Gene Symbol: RpII33
Description: RNA polymerase II 33kD subunit
Alias: 152117_at, BG:DS00941.10, CG7885, D-rpII33, Dmel\CG7885, Pol II, Pol II RPII33, PolII, PolIIo, RNA Pol II, RNA pol II, RNA polII, RNAP, RPB3, Rbp3, Rpb3, Rpll33, br17, l(2)34Dg, l(2)br17, l(2)k05605, l34Dg, pol II, polII, rpII33, rpb3, RNA polymerase II 33kD subunit, CG7885-PA, RNA polymerase II, RpII33-PA, lethal 17 in the black-reduced region, lethal(2)34Dg
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Schaaf C, Kwak H, Koenig A, Misulovin Z, Gohara D, Watson A, et al. Genome-wide control of RNA polymerase II activity by cohesin. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003382 pubmed publisher
    ..To clarify cohesin's roles in transcription, we measured how cohesin controls RNA polymerase II (Pol II) activity by genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and precision global run-on sequencing...
  2. Core L, Waterfall J, Gilchrist D, Fargo D, Kwak H, Adelman K, et al. Defining the status of RNA polymerase at promoters. Cell Rep. 2012;2:1025-35 pubmed publisher
    Recent genome-wide studies in metazoans have shown that RNA polymerase II (Pol II) accumulates to high densities on many promoters at a rate-limited step in transcription. However, the status of this Pol II remains an area of debate...
  3. Bartkowiak B, Liu P, Phatnani H, Fuda N, Cooper J, Price D, et al. CDK12 is a transcription elongation-associated CTD kinase, the metazoan ortholog of yeast Ctk1. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2303-16 pubmed publisher
    ..of dCDK12 on formaldehyde-fixed polytene chromosomes is virtually identical to that of hyperphosphorylated RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), but is distinct from that of P-TEFb (dCDK9 + dCyclin T)...
  4. Muse G, Gilchrist D, Nechaev S, Shah R, Parker J, Grissom S, et al. RNA polymerase is poised for activation across the genome. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1507-11 pubmed
    ..In many cases, recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to a promoter is necessary and sufficient for activation of genes...
  5. Raisner R, Madhani H. Patterning chromatin: form and function for H2A.Z variant nucleosomes. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:119-24 pubmed
    ..This chromatin pattern is generated through the action of a DNA deposition signal and a specific pattern of histone tail acetylation. ..
  6. Zhang Z, Gilmour D. Pcf11 is a termination factor in Drosophila that dismantles the elongation complex by bridging the CTD of RNA polymerase II to the nascent transcript. Mol Cell. 2006;21:65-74 pubmed
    The mechanism by which Pol II terminates transcription in metazoans is not understood. We show that Pcf11 is directly involved in termination in Drosophila...
  7. Schock F, Sauer F, Jackle H, Purnell B. Drosophila head segmentation factor buttonhead interacts with the same TATA box-binding protein-associated factors and in vivo DNA targets as human Sp1 but executes a different biological program. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:5061-5 pubmed
  8. Petesch S, Lis J. Rapid, transcription-independent loss of nucleosomes over a large chromatin domain at Hsp70 loci. Cell. 2008;134:74-84 pubmed publisher
    To efficiently transcribe genes, RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) must overcome barriers imposed by nucleosomes and higher-order chromatin structure...
  9. Yao J, Zobeck K, Lis J, Webb W. Imaging transcription dynamics at endogenous genes in living Drosophila tissues. Methods. 2008;45:233-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This method has provided the experimental capability to visualize the assembly and dynamics of individual transcription factors and regulators and to dissect their functions at their endogenous gene targets in living cells. ..

More Information


  1. Pinto P, Henriques T, Freitas M, Martins T, Domingues R, Wyrzykowska P, et al. RNA polymerase II kinetics in polo polyadenylation signal selection. EMBO J. 2011;30:2431-44 pubmed publisher
    ..site selection functions to provide the correct levels of protein expression necessary for histoblast proliferation, and that the kinetics of RNA polymerase II have an important role in the mechanism of alternative polyadenylation.
