Gene Symbol: RpII18
Description: RNA polymerase II 18kD subunit
Alias: BcDNA:RH21608, CG1163, Dm6, Dmel\CG1163, Pol II, PolII, RNA Pol II, RNA pol II, RNA polII, RNAP, RNAP II, RNApolII, RPB6_DROME, RPII18, RpABC14, Rpll18, pol II, polII, RNA polymerase II 18kD subunit, CG1163-PA, RNA polymerase II, RNA polymerase II (18-kDa subunit), RNA-polymerase ABC 14kD subunit, RpII18-PA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Park J, Werner J, Kim J, Lis J, Kim Y. Mediator, not holoenzyme, is directly recruited to the heat shock promoter by HSF upon heat shock. Mol Cell. 2001;8:9-19 pubmed
    Activators of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription have been shown to bind several coactivators and basal factors in vitro...
  2. Zhang Z, Wu C, Gilmour D. Analysis of polymerase II elongation complexes by native gel electrophoresis. Evidence for a novel carboxyl-terminal domain-mediated termination mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:23223-8 pubmed
    ..approach using native gel electrophoresis for studying interactions of elongation factors with isolated Pol II elongation complexes. The gel distinguishes Pol IIA and Pol IIB containing complexes...
  3. Mito Y, Henikoff J, Henikoff S. Genome-scale profiling of histone H3.3 replacement patterns. Nat Genet. 2005;37:1090-7 pubmed
    ..3 replacement over active genes and transposons. H3.3 replacement occurred prominently at sites of abundant RNA polymerase II and methylated H3 Lys4 throughout the genome and was enhanced on the dosage-compensated male X chromosome...
  4. Yao J, Munson K, Webb W, Lis J. Dynamics of heat shock factor association with native gene loci in living cells. Nature. 2006;442:1050-3 pubmed
    ..After heat shock, we have visualized the recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to native hsp70 gene loci 87A and 87C in real time...
  5. Orian A. Chromatin profiling, DamID and the emerging landscape of gene expression. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:157-64 pubmed
    ..The molecular picture that emerges from DamID and similar studies is that genomes integrate inputs from both genetic and epigenetic machineries to dynamically regulate gene expression. ..
  6. Zhang Z, Gilmour D. Pcf11 is a termination factor in Drosophila that dismantles the elongation complex by bridging the CTD of RNA polymerase II to the nascent transcript. Mol Cell. 2006;21:65-74 pubmed
    The mechanism by which Pol II terminates transcription in metazoans is not understood. We show that Pcf11 is directly involved in termination in Drosophila...
  7. Hamilton B, Mortin M, Greenleaf A. Reverse genetics of Drosophila RNA polymerase II: identification and characterization of RpII140, the genomic locus for the second-largest subunit. Genetics. 1993;134:517-29 pubmed
    We have used a reverse genetics approach to isolate genes encoding two subunits of Drosophila melanogaster RNA polymerase II. RpII18 encodes the 18-kDa subunit and maps cytogenetically to polytene band region 83A...
  8. Sauer F, Hansen S, Tjian R. DNA template and activator-coactivator requirements for transcriptional synergism by Drosophila bicoid. Science. 1995;270:1825-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, contact between multiple activation domains of BCD and different targets within the TFIID complex can mediate transcriptional synergism. ..
  9. Reim I, Mattow J, Saumweber H. The RRM protein NonA from Drosophila forms a complex with the RRM proteins Hrb87F and S5 and the Zn finger protein PEP on hnRNA. Exp Cell Res. 1999;253:573-86 pubmed
    ..Like NonA, X4/PEP, S5, and P11/Hrb87F are present on active sites on polytene chromosomes. The precipitated NonA complex is enriched for certain protein encoding RNAs, notably, histone H3 and H4 RNA. ..

