Gene Symbol: RpII15
Description: RNA polymerase II 15kD subunit
Alias: CG3284, Dmel\CG3284, Pol II, PolII, RNA Pol II, RNA pol II, RNA polII, RNAP, RNAP II, RNApolII, RPII15, RpII215, Rpb9, dRPB9, l(3)88Be, l(3)Z23, pol II, polII, RNA polymerase II 15kD subunit, CG3284-PA, CG3284-PB, CG3284-PC, RNA polymerase II, RNA polymerase II 15kd subunit, RpII15-PA, RpII15-PB, RpII15-PC
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Sandaltzopoulos R, Becker P. Heat shock factor increases the reinitiation rate from potentiated chromatin templates. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:361-7 pubmed
    Transcription by RNA polymerase II is highly regulated at the level of initiation and elongation...
  2. Park J, Werner J, Kim J, Lis J, Kim Y. Mediator, not holoenzyme, is directly recruited to the heat shock promoter by HSF upon heat shock. Mol Cell. 2001;8:9-19 pubmed
    Activators of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription have been shown to bind several coactivators and basal factors in vitro...
  3. Schock F, Sauer F, Jackle H, Purnell B. Drosophila head segmentation factor buttonhead interacts with the same TATA box-binding protein-associated factors and in vivo DNA targets as human Sp1 but executes a different biological program. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:5061-5 pubmed
  4. Weeks J, Hardin S, Shen J, Lee J, Greenleaf A. Locus-specific variation in phosphorylation state of RNA polymerase II in vivo: correlations with gene activity and transcript processing. Genes Dev. 1993;7:2329-44 pubmed
    ..CTDs), respectively, we have visualized the in vivo distributions of the differentially phosphorylated forms of Pol II on Drosophila polytene chromosomes...
  5. Smith P, Corces V. The suppressor of Hairy-wing protein regulates the tissue-specific expression of the Drosophila gypsy retrotransposon. Genetics. 1995;139:215-28 pubmed
    ..These effects might be the result of interactions of su(Hw) with activator and repressor proteins through the acidic and leucine zipper domains to produce the final pattern of tissue-specific expression of gypsy. ..
  6. Peng J, Marshall N, Price D. Identification of a cyclin subunit required for the function of Drosophila P-TEFb. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:13855-60 pubmed
    ..elongation and is capable of phosphorylating the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. We cloned a cDNA encoding the large subunit of Drosophila P-TEFb and found the predicted protein contained ..
  7. Zhang Z, Wu C, Gilmour D. Analysis of polymerase II elongation complexes by native gel electrophoresis. Evidence for a novel carboxyl-terminal domain-mediated termination mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:23223-8 pubmed
    ..approach using native gel electrophoresis for studying interactions of elongation factors with isolated Pol II elongation complexes. The gel distinguishes Pol IIA and Pol IIB containing complexes...
  8. Yao J, Munson K, Webb W, Lis J. Dynamics of heat shock factor association with native gene loci in living cells. Nature. 2006;442:1050-3 pubmed
    ..After heat shock, we have visualized the recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to native hsp70 gene loci 87A and 87C in real time...
  9. Zhang Z, Gilmour D. Pcf11 is a termination factor in Drosophila that dismantles the elongation complex by bridging the CTD of RNA polymerase II to the nascent transcript. Mol Cell. 2006;21:65-74 pubmed
    The mechanism by which Pol II terminates transcription in metazoans is not understood. We show that Pcf11 is directly involved in termination in Drosophila...

More Information


  1. Liu Z, Kontermann R, Schulze R, Petersen G, Bautz E. RPII15 codes for the M(r) 15,000 subunit 9 of Drosophila melanogaster RNA polymerase II. FEBS Lett. 1993;335:73-5 pubmed
    ..which has recently been identified by sequence comparison, possesses a high similarity to subunit 9 of yeast RNA polymerase II. Using the polymerase chain reaction the coding region of RPII15 was isolated from genomic DNA of adult ..
