Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Rok
Description: Rho kinase
Alias: CG9774, DROK, DRhk, DRok, Dmel\CG9774, Drok, ROCK, ROCK-1, ROCK1, ROCK2, ROK, ROKalpha/beta, Rhk, RhoK, Rock, Rok/ROCK, dROK, dRok, drok, rok, Rho kinase, CG9774-PA, CG9774-PB, CG9774-PC, CG9774-PD, DRho-kinase, ROCK, Rho-associated kinase, Rho-associated protein kinase, Rho-kinase, RhoA kinase, Rok-PA, Rok-PB, Rok-PC, Rok-PD, drosophila rho-associated kinase, rho kinase
Species: fruit fly
- Bökel C, Brown N. Integrins in development: moving on, responding to, and sticking to the extracellular matrix. Dev Cell. 2002;3:311-21 pubmed..Integrins also participate in signaling events that govern tissue differentiation and organogenesis. Finally, adhesion by integrin-mediated junctions allows tissues to withstand mechanical load and is essential for tissue integrity. ..
- Tan C, Stronach B, Perrimon N. Roles of myosin phosphatase during Drosophila development. Development. 2003;130:671-81 pubmed..Our results indicate that the regulation of the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chains, or dynamic activation and inactivation of myosin II, is essential for its various functions during many developmental processes. ..
- Lee A, Treisman J. Excessive Myosin activity in mbs mutants causes photoreceptor movement out of the Drosophila eye disc epithelium. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:3285-95 pubmed..We suggest that excessive myosin activity in photoreceptor neurons may pull the cell bodies toward the growth cones in a process resembling normal cell migration. ..
- Winter C, Wang B, Ballew A, Royou A, Karess R, Axelrod J, et al. Drosophila Rho-associated kinase (Drok) links Frizzled-mediated planar cell polarity signaling to the actin cytoskeleton. Cell. 2001;105:81-91 pubmed..Here, we show that Drosophila Rho-associated kinase (Drok) works downstream of Fz/Dsh to mediate a branch of the planar polarity pathway involved in ommatidial rotation in ..
- Bayer C, Halsell S, Fristrom J, Kiehart D, von Kalm L. Genetic interactions between the RhoA and Stubble-stubbloid loci suggest a role for a type II transmembrane serine protease in intracellular signaling during Drosophila imaginal disc morphogenesis. Genetics. 2003;165:1417-32 pubmed..Our results provide evidence that the type II transmembrane serine proteases, a class of proteins linked to human developmental abnormalities and pathology, may be associated with intracellular signaling required for normal development. ..
- Warner S, Yashiro H, Longmore G. The Cdc42/Par6/aPKC polarity complex regulates apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation in epithelia. Curr Biol. 2010;20:677-86 pubmed publisher..Disruption of Cdc42/Par6/aPKC leads to activation of JNK through increased Rho1 and Rok activity and Rok's capacity to activate myosin but not F-actin...
- Bolinger C, Zasadil L, Rizaldy R, Hildebrand J. Specific isoforms of drosophila shroom define spatial requirements for the induction of apical constriction. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2078-93 pubmed publisher..We further hypothesize that differentially positioned contractile arrays have distinct effects on cellular morphologies and behaviors. ..
- Chen G, Gajowniczek P, Settleman J. Rho-LIM kinase signaling regulates ecdysone-induced gene expression and morphogenesis during Drosophila metamorphosis. Curr Biol. 2004;14:309-13 pubmed..Together, these findings indicate a link between Rho-LIMK signaling and steroid hormone-induced gene expression in the context of metamorphosis and thereby establish a novel role for the Rho GTPase in development. ..
- Simões S, Blankenship J, Weitz O, Farrell D, Tamada M, Fernandez Gonzalez R, et al. Rho-kinase directs Bazooka/Par-3 planar polarity during Drosophila axis elongation. Dev Cell. 2010;19:377-88 pubmed publisher..These results demonstrate that Rho-kinase plays an instructive role in planar polarity by targeting Baz/Par-3 and myosin II to complementary cortical domains. ..