More Information


  1. Kal A, Mahmoudi T, Zak N, Verrijzer C. The Drosophila brahma complex is an essential coactivator for the trithorax group protein zeste. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1058-71 pubmed
    ..These results establish that different chromatin remodeling factors display distinct functional properties and provide novel insights into the mechanism of their targeting. ..
  2. Morcillo P, MacIntyre R. Genetic and molecular characterization of a variegating hsp70-acZ fusion gene in the euchromatic 31 B region of Drosophila melanogaster. Genome. 2001;44:698-707 pubmed
    ..However, other modifiers of PEV did not affect the expression pattern of the gene. These results show a novel euchromatic tissue-specific variegation that is not associated with classical heterochromatic PEV. ..
  3. Seydoux G, Dunn M. Transcriptionally repressed germ cells lack a subpopulation of phosphorylated RNA polymerase II in early embryos of Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 1997;124:2191-201 pubmed
    ..mRNA production correlates with the absence of a specific phosphoepitope on the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. In both C...
  4. Weeks J, Hardin S, Shen J, Lee J, Greenleaf A. Locus-specific variation in phosphorylation state of RNA polymerase II in vivo: correlations with gene activity and transcript processing. Genes Dev. 1993;7:2329-44 pubmed
    ..CTDs), respectively, we have visualized the in vivo distributions of the differentially phosphorylated forms of Pol II on Drosophila polytene chromosomes...
  5. Blythe S, Wieschaus E. Zygotic genome activation triggers the DNA replication checkpoint at the midblastula transition. Cell. 2015;160:1169-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Measuring RNA polymerase II (Pol II) binding at 20 min intervals over the course of ZGA reveals that the checkpoint coincides with ..
  6. Kephart D, Marshall N, Price D. Stability of Drosophila RNA polymerase II elongation complexes in vitro. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:2067-77 pubmed
    We show that nuclear extract from Drosophila Kc cells supports efficient elongation by RNA polymerase II initiated from the actin 5C promoter. The addition of 0...
  7. Rasmussen E, Lis J. In vivo transcriptional pausing and cap formation on three Drosophila heat shock genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:7923-7 pubmed
    ..On the uninduced hsp70 gene of Drosophila melanogaster, for example, an RNA polymerase II complex has initiated transcription but has paused early in elongation...
  8. Austin R, Biggin M. Purification of the Drosophila RNA polymerase II general transcription factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:5788-92 pubmed
    We describe a fractionation and purification scheme for the Drosophila RNA polymerase II general transcription factors...
  9. Peng J, Marshall N, Price D. Identification of a cyclin subunit required for the function of Drosophila P-TEFb. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:13855-60 pubmed
    ..elongation and is capable of phosphorylating the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. We cloned a cDNA encoding the large subunit of Drosophila P-TEFb and found the predicted protein contained ..
  10. Bentley D. RNA processing. A tale of two tails. Nature. 1998;395:21-2 pubmed
  11. Schock F, Sauer F, Jackle H, Purnell B. Drosophila head segmentation factor buttonhead interacts with the same TATA box-binding protein-associated factors and in vivo DNA targets as human Sp1 but executes a different biological program. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:5061-5 pubmed
  12. Hendrix D, Hong J, Zeitlinger J, Rokhsar D, Levine M. Promoter elements associated with RNA Pol II stalling in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7762-7 pubmed publisher
    b>RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) is bound to the promoter regions of many or most developmental control genes before their activation during Drosophila embryogenesis...
  13. Vorobyeva N, Nikolenko J, Krasnov A, Kuzmina J, Panov V, Nabirochkina E, et al. SAYP interacts with DHR3 nuclear receptor and participates in ecdysone-dependent transcription regulation. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:1821-7 pubmed
    ..The knockdown of SAYP leads to a decrease in the level of DHR3-activated transcription. DHR3 and SAYP interact during development and have multiple common targets across the genome. ..