  2. Kephart D, Marshall N, Price D. Stability of Drosophila RNA polymerase II elongation complexes in vitro. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:2067-77 pubmed
    We show that nuclear extract from Drosophila Kc cells supports efficient elongation by RNA polymerase II initiated from the actin 5C promoter. The addition of 0...
  3. Lis J. Promoter-associated pausing in promoter architecture and postinitiation transcriptional regulation. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1998;63:347-56 pubmed
  4. Harrison D, Mortin M, Corces V. The RNA polymerase II 15-kilodalton subunit is essential for viability in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:928-35 pubmed
    ..transcript reveals that this gene encodes a 15,100-Da protein with high homology to a subunit of RNA polymerase II. The RpII15 protein is 46% identical to the RPB9 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the smallest ..
  5. Leclerc V, Raisin S, Leopold P. Dominant-negative mutants reveal a role for the Cdk7 kinase at the mid-blastula transition in Drosophila embryos. EMBO J. 2000;19:1567-75 pubmed
    ..found in the transcription factor complex TFIIH, suggesting that it participates in vivo in the control of RNA polymerase II. We have examined the physiological role of Cdk7 during the course of Drosophila development...
  6. Henikoff S, Furuyama T, Ahmad K. Histone variants, nucleosome assembly and epigenetic inheritance. Trends Genet. 2004;20:320-6 pubmed
  7. Spencer C, Groudine M. Transcription elongation and eukaryotic gene regulation. Oncogene. 1990;5:777-85 pubmed
    Each step in the synthesis of functional transcript by RNA polymerase II provides a level at which gene expression can be regulated...
  8. Lebedeva L, Nabirochkina E, Kurshakova M, Robert F, Krasnov A, Evgen ev M, et al. Occupancy of the Drosophila hsp70 promoter by a subset of basal transcription factors diminishes upon transcriptional activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18087-92 pubmed
    ..After heat shock, there is a significant recruitment of the heat-shock transcription factor, RNA polymerase II, XPD, GCN5, TRRAP, or Mediator complex 13 to the hsp70 promoter...
  9. Boehm A, Saunders A, Werner J, Lis J. Transcription factor and polymerase recruitment, modification, and movement on dhsp70 in vivo in the minutes following heat shock. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7628-37 pubmed
    ..Here we examine the rapid changes upon heat shock in levels and location of heat shock factor (HSF), RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and its phosphorylated forms, and the Pol II kinase P-TEFb on hsp70 in vivo by using both real-time ..
  10. Breen T, Harte P. Molecular characterization of the trithorax gene, a positive regulator of homeotic gene expression in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1991;35:113-27 pubmed
    ..The primary transcription unit is differentially spliced to produce two large transcripts of 12 and 15 kb that have different developmental profiles. ..
  11. Peng J, Zhu Y, Milton J, Price D. Identification of multiple cyclin subunits of human P-TEFb. Genes Dev. 1998;12:755-62 pubmed
    ..factor b (P-TEFb) through phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Drosophila P-TEFb was identified recently as a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK9) paired with a cyclin subunit (..
  12. Pham A, Muller S, Sauer F. Mesoderm-determining transcription in Drosophila is alleviated by mutations in TAF(II)60 and TAF(II)110. Mech Dev. 1999;84:3-16 pubmed
    ..The results provide evidence that TAF(II)-subunits within the TFIID complex play an important role during the molecular events leading to initiation of mesoderm formation in Drosophila. ..
  13. Robertson S, Dockendorff T, Leatherman J, Faulkner D, Jongens T. germ cell-less is required only during the establishment of the germ cell lineage of Drosophila and has activities which are dependent and independent of its localization to the nuclear envelope. Dev Biol. 1999;215:288-97 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that gcl acts in at least two different ways during the establishment of the germ cell lineage. ..
  14. Reim I, Mattow J, Saumweber H. The RRM protein NonA from Drosophila forms a complex with the RRM proteins Hrb87F and S5 and the Zn finger protein PEP on hnRNA. Exp Cell Res. 1999;253:573-86 pubmed
    ..Like NonA, X4/PEP, S5, and P11/Hrb87F are present on active sites on polytene chromosomes. The precipitated NonA complex is enriched for certain protein encoding RNAs, notably, histone H3 and H4 RNA. ..