- Mizuno T, Tsutsui K, Nishida Y. Drosophila myosin phosphatase and its role in dorsal closure. Development. 2002;129:1215-23 pubmed..The results indicate an important role for myosin phosphatase in morphogenesis. ..
- Hickson G, Echard A, O Farrell P. Rho-kinase controls cell shape changes during cytokinesis. Curr Biol. 2006;16:359-70 pubmed..Using RNAi and live video microscopy in Drosophila S2 cells, we implicate Rho-kinase (Rok) and myosin II in anaphase cell elongation...
- Williams M, Habayeb M, Hultmark D. Reciprocal regulation of Rac1 and Rho1 in Drosophila circulating immune surveillance cells. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:502-11 pubmed..Finally, though dominant negative Rac1 is able to block filopodia formation in the overexpression experiments, only Rac2 is necessary for filopodia formed by hemocytes after parasitization. ..
- Dean S, Rogers S, Stuurman N, Vale R, Spudich J. Distinct pathways control recruitment and maintenance of myosin II at the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:13473-8 pubmed..Three genes in the rho1 signaling pathway, pebble (a Rho guanidine nucleotide exchange factor), rho1, and rho kinase, are required for the initial recruitment of myosin II to the equatorial cortex...
- Speck O, Hughes S, Noren N, Kulikauskas R, Fehon R. Moesin functions antagonistically to the Rho pathway to maintain epithelial integrity. Nature. 2003;421:83-7 pubmed..Furthermore, our results show that there is negative feedback between ERM activation and activity of the Rho pathway. ..
- Rogers S, Wiedemann U, Hacker U, Turck C, Vale R. Drosophila RhoGEF2 associates with microtubule plus ends in an EB1-dependent manner. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1827-33 pubmed
- Kunda P, Pelling A, Liu T, Baum B. Moesin controls cortical rigidity, cell rounding, and spindle morphogenesis during mitosis. Curr Biol. 2008;18:91-101 pubmed publisher..In doing so, they help to explain why dynamic changes in cortical architecture are a universal feature of mitosis in animal cells. ..
- Naim V, Imarisio S, Di Cunto F, Gatti M, Bonaccorsi S. Drosophila citron kinase is required for the final steps of cytokinesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:5053-63 pubmed
- He L, Wang X, Tang H, Montell D. Tissue elongation requires oscillating contractions of a basal actomyosin network. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:1133-42 pubmed publisher..in a periodic manner before each contraction and was regulated by the small GTPase Rho, its downstream kinase, ROCK, and cytosolic calcium...
- Mason F, Tworoger M, Martin A. Apical domain polarization localizes actin-myosin activity to drive ratchet-like apical constriction. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:926-36 pubmed publisher..We find that during constriction, Rho-associated kinase (Rok) is polarized to the middle of the apical domain (medioapical cortex), separate from adherens junctions...
- Mirkovic I, Mlodzik M. Cooperative activities of drosophila DE-cadherin and DN-cadherin regulate the cell motility process of ommatidial rotation. Development. 2006;133:3283-93 pubmed..A similar input into mammalian E- and N-cadherins might function in the progression of diseases such as metastatic ovarian cancer. ..
- Dean S, Spudich J. Rho kinase's role in myosin recruitment to the equatorial cortex of mitotic Drosophila S2 cells is for myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation. PLoS ONE. 2006;1:e131 pubmed..cells, we previously showed that myosin II is recruited to the furrow independently of F-actin, and that Rho1 and Rok are essential for this recruitment ...
- Royou A, Field C, Sisson J, Sullivan W, Karess R. Reassessing the role and dynamics of nonmuscle myosin II during furrow formation in early Drosophila embryos. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:838-50 pubmed..We suggest that cellularization can be divided into two distinct processes: furrow ingression, driven by microtubule mediated vesicle delivery, and basal closure, which is mediated by actin/myosin based constriction. ..
