Gene Symbol: RpII215
Description: RNA polymerase II 215kD subunit
Alias: 8WG16, CG1554, CTD, Dmel\CG1554, IIo, POL, Pol II, Pol II CTD, Pol II Ser5P, Pol II Ser5p, Pol II0[ser2], Pol II0[ser5], Pol II[ser2], Pol IIa, Pol IIo, Pol IIo[Ser2], Pol IIo[ser2], Pol IIo[ser5], Pol-II, Pol-IIa, PolII, PolIIa, PolIIo, PolIIo[ser2], PolIIo[ser5], Poll II, RNA Pol II, RNA Pol II CTD, RNA PolI 215, RNA PolII, RNA pol II, RNA pol IIo, RNA polII, RNA-PolII, RNAP, RNAP II, RNAP II LS, RNAPII, RNAPII0, RNApol, RNApol2, RNApolII, RPB1, RPII215, RpII, Rpb1, Rpll215, Ser5-P Pol II, Ubl, alphaPol IIo[ser2], dRPB1, dRpb1, l(1)10Ca, l(1)DC912, l(1)DF912, l(1)G0040, l(1)L5, pol II, polII, rpII1, RNA polymerase II 215kD subunit, CG1554-PA, Pol II CTD, Pol II large subunit, Pol II large subunit CTD, RNA Pol II, RNA polymerase II, RNA polymerase II large subunit, RNA polymerase IIo, RNA polymeraseII-215 kd subunit, RNA-polymerase II, RpII215-PA, Ultrabithorax-like, polymerase II CTD
Species: fruit fly
Products:     RpII215

Top Publications

  1. Toth J, Biggin M. The specificity of protein-DNA crosslinking by formaldehyde: in vitro and in drosophila embryos. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:e4 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that crosslinking by formaldehyde, and possibly also by methylene blue, provide an accurate guide to the interaction of proteins with their high affinity target sites in cells. ..
  2. Ni Z, Schwartz B, Werner J, Suarez J, Lis J. Coordination of transcription, RNA processing, and surveillance by P-TEFb kinase on heat shock genes. Mol Cell. 2004;13:55-65 pubmed
    ..elongation factor b (P-TEFb) is a kinase that phosphorylates the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II)...
  3. Peng J, Marshall N, Price D. Identification of a cyclin subunit required for the function of Drosophila P-TEFb. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:13855-60 pubmed
    ..elongation and is capable of phosphorylating the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. We cloned a cDNA encoding the large subunit of Drosophila P-TEFb and found the predicted protein contained ..
  4. Saunders A, Werner J, Andrulis E, Nakayama T, Hirose S, Reinberg D, et al. Tracking FACT and the RNA polymerase II elongation complex through chromatin in vivo. Science. 2003;301:1094-6 pubmed
    b>RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription through nucleosomes is facilitated in vitro by the protein complex FACT (Facilitates Chromatin Transcription)...
  5. Hanyu Nakamura K, Sonobe Nojima H, Tanigawa A, Lasko P, Nakamura A. Drosophila Pgc protein inhibits P-TEFb recruitment to chromatin in primordial germ cells. Nature. 2008;451:730-3 pubmed publisher
    ..progenitors are protected from differentiation-inducing signals is a transient and global repression of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII)-dependent transcription...
  6. Smith E, Lee M, Winter B, Droz N, Eissenberg J, Shiekhattar R, et al. Drosophila UTX is a histone H3 Lys27 demethylase that colocalizes with the elongating form of RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1041-6 pubmed
    ..dUTX localization on chromatin correlates with the elongating form of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), and dUTX can associate with Pol II...
  7. Schaaf C, Kwak H, Koenig A, Misulovin Z, Gohara D, Watson A, et al. Genome-wide control of RNA polymerase II activity by cohesin. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003382 pubmed publisher
    ..To clarify cohesin's roles in transcription, we measured how cohesin controls RNA polymerase II (Pol II) activity by genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and precision global run-on sequencing...
  8. Ivaldi M, Karam C, Corces V. Phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10 facilitates RNA polymerase II release from promoter-proximal pausing in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2818-31 pubmed
    ..chromatin remodeling by the brahma complex and is required during early transcription elongation to release RNA polymerase II (Pol II) from promoter-proximal pausing...
  9. Andrulis E, Werner J, Nazarian A, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, Lis J. The RNA processing exosome is linked to elongating RNA polymerase II in Drosophila. Nature. 2002;420:837-41 pubmed
    The RNA polymerase II elongation complex contains several factors that facilitate transcription elongation and catalyse the processing of precursor messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs)...