  15. Leatherman J, Levin L, Boero J, Jongens T. germ cell-less acts to repress transcription during the establishment of the Drosophila germ cell lineage. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1681-5 pubmed
  16. Baxley R, Soshnev A, Koryakov D, Zhimulev I, Geyer P. The role of the Suppressor of Hairy-wing insulator protein in Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Biol. 2011;356:398-410 pubmed publisher
    ..2 and CP190, these proteins are not essential for oogenesis. These studies represent the first molecular investigations of Su(Hw) function in the germline, which uncover distinct requirements for Su(Hw) insulator and ovary functions. ..
  17. Tycon M, Daddysman M, Fecko C. RNA polymerase II subunits exhibit a broad distribution of macromolecular assembly states in the interchromatin space of cell nuclei. J Phys Chem B. 2014;118:423-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We address this deficiency by investigating the diffusion dynamics of two RNA polymerase II subunits, Rpb3 and Rpb9, in regions of live Drosophila cell nuclei that are devoid of chromatin binding ..
  18. Saberi S, Farré P, Cuvier O, Emberly E. Probing long-range interactions by extracting free energies from genome-wide chromosome conformation capture data. BMC Bioinformatics. 2015;16:171 pubmed publisher
    ..PCA filtering can improve the fit, and the predicted coupling energies lead to biologically meaningful insights for how various chromatin bound factors influence the stability of DNA loops in chromatin. ..
  19. Kal A, Mahmoudi T, Zak N, Verrijzer C. The Drosophila brahma complex is an essential coactivator for the trithorax group protein zeste. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1058-71 pubmed
    ..These results establish that different chromatin remodeling factors display distinct functional properties and provide novel insights into the mechanism of their targeting. ..
  20. Austin R, Biggin M. Purification of the Drosophila RNA polymerase II general transcription factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:5788-92 pubmed
    We describe a fractionation and purification scheme for the Drosophila RNA polymerase II general transcription factors...
  21. Bentley D. RNA processing. A tale of two tails. Nature. 1998;395:21-2 pubmed
  22. Andrulis E, Guzman E, Döring P, Werner J, Lis J. High-resolution localization of Drosophila Spt5 and Spt6 at heat shock genes in vivo: roles in promoter proximal pausing and transcription elongation. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2635-49 pubmed
    ..Costaining with antibodies to Spt6 and to either the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II or cyclin T, a subunit of the elongation factor P-TEFb, reveals that all three factors have a similar ..
  23. Martin M, Medina F. A Drosophila anti-RNA polymerase II antibody recognizes a plant nucleolar antigen, RNA polymerase I, which is mostly localized in fibrillar centres. J Cell Sci. 1991;100 ( Pt 1):99-107 pubmed
    ..onion root meristematic cells has been studied by means of an antibody originally raised against Drosophila RNA polymerase II. This antibody recognizes the homologous domains of the large subunit of the enzyme, which are highly ..
  24. TenHarmsel A, Biggin M. Bending DNA can repress a eukaryotic basal promoter and inhibit TFIID binding. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:5492-8 pubmed
    ..binding and leads to the formation of a DNA loop which encompasses the DNA sequences normally bound by the RNA polymerase II general transcription factors...
  25. Chao S, Fujinaga K, Marion J, Taube R, Sausville E, Senderowicz A, et al. Flavopiridol inhibits P-TEFb and blocks HIV-1 replication. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:28345-8 pubmed
    ..We found that the flavonoid potently inhibited transcription by RNA polymerase II in vitro by blocking the transition into productive elongation, a step controlled by P-TEFb...
  26. Orian A. Chromatin profiling, DamID and the emerging landscape of gene expression. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:157-64 pubmed
    ..The molecular picture that emerges from DamID and similar studies is that genomes integrate inputs from both genetic and epigenetic machineries to dynamically regulate gene expression. ..