- Yan J, Lu Q, Fang X, Adler P. Rho1 has multiple functions in Drosophila wing planar polarity. Dev Biol. 2009;333:186-99 pubmed publisher..The upstream function may be an indirect one and associated with the requirement for normal apical basal polarity and adherens junctions for the accumulation of PCP protein complexes. ..
- Dawes Hoang R, Parmar K, Christiansen A, Phelps C, Brand A, Wieschaus E. folded gastrulation, cell shape change and the control of myosin localization. Development. 2005;132:4165-78 pubmed..We determine that this contractility driven form of localization involves RhoGEF2 and the downstream effector Rho kinase. This distinguishes apical myosin localization from basal myosin localization, which we find not to require ..
- Royou A, Sullivan W, Karess R. Cortical recruitment of nonmuscle myosin II in early syncytial Drosophila embryos: its role in nuclear axial expansion and its regulation by Cdc2 activity. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:127-37 pubmed..An inhibitor of Rho kinase blocks the cortical myosin recruitment cycles and provokes a concomitant failure of axial expansion...
- Warner S, Longmore G. Distinct functions for Rho1 in maintaining adherens junctions and apical tension in remodeling epithelia. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:1111-25 pubmed publisher..Surprisingly, neither of the Rho effectors, Rok or Dia, is necessary downstream of Rho1 to maintain AJs; instead, Rho1 maintains AJs by inhibiting Drosophila ..
- Hipfner D, Keller N, Cohen S. Slik Sterile-20 kinase regulates Moesin activity to promote epithelial integrity during tissue growth. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2243-8 pubmed..This is distinct from Slik's effects on cell proliferation, which are mediated by Raf. Thus Slik acts via distinct pathways to coordinate cell proliferation with epithelial cell behavior during tissue growth. ..
- Hickson G, O Farrell P. Rho-dependent control of anillin behavior during cytokinesis. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:285-94 pubmed publisher..We propose that such interactions occur dynamically and transiently to promote furrow stability. ..
- Escudero L, Bischoff M, Freeman M. Myosin II regulates complex cellular arrangement and epithelial architecture in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2007;13:717-29 pubmed..Our work implies that regulation of the actomyosin cytoskeleton can control morphogenesis by regulating both individual cell shapes and their complex two-dimensional arrangement within epithelia. ..
- Verdier V, Guang Chao Chen -, Settleman J. Rho-kinase regulates tissue morphogenesis via non-muscle myosin and LIM-kinase during Drosophila development. BMC Dev Biol. 2006;6:38 pubmed..Indeed, in Drosophila, a single ROCK ortholog, DRok, has been identified and has been found to be required for establishing planar cell polarity...
- Majumder P, Aranjuez G, Amick J, McDonald J. Par-1 controls myosin-II activity through myosin phosphatase to regulate border cell migration. Curr Biol. 2012;22:363-72 pubmed publisher..Such a link between polarity proteins and cytoskeletal dynamics may also occur in other collective cell migrations. ..
- Adler P, Lee H. Frizzled signaling and cell-cell interactions in planar polarity. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2001;13:635-40 pubmed..This cortical mark leads to the local activation of downstream gene products and the subsequent activation of the cytoskeleton to form a hair. ..
- Ninov N, Chiarelli D, Martin Blanco E. Extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms directing epithelial cell sheet replacement during Drosophila metamorphosis. Development. 2007;134:367-79 pubmed..Finally, we show that histoblast spreading and the death of larval cells depend on a mutual exchange of signals and are non-autonomous processes. ..