More Information


  1. Park J, Werner J, Kim J, Lis J, Kim Y. Mediator, not holoenzyme, is directly recruited to the heat shock promoter by HSF upon heat shock. Mol Cell. 2001;8:9-19 pubmed
    Activators of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription have been shown to bind several coactivators and basal factors in vitro...
  2. Seydoux G, Dunn M. Transcriptionally repressed germ cells lack a subpopulation of phosphorylated RNA polymerase II in early embryos of Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 1997;124:2191-201 pubmed
    ..mRNA production correlates with the absence of a specific phosphoepitope on the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. In both C...
  3. Yao J, Munson K, Webb W, Lis J. Dynamics of heat shock factor association with native gene loci in living cells. Nature. 2006;442:1050-3 pubmed
    ..After heat shock, we have visualized the recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to native hsp70 gene loci 87A and 87C in real time...
  4. Kaplan C, Morris J, Wu C, Winston F. Spt5 and spt6 are associated with active transcription and have characteristics of general elongation factors in D. melanogaster. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2623-34 pubmed
    ..In contrast, a complex of Spt4 and Spt5 is required in vitro for the inhibition of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation by the drug DRB, suggesting also a negative role in vivo...
  5. Gambetta M, Oktaba K, Muller J. Essential role of the glycosyltransferase sxc/Ogt in polycomb repression. Science. 2009;325:93-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Polycomb repression appears to be a critical function of Sxc/Ogt in Drosophila and may be mediated by the glycosylation of Polyhomeotic. ..
  6. Gilchrist D, dos Santos G, Fargo D, Xie B, Gao Y, Li L, et al. Pausing of RNA polymerase II disrupts DNA-specified nucleosome organization to enable precise gene regulation. Cell. 2010;143:540-51 pubmed publisher
    ..either coordinated recruitment of transcription machinery to the gene promoter or regulated pausing of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) in early elongation...
  7. Srinivasan S, Armstrong J, Deuring R, Dahlsveen I, McNeill H, Tamkun J. The Drosophila trithorax group protein Kismet facilitates an early step in transcriptional elongation by RNA Polymerase II. Development. 2005;132:1623-35 pubmed
    ..with virtually all sites of transcriptionally active chromatin in a pattern that largely overlaps that of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II)...
  8. Regnard C, Straub T, Mitterweger A, Dahlsveen I, Fabian V, Becker P. Global analysis of the relationship between JIL-1 kinase and transcription. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001327 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesise that one specific role of JIL-1 may be to reinforce, rather than to establish, the status of active chromatin through the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10. ..
  9. Smith E, Winter B, Eissenberg J, Shilatifard A. Regulation of the transcriptional activity of poised RNA polymerase II by the elongation factor ELL. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:8575-9 pubmed publisher
    Many developmentally regulated genes contain a poised RNA polymerase II (Pol II) at their promoters under conditions where full-length transcripts are undetectable...
  10. Armstrong J, Papoulas O, Daubresse G, Sperling A, Lis J, Scott M, et al. The Drosophila BRM complex facilitates global transcription by RNA polymerase II. EMBO J. 2002;21:5245-54 pubmed
    ..Reduction of BRM function dramatically reduces the association of RNA polymerase II with salivary gland chromosomes...
  11. Rattner B, Meller V. Drosophila male-specific lethal 2 protein controls sex-specific expression of the roX genes. Genetics. 2004;166:1825-32 pubmed
    ..We propose that this mechanism maintains a stable MSL/roX ratio that is favorable for localization of the complex to the X chromosome. ..
  12. Henikoff S, Henikoff J, Sakai A, Loeb G, Ahmad K. Genome-wide profiling of salt fractions maps physical properties of chromatin. Genome Res. 2009;19:460-9 pubmed publisher
    ..3 and correspond closely to profiles of histone H2Av (H2A.Z) and RNA polymerase II. This correspondence suggests that transcription can result in loss of H3...
  13. Karam C, Kellner W, Takenaka N, Clemmons A, Corces V. 14-3-3 mediates histone cross-talk during transcription elongation in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000975 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of 14-3-3, levels of actively elongating RNA polymerase II are severely diminished...