  27. Mito Y, Henikoff J, Henikoff S. Genome-scale profiling of histone H3.3 replacement patterns. Nat Genet. 2005;37:1090-7 pubmed
    ..3 replacement over active genes and transposons. H3.3 replacement occurred prominently at sites of abundant RNA polymerase II and methylated H3 Lys4 throughout the genome and was enhanced on the dosage-compensated male X chromosome...
  28. Sauer F, Hansen S, Tjian R. Multiple TAFIIs directing synergistic activation of transcription. Science. 1995;270:1783-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the concerted action of multiple regulators with different coactivators helps to establish the pattern and level of segmentation gene transcription during Drosophila development. ..
  29. Sauer F, Hansen S, Tjian R. DNA template and activator-coactivator requirements for transcriptional synergism by Drosophila bicoid. Science. 1995;270:1825-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, contact between multiple activation domains of BCD and different targets within the TFIID complex can mediate transcriptional synergism. ..
  30. Wampler S, Tyree C, Kadonaga J. Fractionation of the general RNA polymerase II transcription factors from Drosophila embryos. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:21223-31 pubmed
    We have subdivided the components of the basic RNA polymerase II machinery from Drosophila embryos into three fractions and RNA polymerase II. The RNA polymerase II was 90% homogeneous and possessed the IIa form of the largest subunit...
  31. Hendrix D, Hong J, Zeitlinger J, Rokhsar D, Levine M. Promoter elements associated with RNA Pol II stalling in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7762-7 pubmed publisher
    b>RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) is bound to the promoter regions of many or most developmental control genes before their activation during Drosophila embryogenesis...
  32. Visa N, Diez J, Santa Cruz M. Comparative analysis of four parameters involved in puffing activity along chromosome arm 2L of D melanogaster. Biol Cell. 1991;73:71-8 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, puffs of similar size incorporate 3H-uridine at quite different rates. The presence of RNA polymerase II seems to follow a coincident pattern with that of 3H-uridine incorporation...
  33. Vorobyeva N, Nikolenko J, Krasnov A, Kuzmina J, Panov V, Nabirochkina E, et al. SAYP interacts with DHR3 nuclear receptor and participates in ecdysone-dependent transcription regulation. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:1821-7 pubmed
    ..The knockdown of SAYP leads to a decrease in the level of DHR3-activated transcription. DHR3 and SAYP interact during development and have multiple common targets across the genome. ..
  34. Raisner R, Madhani H. Patterning chromatin: form and function for H2A.Z variant nucleosomes. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:119-24 pubmed
    ..This chromatin pattern is generated through the action of a DNA deposition signal and a specific pattern of histone tail acetylation. ..
  35. Blythe S, Wieschaus E. Zygotic genome activation triggers the DNA replication checkpoint at the midblastula transition. Cell. 2015;160:1169-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Measuring RNA polymerase II (Pol II) binding at 20 min intervals over the course of ZGA reveals that the checkpoint coincides with ..
  36. Mollet C, Drancourt M, Raoult D. Determination of Coxiella burnetii rpoB sequence and its use for phylogenetic analysis. Gene. 1998;207:97-103 pubmed
    ..burnetii belongs to the gamma-group of Proteobacteria. Furthermore, phylogeny inferred from comparison of RpoB, or homologous sequences including Archae, Bacteria and Eukarya, concurred with these results...
  37. Kim M, Mauro S, Gévry N, Lis J, Kraus W. NAD+-dependent modulation of chromatin structure and transcription by nucleosome binding properties of PARP-1. Cell. 2004;119:803-14 pubmed
    ..Thus, PARP-1 functions both as a structural component of chromatin and a modulator of chromatin structure through its intrinsic enzymatic activity. ..
  38. Stone E, Ayroles J. Modulated modularity clustering as an exploratory tool for functional genomic inference. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000479 pubmed publisher
    ..We show MMC to be effective and suitable to applications of large scale. In light of these features, we advocate MMC as a standard tool for exploration and hypothesis generation. ..