  2. Chao S, Fujinaga K, Marion J, Taube R, Sausville E, Senderowicz A, et al. Flavopiridol inhibits P-TEFb and blocks HIV-1 replication. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:28345-8 pubmed
    ..We found that the flavonoid potently inhibited transcription by RNA polymerase II in vitro by blocking the transition into productive elongation, a step controlled by P-TEFb...
  3. Orian A. Chromatin profiling, DamID and the emerging landscape of gene expression. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:157-64 pubmed
    ..The molecular picture that emerges from DamID and similar studies is that genomes integrate inputs from both genetic and epigenetic machineries to dynamically regulate gene expression. ..
  4. Armstrong J, Papoulas O, Daubresse G, Sperling A, Lis J, Scott M, et al. The Drosophila BRM complex facilitates global transcription by RNA polymerase II. EMBO J. 2002;21:5245-54 pubmed
    ..Reduction of BRM function dramatically reduces the association of RNA polymerase II with salivary gland chromosomes...
  5. Ni Z, Saunders A, Fuda N, Yao J, Suarez J, Webb W, et al. P-TEFb is critical for the maturation of RNA polymerase II into productive elongation in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1161-70 pubmed
    Positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) is the major metazoan RNA polymerase II (Pol II) carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) Ser2 kinase, and its activity is believed to promote productive elongation and coupled RNA processing...
  6. Schaaf C, Misulovin Z, Gause M, Koenig A, Gohara D, Watson A, et al. Cohesin and polycomb proteins functionally interact to control transcription at silenced and active genes. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003560 pubmed publisher
    ..PRC1 depletion decreases phosphorylated RNA polymerase II and mRNA at many active genes but increases them at silenced genes...
  7. Prestel M, Feller C, Straub T, Mitlöhner H, Becker P. The activation potential of MOF is constrained for dosage compensation. Mol Cell. 2010;38:815-26 pubmed publisher
  8. Yao J, Ardehali M, Fecko C, Webb W, Lis J. Intranuclear distribution and local dynamics of RNA polymerase II during transcription activation. Mol Cell. 2007;28:978-90 pubmed
    ..Additionally, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching reveals that, shortly after HS, newly recruited RNA polymerase II (Pol II) enters elongation via an "efficient entry" mode, which is followed by the progressive ..
  9. Sullivan K, Steiniger M, Marzluff W. A core complex of CPSF73, CPSF100, and Symplekin may form two different cleavage factors for processing of poly(A) and histone mRNAs. Mol Cell. 2009;34:322-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that a common core cleavage factor is required for processing of histone and polyadenylated pre-mRNAs. ..
  10. Henikoff S, Furuyama T, Ahmad K. Histone variants, nucleosome assembly and epigenetic inheritance. Trends Genet. 2004;20:320-6 pubmed
  11. Reim I, Mattow J, Saumweber H. The RRM protein NonA from Drosophila forms a complex with the RRM proteins Hrb87F and S5 and the Zn finger protein PEP on hnRNA. Exp Cell Res. 1999;253:573-86 pubmed
    ..Like NonA, X4/PEP, S5, and P11/Hrb87F are present on active sites on polytene chromosomes. The precipitated NonA complex is enriched for certain protein encoding RNAs, notably, histone H3 and H4 RNA. ..
  12. Mito Y, Henikoff J, Henikoff S. Genome-scale profiling of histone H3.3 replacement patterns. Nat Genet. 2005;37:1090-7 pubmed
    ..3 replacement over active genes and transposons. H3.3 replacement occurred prominently at sites of abundant RNA polymerase II and methylated H3 Lys4 throughout the genome and was enhanced on the dosage-compensated male X chromosome...
  13. Schauer T, Schwalie P, Handley A, Margulies C, Flicek P, Ladurner A. CAST-ChIP maps cell-type-specific chromatin states in the Drosophila central nervous system. Cell Rep. 2013;5:271-82 pubmed publisher
    ..b>RNA polymerase II (Pol II) CAST-ChIP identifies ~1,500 neuronal and glia-specific genes in differentiated cells within the ..