  14. Leatherman J, Levin L, Boero J, Jongens T. germ cell-less acts to repress transcription during the establishment of the Drosophila germ cell lineage. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1681-5 pubmed
  15. Gerber M, Eissenberg J, Kong S, Tenney K, Conaway J, Conaway R, et al. In vivo requirement of the RNA polymerase II elongation factor elongin A for proper gene expression and development. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:9911-9 pubmed
    A number of transcription factors that increase the catalytic rate of mRNA synthesis by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) have been purified from higher eukaryotes. Among these are the ELL family, DSIF, and the heterotrimeric elongin complex...
  16. Larschan E, Alekseyenko A, Gortchakov A, Peng S, Li B, Yang P, et al. MSL complex is attracted to genes marked by H3K36 trimethylation using a sequence-independent mechanism. Mol Cell. 2007;28:121-33 pubmed
    ..Our results support a model in which MSL complex uses high-affinity sites to initially recognize the X chromosome and then associates with many of its targets through sequence-independent features of transcribed genes. ..
  17. Fleischmann G, Pflugfelder G, Steiner E, Javaherian K, Howard G, Wang J, et al. Drosophila DNA topoisomerase I is associated with transcriptionally active regions of the genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:6958-62 pubmed
    ..A detailed comparison of the distribution of topoisomerase I with that of RNA polymerase II reveals a similar, although not identical, pattern of association...
  18. Chen Y, Chafin D, Price D, Greenleaf A. Drosophila RNA polymerase II mutants that affect transcription elongation. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:5993-9 pubmed
    We have examined the properties of two Drosophila RNA polymerase II mutants, C4 and S1, during elongation, pyrophosphorolysis, and DmS-II-stimulated transcript cleavage...
  19. Meller V, Rattner B. The roX genes encode redundant male-specific lethal transcripts required for targeting of the MSL complex. EMBO J. 2002;21:1084-91 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the roX1 and roX2 genes produce redundant, male-specific lethal transcripts required for targeting the MSL complex. ..
  20. Leach T, Mazzeo M, Chotkowski H, Madigan J, Wotring M, Glaser R. Histone H2A.Z is widely but nonrandomly distributed in chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:23267-72 pubmed
    ..Of the sequences assayed, H2Av was least abundant on 1. 688 satellite sequences and most abundant on the hsp70 genes. Finally, transcription caused, to an equivalent extent, both H2Av and H2A to be less tightly associated with DNA. ..
  21. Bartkowiak B, Liu P, Phatnani H, Fuda N, Cooper J, Price D, et al. CDK12 is a transcription elongation-associated CTD kinase, the metazoan ortholog of yeast Ctk1. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2303-16 pubmed publisher
    ..of dCDK12 on formaldehyde-fixed polytene chromosomes is virtually identical to that of hyperphosphorylated RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), but is distinct from that of P-TEFb (dCDK9 + dCyclin T)...
  22. Hessle V, Bjork P, Sokolowski M, González de Valdivia E, Silverstein R, Artemenko K, et al. The exosome associates cotranscriptionally with the nascent pre-mRNP through interactions with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:3459-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results lead to a revised mechanistic model for cotranscriptional quality control in which the exosome is constantly recruited to newly synthesized RNAs through direct interactions with specific hnRNP proteins. ..
  23. Deng H, Bao X, Cai W, Blacketer M, Belmont A, Girton J, et al. Ectopic histone H3S10 phosphorylation causes chromatin structure remodeling in Drosophila. Development. 2008;135:699-705 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide direct evidence that the epigenetic histone tail modification of H3S10 phosphorylation at interphase can function as a causative regulator of higher-order chromatin structure in Drosophila in vivo. ..
  24. Raisner R, Madhani H. Patterning chromatin: form and function for H2A.Z variant nucleosomes. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:119-24 pubmed
    ..This chromatin pattern is generated through the action of a DNA deposition signal and a specific pattern of histone tail acetylation. ..
  25. Shaiu W, Hsieh T. Targeting to transcriptionally active loci by the hydrophilic N-terminal domain of Drosophila DNA topoisomerase I. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:4358-67 pubmed
    ..The top1-lacZ fusion proteins colocalized with RNA polymerase II (pol II) at developmental puffs on the polytene chromosomes...
  26. Lis J, Mason P, Peng J, Price D, Werner J. P-TEFb kinase recruitment and function at heat shock loci. Genes Dev. 2000;14:792-803 pubmed
    ..These results, coupled with the frequent colocalization of P-TEFb and the hypophosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) found at promoter-pause sites, support a model in which P-TEFb acts to stimulate promoter-paused ..