  39. Chao S, Price D. Flavopiridol inactivates P-TEFb and blocks most RNA polymerase II transcription in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:31793-9 pubmed
    ..We examined the ability of flavopiridol to inhibit P-TEFb (Cdk9/cyclin T1) phosphorylation of both RNA polymerase II and the large subunit of the 5, 6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) sensitivity-inducing ..
  40. Matzat L, Dale R, Lei E. Messenger RNA is a functional component of a chromatin insulator complex. EMBO Rep. 2013;14:916-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest a novel, noncoding mechanism by which certain mRNAs contribute to chromatin insulator function. ..
  41. Erokhin M, Davydova A, Kyrchanova O, Parshikov A, Georgiev P, Chetverina D. Insulators form gene loops by interacting with promoters in Drosophila. Development. 2011;138:4097-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Both insulators support basal activity of the yellow and white promoters in eyes. Thus, the ability of insulators to interact with promoters might play an important role in the regulation of basal gene transcription...
  42. Mortin M, Zuerner R, Berger S, Hamilton B. Mutations in the second-largest subunit of Drosophila RNA polymerase II interact with Ubx. Genetics. 1992;131:895-903 pubmed
    Specific mutations in the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RpII215) cause a partial transformation of a structure of the third thoracic segment, the capitellum, into the analogous structure of the second thoracic ..
  43. Visa N, Gonzalez Duarte R, Santa Cruz M. A cytological and molecular analysis of Adh gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosomes. Chromosoma. 1988;97:171-7 pubmed
    ..The presence of RNA polymerase II in this puff as well as its ability to incorporate tritiated uridine shows that it corresponds to a ..
  44. Shore S, Byers S, Maury W, Price D. Identification of a novel isoform of Cdk9. Gene. 2003;307:175-82 pubmed
    Positive transcription factor b (P-TEFb) is required for RNA polymerase II to make the transition from abortive to productive elongation...
  45. Armstrong J, Papoulas O, Daubresse G, Sperling A, Lis J, Scott M, et al. The Drosophila BRM complex facilitates global transcription by RNA polymerase II. EMBO J. 2002;21:5245-54 pubmed
    ..Reduction of BRM function dramatically reduces the association of RNA polymerase II with salivary gland chromosomes...
  46. Morcillo P, MacIntyre R. Genetic and molecular characterization of a variegating hsp70-acZ fusion gene in the euchromatic 31 B region of Drosophila melanogaster. Genome. 2001;44:698-707 pubmed
    ..However, other modifiers of PEV did not affect the expression pattern of the gene. These results show a novel euchromatic tissue-specific variegation that is not associated with classical heterochromatic PEV. ..
  47. Kim J, Shen B, Rosen C, Dorsett D. The DNA-binding and enhancer-blocking domains of the Drosophila suppressor of Hairy-wing protein. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:3381-92 pubmed
    ..These results imply that SUHW blocks different enhancers and supports oogenesis by the same or closely related molecular mechanisms. ..
  48. Pascual García P, Jeong J, Capelson M. Nucleoporin Nup98 associates with Trx/MLL and NSL histone-modifying complexes and regulates Hox gene expression. Cell Rep. 2014;9:433-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings introduce roles of Nup98 in epigenetic regulation that may underlie the basis of oncogenicity of Nup98 fusions in leukemia. ..
  49. Rasmussen E, Lis J. In vivo transcriptional pausing and cap formation on three Drosophila heat shock genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:7923-7 pubmed
    ..On the uninduced hsp70 gene of Drosophila melanogaster, for example, an RNA polymerase II complex has initiated transcription but has paused early in elongation...
  50. Kaplan C, Morris J, Wu C, Winston F. Spt5 and spt6 are associated with active transcription and have characteristics of general elongation factors in D. melanogaster. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2623-34 pubmed
    ..In contrast, a complex of Spt4 and Spt5 is required in vitro for the inhibition of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation by the drug DRB, suggesting also a negative role in vivo...
  51. Seydoux G, Dunn M. Transcriptionally repressed germ cells lack a subpopulation of phosphorylated RNA polymerase II in early embryos of Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 1997;124:2191-201 pubmed
    ..mRNA production correlates with the absence of a specific phosphoepitope on the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. In both C...