-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings establish a physiological role for p53 in meiosis and suggest that tumor-suppressive functions may have been co-opted from primordial activities linked to recombination. ..
  53. Neisch A, Speck O, Stronach B, Fehon R. Rho1 regulates apoptosis via activation of the JNK signaling pathway at the plasma membrane. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:311-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that Rho1 functions at the cell cortex to regulate JNK activity and implicate Rho1 and Moe in epithelial cell survival. ..
  54. Wu J, Cocina A, Chai J, Hay B, Shi Y. Structural analysis of a functional DIAP1 fragment bound to grim and hid peptides. Mol Cell. 2001;8:95-104 pubmed
    ..Three proteins, Hid, Grim, and Reaper, promote apoptosis, in part by binding to DIAP1 through their conserved N-terminal sequences...
  55. Landgraf M, Jeffrey V, Fujioka M, Jaynes J, Bate M. Embryonic origins of a motor system: motor dendrites form a myotopic map in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2003;1:E41 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the cues that organise the myotopic map may be laid down early in development as the embryo subdivides into parasegmental units. ..
  56. Vidal M, Larson D, Cagan R. Csk-deficient boundary cells are eliminated from normal Drosophila epithelia by exclusion, migration, and apoptosis. Dev Cell. 2006;10:33-44 pubmed
  57. Choi S, Lee G, Monahan P, Park J. Spatial regulation of Corazonin neuropeptide expression requires multiple cis-acting elements in Drosophila melanogaster. J Comp Neurol. 2008;507:1184-95 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster genome, drives reporter expression in the DL and vCrz neurons, suggesting that regulatory mechanisms for Crz expression in at least two such neuronal groups are conserved between the two species...
  58. Bardet P, Kolahgar G, Mynett A, Miguel Aliaga I, Briscoe J, Meier P, et al. A fluorescent reporter of caspase activity for live imaging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:13901-5 pubmed publisher
    ..As expected from the high conservation of caspases, it is also cleaved in dying cells of chick embryos. It is therefore likely to be generally useful to track the spatiotemporal pattern of caspase activity in a variety of species. ..
  59. Ikeya T, Galic M, Belawat P, Nairz K, Hafen E. Nutrient-dependent expression of insulin-like peptides from neuroendocrine cells in the CNS contributes to growth regulation in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1293-300 pubmed
    ..Genetic ablation of these neurosecretory cells mimics the phenotype of starved or insulin signaling mutant flies. These results point to a conserved role of the neuroendocrine axis in growth control in multicellular organisms. ..
  60. Kuranaga E, Matsunuma T, Kanuka H, Takemoto K, Koto A, Kimura K, et al. Apoptosis controls the speed of looping morphogenesis in Drosophila male terminalia. Development. 2011;138:1493-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, apoptosis coordinates the outer ring movement that drives the acceleration of genitalia rotation, thereby enabling the complete morphogenesis of male genitalia within a limited developmental time frame. ..
  61. Kanuka H, Kuranaga E, Takemoto K, Hiratou T, Okano H, Miura M. Drosophila caspase transduces Shaggy/GSK-3beta kinase activity in neural precursor development. EMBO J. 2005;24:3793-806 pubmed
    ..These results imply a novel role for caspases in modulating cell signaling pathways through substrate cleavage in neural precursor development...
  62. Rulifson E, Kim S, Nusse R. Ablation of insulin-producing neurons in flies: growth and diabetic phenotypes. Science. 2002;296:1118-20 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the phenotype of flies lacking IPCs includes certain features of diabetes mellitus. ..
  63. Pérez Garijo A, Martín F, Struhl G, Morata G. Dpp signaling and the induction of neoplastic tumors by caspase-inhibited apoptotic cells in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:17664-9 pubmed
  64. Yan N, Wu J, Chai J, Li W, Shi Y. Molecular mechanisms of DrICE inhibition by DIAP1 and removal of inhibition by Reaper, Hid and Grim. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2004;11:420-8 pubmed
    ..The pro-death proteins Reaper, Hid and Grim (RHG) induce apoptosis by antagonizing DIAP1 function...
  65. Daish T, Mills K, Kumar S. Drosophila caspase DRONC is required for specific developmental cell death pathways and stress-induced apoptosis. Dev Cell. 2004;7:909-15 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that DRONC is involved in specific developmental cell death pathways and that in some tissues, effector caspase activation and cell death can occur independently of DRONC. ..