  27. Boehm A, Saunders A, Werner J, Lis J. Transcription factor and polymerase recruitment, modification, and movement on dhsp70 in vivo in the minutes following heat shock. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7628-37 pubmed
    ..Here we examine the rapid changes upon heat shock in levels and location of heat shock factor (HSF), RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and its phosphorylated forms, and the Pol II kinase P-TEFb on hsp70 in vivo by using both real-time ..
  28. Deng X, Rattner B, Souter S, Meller V. The severity of roX1 mutations is predicted by MSL localization on the X chromosome. Mech Dev. 2005;122:1094-105 pubmed
    ..This ability predicts the level of male survival that each allele supports. This points to a peripheral or transient role for roX in the RNA and protein complex that binds to and regulates the X chromosome. ..
  29. Srinivasan S, Dorighi K, Tamkun J. Drosophila Kismet regulates histone H3 lysine 27 methylation and early elongation by RNA polymerase II. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000217 pubmed publisher
    ..a member of the CHD subfamily of chromatin-remodeling factors that plays a global role in transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II)...
  30. Cai W, Bao X, Deng H, Jin Y, Girton J, Johansen J, et al. RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription at active loci does not require histone H3S10 phosphorylation in Drosophila. Development. 2008;135:2917-25 pubmed publisher
    ..puffs in JIL-1 null mutant backgrounds are strongly labeled by antibody to the elongating form of RNA polymerase II (Pol IIoser2), indicating that Pol IIoser2 is actively involved in heat shock-induced transcription in the ..
  31. Mohan M, Herz H, Smith E, Zhang Y, Jackson J, Washburn M, et al. The COMPASS family of H3K4 methylases in Drosophila. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:4310-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this study provides a springboard for the functional dissection of the COMPASS family members and their role in the regulation of histone H3K4 methylation throughout development in Drosophila. ..
  32. Chen Y, Weeks J, Mortin M, Greenleaf A. Mapping mutations in genes encoding the two large subunits of Drosophila RNA polymerase II defines domains essential for basic transcription functions and for proper expression of developmental genes. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:4214-22 pubmed
    ..in genes encoding the largest (RpII215) and second-largest (RpII140) subunits of Drosophila melanogaster RNA polymerase II. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) ..
  33. Missra A, Gilmour D. Interactions between DSIF (DRB sensitivity inducing factor), NELF (negative elongation factor), and the Drosophila RNA polymerase II transcription elongation complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11301-6 pubmed publisher
    ..5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF) are involved in pausing RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) in the promoter-proximal region of the hsp70 gene in Drosophila, before heat shock induction...
  34. Kal A, Mahmoudi T, Zak N, Verrijzer C. The Drosophila brahma complex is an essential coactivator for the trithorax group protein zeste. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1058-71 pubmed
    ..These results establish that different chromatin remodeling factors display distinct functional properties and provide novel insights into the mechanism of their targeting. ..
  35. De la Mata M, Alonso C, Kadener S, Fededa J, Blaustein M, Pelisch F, et al. A slow RNA polymerase II affects alternative splicing in vivo. Mol Cell. 2003;12:525-32 pubmed
    ..It has been proposed that the promoter effect involves modulation of RNA pol II elongation rates...
  36. Weeks J, Hardin S, Shen J, Lee J, Greenleaf A. Locus-specific variation in phosphorylation state of RNA polymerase II in vivo: correlations with gene activity and transcript processing. Genes Dev. 1993;7:2329-44 pubmed
    To investigate functional differences between RNA polymerases IIA and IIO (Pol IIA and Pol IIO), with hypo- and hyperphosphorylated carboxy-terminal repeat domains (CTDs), respectively, we have visualized the in vivo distributions of the ..
  37. McDaniel I, Lee J, Berger M, Hanagami C, Armstrong J. Investigations of CHD1 function in transcription and development of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2008;178:583-7 pubmed publisher
    ..While CHD1 colocalizes with elongating RNA polymerase II (Pol II) on polytene chromosomes, elongating Pol II can persist on chromatin in the absence of CHD1...
  38. Coléno Costes A, Jang S, de Vanssay A, Rougeot J, Bouceba T, Randsholt N, et al. New partners in regulation of gene expression: the enhancer of Trithorax and Polycomb Corto interacts with methylated ribosomal protein l12 via its chromodomain. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003006 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss whether pseudo-ribosomal complexes composed of various ribosomal proteins might participate in regulation of gene expression in connection with chromatin regulators. ..