  14. Visa N, Diez J, Santa Cruz M. Comparative analysis of four parameters involved in puffing activity along chromosome arm 2L of D melanogaster. Biol Cell. 1991;73:71-8 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, puffs of similar size incorporate 3H-uridine at quite different rates. The presence of RNA polymerase II seems to follow a coincident pattern with that of 3H-uridine incorporation...
  15. Wampler S, Tyree C, Kadonaga J. Fractionation of the general RNA polymerase II transcription factors from Drosophila embryos. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:21223-31 pubmed
    We have subdivided the components of the basic RNA polymerase II machinery from Drosophila embryos into three fractions and RNA polymerase II. The RNA polymerase II was 90% homogeneous and possessed the IIa form of the largest subunit...
  16. Sandaltzopoulos R, Becker P. Heat shock factor increases the reinitiation rate from potentiated chromatin templates. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:361-7 pubmed
    Transcription by RNA polymerase II is highly regulated at the level of initiation and elongation...
  17. Shore S, Byers S, Maury W, Price D. Identification of a novel isoform of Cdk9. Gene. 2003;307:175-82 pubmed
    Positive transcription factor b (P-TEFb) is required for RNA polymerase II to make the transition from abortive to productive elongation...
  18. Peng J, Zhu Y, Milton J, Price D. Identification of multiple cyclin subunits of human P-TEFb. Genes Dev. 1998;12:755-62 pubmed
    ..factor b (P-TEFb) through phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Drosophila P-TEFb was identified recently as a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK9) paired with a cyclin subunit (..
  19. Pham A, Muller S, Sauer F. Mesoderm-determining transcription in Drosophila is alleviated by mutations in TAF(II)60 and TAF(II)110. Mech Dev. 1999;84:3-16 pubmed
    ..The results provide evidence that TAF(II)-subunits within the TFIID complex play an important role during the molecular events leading to initiation of mesoderm formation in Drosophila. ..
  20. Wolff J, Nafisinia M, Sutovsky P, Ballard J. Paternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA as an integral part of mitochondrial inheritance in metapopulations of Drosophila simulans. Heredity (Edinb). 2013;110:57-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings further suggest that this phenomenon to potentially be an integral part of mtDNA inheritance in these populations and consequently of significance for mtDNA as a molecular marker...
  21. Spencer C, Groudine M. Transcription elongation and eukaryotic gene regulation. Oncogene. 1990;5:777-85 pubmed
    Each step in the synthesis of functional transcript by RNA polymerase II provides a level at which gene expression can be regulated...
  22. Shpakovski G, Acker J, Wintzerith M, Lacroix J, Thuriaux P, Vigneron M. Four subunits that are shared by the three classes of RNA polymerase are functionally interchangeable between Homo sapiens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:4702-10 pubmed
    ..suppressors of rpo21-4, a mutation generating a slowly growing yeast defective in the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Finally, a doubly chimeric S...
  23. Mollet C, Drancourt M, Raoult D. Determination of Coxiella burnetii rpoB sequence and its use for phylogenetic analysis. Gene. 1998;207:97-103 pubmed
    ..burnetii belongs to the gamma-group of Proteobacteria. Furthermore, phylogeny inferred from comparison of RpoB, or homologous sequences including Archae, Bacteria and Eukarya, concurred with these results...
  24. Lis J. Promoter-associated pausing in promoter architecture and postinitiation transcriptional regulation. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1998;63:347-56 pubmed
  25. Robertson S, Dockendorff T, Leatherman J, Faulkner D, Jongens T. germ cell-less is required only during the establishment of the germ cell lineage of Drosophila and has activities which are dependent and independent of its localization to the nuclear envelope. Dev Biol. 1999;215:288-97 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that gcl acts in at least two different ways during the establishment of the germ cell lineage. ..
  26. Leatherman J, Levin L, Boero J, Jongens T. germ cell-less acts to repress transcription during the establishment of the Drosophila germ cell lineage. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1681-5 pubmed
  27. Sauer F, Hansen S, Tjian R. Multiple TAFIIs directing synergistic activation of transcription. Science. 1995;270:1783-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the concerted action of multiple regulators with different coactivators helps to establish the pattern and level of segmentation gene transcription during Drosophila development. ..