  14. Tycon M, Daddysman M, Fecko C. RNA polymerase II subunits exhibit a broad distribution of macromolecular assembly states in the interchromatin space of cell nuclei. J Phys Chem B. 2014;118:423-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We address this deficiency by investigating the diffusion dynamics of two RNA polymerase II subunits, Rpb3 and Rpb9, in regions of live Drosophila cell nuclei that are devoid of chromatin binding ..
  15. Pankotai T, Ujfaludi Z, Vámos E, Suri K, Boros I. The dissociable RPB4 subunit of RNA Pol II has vital functions in Drosophila. Mol Genet Genomics. 2010;283:89-97 pubmed publisher
    b>RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is composed of a ten subunit core and a two subunit dissociable subcomplex comprising the fourth and seventh largest subunits, RPB4 and RPB7...
  16. Demakova O, Pokholkova G, Kolesnikova T, Demakov S, Andreyeva E, Belyaeva E, et al. The SU(VAR)3-9/HP1 complex differentially regulates the compaction state and degree of underreplication of X chromosome pericentric heterochromatin in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2007;175:609-20 pubmed
    ..So, we show that pericentric heterochromatin is heterogeneous in its requirement for SU(VAR)3-9 with respect to the establishment of the condensed state, time of replication, and DNA polytenization. ..
  17. Hendrix D, Hong J, Zeitlinger J, Rokhsar D, Levine M. Promoter elements associated with RNA Pol II stalling in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7762-7 pubmed publisher
    b>RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) is bound to the promoter regions of many or most developmental control genes before their activation during Drosophila embryogenesis...
  18. Yao J, Munson K, Webb W, Lis J. Dynamics of heat shock factor association with native gene loci in living cells. Nature. 2006;442:1050-3 pubmed
    ..After heat shock, we have visualized the recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to native hsp70 gene loci 87A and 87C in real time...
  19. Kim M, Mauro S, Gévry N, Lis J, Kraus W. NAD+-dependent modulation of chromatin structure and transcription by nucleosome binding properties of PARP-1. Cell. 2004;119:803-14 pubmed
    ..Thus, PARP-1 functions both as a structural component of chromatin and a modulator of chromatin structure through its intrinsic enzymatic activity. ..
  20. Shore S, Byers S, Maury W, Price D. Identification of a novel isoform of Cdk9. Gene. 2003;307:175-82 pubmed
    Positive transcription factor b (P-TEFb) is required for RNA polymerase II to make the transition from abortive to productive elongation...
  21. Conrad T, Cavalli F, Vaquerizas J, Luscombe N, Akhtar A. Drosophila dosage compensation involves enhanced Pol II recruitment to male X-linked promoters. Science. 2012;337:742-6 pubmed publisher
    ..By obtaining accurate measurements of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) occupancies and short promoter-proximal RNA production, we detected a consistent, genome-scale ..
  22. Bonn S, Zinzen R, Girardot C, Gustafson E, Perez Gonzalez A, Delhomme N, et al. Tissue-specific analysis of chromatin state identifies temporal signatures of enhancer activity during embryonic development. Nat Genet. 2012;44:148-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we use a new approach to obtain cell type-specific information on chromatin state and RNA polymerase II (Pol II) occupancy within the multicellular Drosophila melanogaster embryo...
  23. Bonn S, Zinzen R, Perez Gonzalez A, Riddell A, Gavin A, Furlong E. Cell type-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation from multicellular complex samples using BiTS-ChIP. Nat Protoc. 2012;7:978-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The full protocol, including sorting, immunoprecipitation and generation of sequencing libraries, can be completed within 5 d. ..
  24. Lis J. Promoter-associated pausing in promoter architecture and postinitiation transcriptional regulation. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1998;63:347-56 pubmed
  25. Henikoff S, Henikoff J, Sakai A, Loeb G, Ahmad K. Genome-wide profiling of salt fractions maps physical properties of chromatin. Genome Res. 2009;19:460-9 pubmed publisher
    ..3 and correspond closely to profiles of histone H2Av (H2A.Z) and RNA polymerase II. This correspondence suggests that transcription can result in loss of H3...