  66. Zhou L, Steller H. Distinct pathways mediate UV-induced apoptosis in Drosophila embryos. Dev Cell. 2003;4:599-605 pubmed
    ..In midstage embryos, UVC irradiation induces reaper expression and cell death through a mei-41(dATM)-dependent pathway; UVB does not have the same effect...
  67. Ryoo H, Bergmann A, Gonen H, Ciechanover A, Steller H. Regulation of Drosophila IAP1 degradation and apoptosis by reaper and ubcD1. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:432-8 pubmed
    ..we report that Drosophila melanogaster IAP1 (DIAP1) auto-ubiquitination and degradation is actively regulated by Reaper (Rpr) and UBCD1. We show that Rpr, but not Hid (head involution defective), promotes significant DIAP1 degradation...
  68. Zhang Y, Lin N, Carroll P, Chan G, Guan B, Xiao H, et al. Epigenetic blocking of an enhancer region controls irradiation-induced proapoptotic gene expression in Drosophila embryos. Dev Cell. 2008;14:481-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Two proapoptotic genes, reaper and hid, are upregulated rapidly following irradiation...
  69. Ditzel M, Broemer M, Tenev T, Bolduc C, Lee T, Rigbolt K, et al. Inactivation of effector caspases through nondegradative polyubiquitylation. Mol Cell. 2008;32:540-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings demonstrate that effector caspases regulate their own inhibition through a negative feedback mechanism involving DIAP1 "activation" and nondegradative polyubiquitylation. ..
  70. Brennecke J, Hipfner D, Stark A, Russell R, Cohen S. bantam encodes a developmentally regulated microRNA that controls cell proliferation and regulates the proapoptotic gene hid in Drosophila. Cell. 2003;113:25-36 pubmed
    ..bantam microRNA simultaneously stimulates cell proliferation and prevents apoptosis. We identify the pro-apoptotic gene hid as a target for regulation by bantam miRNA, providing an explanation for bantam's anti-apoptotic activity. ..
  71. Mathur D, Bost A, Driver I, Ohlstein B. A transient niche regulates the specification of Drosophila intestinal stem cells. Science. 2010;327:210-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate a paradigm for stem cell-niche biology, where progenitors generate transient niches that determine stem cell fate and may give insights into stem cell specification in other tissues. ..
  72. Koto A, Kuranaga E, Miura M. Temporal regulation of Drosophila IAP1 determines caspase functions in sensory organ development. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:219-31 pubmed publisher
  73. Tenev T, Zachariou A, Wilson R, Paul A, Meier P. Jafrac2 is an IAP antagonist that promotes cell death by liberating Dronc from DIAP1. EMBO J. 2002;21:5118-29 pubmed
    ..Cell death is triggered when "Reaper-like" proteins bind to IAPs and liberate caspases from IAPs...
  74. Leaman D, Chen P, Fak J, Yalcin A, Pearce M, Unnerstall U, et al. Antisense-mediated depletion reveals essential and specific functions of microRNAs in Drosophila development. Cell. 2005;121:1097-108 pubmed
    ..apoptosis; this is achieved by differential posttranscriptional repression of the proapoptotic factors hid, grim, reaper, and sickle...
  75. Lohmann I. Dissecting the regulation of the Drosophila cell death activator reaper. Gene Expr Patterns. 2003;3:159-63 pubmed
    ..been studied, and it is known that the induction of apoptosis requires the products of three closely linked genes, reaper (rpr), head involution defective (hid) and grim...
  76. Ditzel M, Wilson R, Tenev T, Zachariou A, Paul A, Deas E, et al. Degradation of DIAP1 by the N-end rule pathway is essential for regulating apoptosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:467-73 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that the N-end rule pathway is required for regulation of apoptosis induced by Reaper and Hid expression in the Drosophila melanogaster eye...
  77. Vazquez Pianzola P, Hernandez G, Suter B, Rivera Pomar R. Different modes of translation for hid, grim and sickle mRNAs in Drosophila. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:286-95 pubmed
    ..Our results show that IRES-dependent initiation may play a role in the translation of Drosophila proapoptotic genes and suggest a variety of regulatory pathways. ..
  78. Siegrist S, Haque N, Chen C, Hay B, Hariharan I. Inactivation of both Foxo and reaper promotes long-term adult neurogenesis in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2010;20:643-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Eliminating Foxo, together with inhibition of reaper family proapoptotic genes, promotes long-term survival of neuroblasts and sustains neurogenesis in the adult ..
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