  28. Raisner R, Madhani H. Patterning chromatin: form and function for H2A.Z variant nucleosomes. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:119-24 pubmed
    ..This chromatin pattern is generated through the action of a DNA deposition signal and a specific pattern of histone tail acetylation. ..
  29. TenHarmsel A, Biggin M. Bending DNA can repress a eukaryotic basal promoter and inhibit TFIID binding. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:5492-8 pubmed
    ..binding and leads to the formation of a DNA loop which encompasses the DNA sequences normally bound by the RNA polymerase II general transcription factors...
  30. Martin M, Medina F. A Drosophila anti-RNA polymerase II antibody recognizes a plant nucleolar antigen, RNA polymerase I, which is mostly localized in fibrillar centres. J Cell Sci. 1991;100 ( Pt 1):99-107 pubmed
    ..onion root meristematic cells has been studied by means of an antibody originally raised against Drosophila RNA polymerase II. This antibody recognizes the homologous domains of the large subunit of the enzyme, which are highly ..
  31. Boehm A, Saunders A, Werner J, Lis J. Transcription factor and polymerase recruitment, modification, and movement on dhsp70 in vivo in the minutes following heat shock. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7628-37 pubmed
    ..Here we examine the rapid changes upon heat shock in levels and location of heat shock factor (HSF), RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and its phosphorylated forms, and the Pol II kinase P-TEFb on hsp70 in vivo by using both real-time ..
  32. Chao S, Price D. Flavopiridol inactivates P-TEFb and blocks most RNA polymerase II transcription in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:31793-9 pubmed
    ..We examined the ability of flavopiridol to inhibit P-TEFb (Cdk9/cyclin T1) phosphorylation of both RNA polymerase II and the large subunit of the 5, 6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) sensitivity-inducing ..
  33. Henikoff S, Furuyama T, Ahmad K. Histone variants, nucleosome assembly and epigenetic inheritance. Trends Genet. 2004;20:320-6 pubmed
  34. Kim M, Mauro S, GĂ©vry N, Lis J, Kraus W. NAD+-dependent modulation of chromatin structure and transcription by nucleosome binding properties of PARP-1. Cell. 2004;119:803-14 pubmed
    ..Thus, PARP-1 functions both as a structural component of chromatin and a modulator of chromatin structure through its intrinsic enzymatic activity. ..
  35. Visa N, Gonzalez Duarte R, Santa Cruz M. A cytological and molecular analysis of Adh gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosomes. Chromosoma. 1988;97:171-7 pubmed
    ..The presence of RNA polymerase II in this puff as well as its ability to incorporate tritiated uridine shows that it corresponds to a ..
  36. Armstrong J, Papoulas O, Daubresse G, Sperling A, Lis J, Scott M, et al. The Drosophila BRM complex facilitates global transcription by RNA polymerase II. EMBO J. 2002;21:5245-54 pubmed
    ..Reduction of BRM function dramatically reduces the association of RNA polymerase II with salivary gland chromosomes...
  37. Chao S, Fujinaga K, Marion J, Taube R, Sausville E, Senderowicz A, et al. Flavopiridol inhibits P-TEFb and blocks HIV-1 replication. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:28345-8 pubmed
    ..We found that the flavonoid potently inhibited transcription by RNA polymerase II in vitro by blocking the transition into productive elongation, a step controlled by P-TEFb...
  38. Leclerc V, Raisin S, Leopold P. Dominant-negative mutants reveal a role for the Cdk7 kinase at the mid-blastula transition in Drosophila embryos. EMBO J. 2000;19:1567-75 pubmed
    ..found in the transcription factor complex TFIIH, suggesting that it participates in vivo in the control of RNA polymerase II. We have examined the physiological role of Cdk7 during the course of Drosophila development...