  26. Woodruff R, Ashburner M. The genetics of a small autosomal region of Drosophila melanogaster containing the structural gene for alcohol dehydrogenase. II. Lethal mutations in the region. Genetics. 1979;92:133-49 pubmed
  27. Adelman K, Kennedy M, Nechaev S, Gilchrist D, Muse G, Chinenov Y, et al. Immediate mediators of the inflammatory response are poised for gene activation through RNA polymerase II stalling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18207-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, at TNFalpha, RNA Polymerase II initiates transcription in resting macrophages, but stalls near the promoter until LPS triggers rapid and ..
  28. Zobeck K, Buckley M, Zipfel W, Lis J. Recruitment timing and dynamics of transcription factors at the Hsp70 loci in living cells. Mol Cell. 2010;40:965-75 pubmed publisher
    ..HSF, is first detected within 20 s of gene activation; the timing of its recruitment resolves from RNA polymerase II and P-TEFb, and these factors resolve from Spt6 and Topo I...
  29. Donertas D, Sienski G, Brennecke J. Drosophila Gtsf1 is an essential component of the Piwi-mediated transcriptional silencing complex. Genes Dev. 2013;27:1693-705 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that only a small fraction of nuclear Piwi is actively engaged in target silencing and that Gtsf1 is an essential component of the underlying Piwi-centered silencing complex. ..
  30. Gubb D, Ashburner M, Roote J, Davis T. A novel transvection phenomenon affecting the white gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1990;126:167-76 pubmed
    ..This effect of rearrangements has been used as the basis for a screen, gamma-ray induced aberrations with at least one breakpoint opposite the TE site were recovered by their suppression of the zeste phenotype. ..
  31. Morcillo P, MacIntyre R. Genetic and molecular characterization of a variegating hsp70-acZ fusion gene in the euchromatic 31 B region of Drosophila melanogaster. Genome. 2001;44:698-707 pubmed
    ..However, other modifiers of PEV did not affect the expression pattern of the gene. These results show a novel euchromatic tissue-specific variegation that is not associated with classical heterochromatic PEV. ..
  32. Chao S, Price D. Flavopiridol inactivates P-TEFb and blocks most RNA polymerase II transcription in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:31793-9 pubmed
    ..We examined the ability of flavopiridol to inhibit P-TEFb (Cdk9/cyclin T1) phosphorylation of both RNA polymerase II and the large subunit of the 5, 6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) sensitivity-inducing ..
  33. Lefai E, Fernandez Moreno M, Kaguni L, Garesse R. The highly compact structure of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase genomic region of Drosophila melanogaster: functional and evolutionary implications. Insect Mol Biol. 2000;9:315-22 pubmed
    ..It contains two bidirectional promoter regions, and particularly notable is the 5' end overlap detected in two of its genes, an exceptional situation in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome organization. ..
  34. Kal A, Mahmoudi T, Zak N, Verrijzer C. The Drosophila brahma complex is an essential coactivator for the trithorax group protein zeste. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1058-71 pubmed
    ..These results establish that different chromatin remodeling factors display distinct functional properties and provide novel insights into the mechanism of their targeting. ..
  35. Kotlikova I, Demakova O, Semeshin V, Shloma V, Boldyreva L, Kuroda M, et al. The Drosophila dosage compensation complex binds to polytene chromosomes independently of developmental changes in transcription. Genetics. 2006;172:963-74 pubmed
    ..To test this hypothesis, we compared binding patterns of the DCC and of the elongating form of RNA polymerase II (PolIIo)...
  36. Blythe S, Wieschaus E. Zygotic genome activation triggers the DNA replication checkpoint at the midblastula transition. Cell. 2015;160:1169-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Measuring RNA polymerase II (Pol II) binding at 20 min intervals over the course of ZGA reveals that the checkpoint coincides with ..