  39. Eissenberg J, Shilatifard A, Dorokhov N, Michener D. Cdk9 is an essential kinase in Drosophila that is required for heat shock gene expression, histone methylation and elongation factor recruitment. Mol Genet Genomics. 2007;277:101-14 pubmed
    Phosphorylation of the large RNA Polymerase II subunit C-terminal domain (CTD) is believed to be important in promoter clearance and for recruiting protein factors that function in messenger RNA synthesis and processing...
  40. Law A, Hirayoshi K, O BRIEN T, Lis J. Direct cloning of DNA that interacts in vivo with a specific protein: application to RNA polymerase II and sites of pausing in Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:919-24 pubmed
    ..The resulting DNA (iDNA) is amplified by PCR, cloned and characterized. The model system used was RNA polymerase II (Pol II), whose density on particular DNAs under various conditions is well documented...
  41. Zhang Z, Gilmour D. Pcf11 is a termination factor in Drosophila that dismantles the elongation complex by bridging the CTD of RNA polymerase II to the nascent transcript. Mol Cell. 2006;21:65-74 pubmed
    The mechanism by which Pol II terminates transcription in metazoans is not understood. We show that Pcf11 is directly involved in termination in Drosophila...
  42. Bai X, Alekseyenko A, Kuroda M. Sequence-specific targeting of MSL complex regulates transcription of the roX RNA genes. EMBO J. 2004;23:2853-61 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, the DHS is not required for initiation of cis spreading of MSL complex, instead local transcription of roX RNAs correlates with extensive spreading. ..
  43. Sauer F, Hansen S, Tjian R. Multiple TAFIIs directing synergistic activation of transcription. Science. 1995;270:1783-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the concerted action of multiple regulators with different coactivators helps to establish the pattern and level of segmentation gene transcription during Drosophila development. ..
  44. Burke L, Jones T, Mortin M. Transcriptional competition and homeosis in Drosophila. Biochem Genet. 1996;34:45-59 pubmed
    Interference between different classes of RNA polymerase II alleles causes a mutant phenotype called the "Ubx effect" that resembles one seen in flies haploinsufficient for the transcription factor, Ultrabithorax (Ubx)...
  45. Timinszky G, Bortfeld M, Ladurner A. Repression of RNA polymerase II transcription by a Drosophila oligopeptide. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2506 pubmed publisher
    ..This occurs through the transient repression in primordial germ cells of RNA polymerase II, specifically by disrupting Ser2 phosphorylation on its C-terminal domain...
  46. Visa N, Diez J, Santa Cruz M. Comparative analysis of four parameters involved in puffing activity along chromosome arm 2L of D melanogaster. Biol Cell. 1991;73:71-8 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, puffs of similar size incorporate 3H-uridine at quite different rates. The presence of RNA polymerase II seems to follow a coincident pattern with that of 3H-uridine incorporation...
  47. Schauer T, Tombácz I, Ciurciu A, Komonyi O, Boros I. Misregulated RNA Pol II C-terminal domain phosphorylation results in apoptosis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009;66:909-18 pubmed publisher
    Misregulation of the level of RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) phosphatase, Fcp1, in Drosophila results in high level of caspase-mediated apoptosis...
  48. Chao S, Fujinaga K, Marion J, Taube R, Sausville E, Senderowicz A, et al. Flavopiridol inhibits P-TEFb and blocks HIV-1 replication. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:28345-8 pubmed
    ..We found that the flavonoid potently inhibited transcription by RNA polymerase II in vitro by blocking the transition into productive elongation, a step controlled by P-TEFb...
  49. Holland C, Lipsett D, Clark D. A link between impaired purine nucleotide synthesis and apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2011;188:359-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the upregulated genes was HtrA2, which encodes an apoptosis effector and is thus a candidate for initiating apoptosis in response to purine depletion. ..
  50. Benbahouche N, Iliopoulos I, Török I, Marhold J, Henri J, Kajava A, et al. Drosophila Spag is the homolog of RNA polymerase II-associated protein 3 (RPAP3) and recruits the heat shock proteins 70 and 90 (Hsp70 and Hsp90) during the assembly of cellular machineries. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:6236-47 pubmed publisher
    ..for the stabilization of snoRNP core proteins and target of rapamycin activity and likely the assembly of RNA polymerase II. This work highlights the strong conservation of both the HSP90/R2TP system and its clients and further ..
  51. Wirbelauer C, Bell O, Schübeler D. Variant histone H3.3 is deposited at sites of nucleosomal displacement throughout transcribed genes while active histone modifications show a promoter-proximal bias. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1761-6 pubmed
    ..3 followed by selective deposition of H3.3. These results support a model in which H3.3 deposition compensates for transcription-coupled nucleosomal displacement yet does not predetermine tail modifications. ..