  37. Iyengar B, Roote J, Campos A. The tamas gene, identified as a mutation that disrupts larval behavior in Drosophila melanogaster, codes for the mitochondrial DNA polymerase catalytic subunit (DNApol-gamma125). Genetics. 1999;153:1809-24 pubmed
    ..Sequencing of mutant alleles demonstrated that tamas codes for the mitochondrial DNA polymerase catalytic subunit (DNApol-gamma125). ..
  38. Sienski G, Donertas D, Brennecke J. Transcriptional silencing of transposons by Piwi and maelstrom and its impact on chromatin state and gene expression. Cell. 2012;151:964-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Genome-wide assays revealed highly correlated changes in RNA polymerase II recruitment, nascent RNA output, and steady-state RNA levels of transposons upon loss of Piwi or Maelstrom...
  39. Chlamydas S, Holz H, Samata M, Chelmicki T, Georgiev P, Pelechano V, et al. Functional interplay between MSL1 and CDK7 controls RNA polymerase II Ser5 phosphorylation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2016;23:580-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, MSL1 depletion leads to decreased phosphorylation of Ser5 of RNA polymerase II. In addition, we demonstrate that MSL1 is a phosphoprotein, and transgenic flies expressing MSL1 ..
  40. Visa N, Gonzalez Duarte R, Santa Cruz M. A cytological and molecular analysis of Adh gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosomes. Chromosoma. 1988;97:171-7 pubmed
    ..The presence of RNA polymerase II in this puff as well as its ability to incorporate tritiated uridine shows that it corresponds to a ..
  41. Leclerc V, Raisin S, Leopold P. Dominant-negative mutants reveal a role for the Cdk7 kinase at the mid-blastula transition in Drosophila embryos. EMBO J. 2000;19:1567-75 pubmed
    ..found in the transcription factor complex TFIIH, suggesting that it participates in vivo in the control of RNA polymerase II. We have examined the physiological role of Cdk7 during the course of Drosophila development...
  42. Lefai E, Fernandez Moreno M, Alahari A, Kaguni L, Garesse R. Differential regulation of the catalytic and accessory subunit genes of Drosophila mitochondrial DNA polymerase. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:33123-33 pubmed
    ..The P1 region directs divergent transcription of the pol gamma-beta gene and the adjacent rpII33 gene...
  43. Boehm A, Saunders A, Werner J, Lis J. Transcription factor and polymerase recruitment, modification, and movement on dhsp70 in vivo in the minutes following heat shock. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7628-37 pubmed
    ..Here we examine the rapid changes upon heat shock in levels and location of heat shock factor (HSF), RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and its phosphorylated forms, and the Pol II kinase P-TEFb on hsp70 in vivo by using both real-time ..
  44. Pham A, Muller S, Sauer F. Mesoderm-determining transcription in Drosophila is alleviated by mutations in TAF(II)60 and TAF(II)110. Mech Dev. 1999;84:3-16 pubmed
    ..The results provide evidence that TAF(II)-subunits within the TFIID complex play an important role during the molecular events leading to initiation of mesoderm formation in Drosophila. ..
  45. Chen B, Chu T, Harms E, Gergen J, Strickland S. Mapping of Drosophila mutations using site-specific male recombination. Genetics. 1998;149:157-63 pubmed
    ..These experiments demonstrate that P-element-induced site-specific male recombination is an efficient and general method to map Drosophila autosomal mutations. ..
  46. Gilchrist D, dos Santos G, Fargo D, Xie B, Gao Y, Li L, et al. Pausing of RNA polymerase II disrupts DNA-specified nucleosome organization to enable precise gene regulation. Cell. 2010;143:540-51 pubmed publisher
    ..either coordinated recruitment of transcription machinery to the gene promoter or regulated pausing of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) in early elongation...
  47. Zhang Z, Wu C, Gilmour D. Analysis of polymerase II elongation complexes by native gel electrophoresis. Evidence for a novel carboxyl-terminal domain-mediated termination mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:23223-8 pubmed
    ..approach using native gel electrophoresis for studying interactions of elongation factors with isolated Pol II elongation complexes. The gel distinguishes Pol IIA and Pol IIB containing complexes...