  52. Pankotai T, Ujfaludi Z, Vámos E, Suri K, Boros I. The dissociable RPB4 subunit of RNA Pol II has vital functions in Drosophila. Mol Genet Genomics. 2010;283:89-97 pubmed publisher
    b>RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is composed of a ten subunit core and a two subunit dissociable subcomplex comprising the fourth and seventh largest subunits, RPB4 and RPB7...
  53. Kahn T, Schwartz Y, Dellino G, Pirrotta V. Polycomb complexes and the propagation of the methylation mark at the Drosophila ubx gene. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:29064-75 pubmed
    ..Both the spread of methylation from the Polycomb response elements, and the silencing effect can be blocked by the gypsy insulator. ..
  54. Chopra V, Hong J, Levine M. Regulation of Hox gene activity by transcriptional elongation in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2009;19:688-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Both Ultrabithorax (Ubx) and Abdominal-B (Abd-B) genes contain stalled or paused RNA polymerase II (Pol II) even when silent [3, 4]...
  55. Gerber M, Tenney K, Conaway J, Conaway R, Eissenberg J, Shilatifard A. Regulation of heat shock gene expression by RNA polymerase II elongation factor, Elongin A. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:4017-20 pubmed
    The elongation stage of transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) has emerged as an essential regulated step...
  56. Llopart A, Aguad M. Synonymous rates at the RpII215 gene of Drosophila: variation among species and across the coding region. Genetics. 1999;152:269-80 pubmed
    The region encompassing the RpII215 gene that encodes the largest component of the RNA polymerase II complex (1889 amino acids) has been sequenced in Drosophila subobscura, D. madeirensis, D. guanche, and D. pseudoobscura...
  57. Austin R, Biggin M. Purification of the Drosophila RNA polymerase II general transcription factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:5788-92 pubmed
    We describe a fractionation and purification scheme for the Drosophila RNA polymerase II general transcription factors...
  58. Carroll S, Stollar B. Conservation of a DNA-binding site in the largest subunit of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II. J Mol Biol. 1983;170:777-90 pubmed
    Using a monoclonal antibody to a DNA-binding site of calf RNA polymerase II, we found that this site occurs on the largest subunit and is structurally similar in RNA polymerase II of widely divergent eukaryotes...
  59. Chen F, Woodfin A, Gardini A, Rickels R, Marshall S, Smith E, et al. PAF1, a Molecular Regulator of Promoter-Proximal Pausing by RNA Polymerase II. Cell. 2015;162:1003-15 pubmed publisher
    The control of promoter-proximal pausing and the release of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a widely used mechanism for regulating gene expression in metazoans, especially for genes that respond to environmental and developmental cues...
  60. Lin C, Smith E, Takahashi H, Lai K, Martin Brown S, Florens L, et al. AFF4, a component of the ELL/P-TEFb elongation complex and a shared subunit of MLL chimeras, can link transcription elongation to leukemia. Mol Cell. 2010;37:429-37 pubmed publisher
    ..AFF4 is required for SEC stability and proper transcription by poised RNA polymerase II in metazoans...
  61. Hanai K, Furuhashi H, Yamamoto T, Akasaka K, Hirose S. RSF governs silent chromatin formation via histone H2Av replacement. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000011 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that RSF contributes to histone H2Av replacement in the pathway of silent chromatin formation. ..
  62. Bai X, Larschan E, Kwon S, Badenhorst P, Kuroda M. Regional control of chromatin organization by noncoding roX RNAs and the NURF remodeling complex in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2007;176:1491-9 pubmed
    ..Together, these results demonstrate the importance of a local balance between modifying activities that promote and antagonize chromatin compaction within defined chromatin domains in higher organisms. ..
  63. Mollet C, Drancourt M, Raoult D. Determination of Coxiella burnetii rpoB sequence and its use for phylogenetic analysis. Gene. 1998;207:97-103 pubmed
    ..burnetii belongs to the gamma-group of Proteobacteria. Furthermore, phylogeny inferred from comparison of RpoB, or homologous sequences including Archae, Bacteria and Eukarya, concurred with these results...
  64. Marshall N, Peng J, Xie Z, Price D. Control of RNA polymerase II elongation potential by a novel carboxyl-terminal domain kinase. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:27176-83 pubmed
    The entry of RNA polymerase II into a productive mode of elongation is controlled, in part, by the postinitiation activity of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) (Marshall, N. F., and Price, D. H. (1995) J. Biol. Chem...