- Okumura T, Fujiwara H, Taniguchi K, Kuroda J, Nakazawa N, Nakamura M, et al. Left-right asymmetric morphogenesis of the anterior midgut depends on the activation of a non-muscle myosin II in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2010;344:693-706 pubmed publisher..Taken together with previous studies in vertebrates, the involvement of myosin II in LR asymmetric morphogenesis might be conserved evolutionarily. ..
- Khoo P, Allan K, Willoughby L, Brumby A, Richardson H. In Drosophila, RhoGEF2 cooperates with activated Ras in tumorigenesis through a pathway involving Rho1-Rok-Myosin-II and JNK signalling. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6:661-78 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, of the Rho1 effectors, we show that RhoGEF2 + Ras (Raf)-mediated tumorigenesis requires the Rho kinase (Rok)-Myosin-II pathway, but not Diaphanous, Lim kinase or protein kinase N...
- Mohan S, Rizaldy R, Das D, Bauer R, Heroux A, Trakselis M, et al. Structure of Shroom domain 2 reveals a three-segmented coiled-coil required for dimerization, Rock binding, and apical constriction. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:2131-42 pubmed publisher..morpho-logy during animal development that function by interacting directly with the coiled-coil region of Rho kinase (Rock)...
- Moon W, Matsuzaki F. Aurora A kinase negatively regulates Rho-kinase by phosphorylation in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;435:610-5 pubmed publisher..Here we provide genetic and biochemical evidence suggesting that AurA negatively regulates Drok, the only known Rho-kinase orthologue in Drosophila...
- Vega Macaya F, Manieu C, Valdivia M, Mlodzik M, Olguin P. Establishment of the Muscle-Tendon Junction During Thorax Morphogenesis in Drosophila Requires the Rho-Kinase. Genetics. 2016;204:1139-1149 pubmed publisher..We report that Drosophila Rho kinase (DRok) is necessary in tendon cells to assemble stable myotendinous junctions (MTJ), which are required for ..
- Rousso T, Schejter E, Shilo B. Orchestrated content release from Drosophila glue-protein vesicles by a contractile actomyosin network. Nat Cell Biol. 2016;18:181-90 pubmed publisher..This myosin arrangement requires branched-actin polymerization, and is critical for exerting a non-isotropic force, mediating efficient vesicle contraction. ..
- Fagan J, Dollar G, Lu Q, Barnett A, Pechuan Jorge J, Schlosser A, et al. Combover/CG10732, a novel PCP effector for Drosophila wing hair formation. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e107311 pubmed publisher..Specific PCP effectors in the wing such as Multiple wing hairs (Mwh) and Rho Kinase (Rok) are required to position the hair at the correct position and to prevent ectopic actin hairs...
- Kim J, Ren Y, Ng W, Li S, Son S, Kee Y, et al. Mechanical tension drives cell membrane fusion. Dev Cell. 2015;32:561-73 pubmed publisher..We propose that the protrusive and resisting forces from fusion partners put the fusogenic synapse under high mechanical tension, which helps to overcome energy barriers for membrane apposition and drives cell membrane fusion. ..
- D Avino P, Savoian M, Glover D. Cleavage furrow formation and ingression during animal cytokinesis: a microtubule legacy. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:1549-58 pubmed..The same mechanism might be conserved in other organisms. ..
- Zacharogianni M, Kondylis V, Tang Y, Farhan H, Xanthakis D, Fuchs F, et al. ERK7 is a negative regulator of protein secretion in response to amino-acid starvation by modulating Sec16 membrane association. EMBO J. 2011;30:3684-700 pubmed publisher..These results reveal the existence of new signalling circuits participating in the complex regulation of cell growth. ..
- Gersten M, Zhou D, Azad P, Haddad G, Subramaniam S. Wnt pathway activation increases hypoxia tolerance during development. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e103292 pubmed publisher..Our results indicate that a previously unsuspected major developmental pathway, Wnt, plays a significant role in hypoxia tolerance. ..
- Vasquez C, Tworoger M, Martin A. Dynamic myosin phosphorylation regulates contractile pulses and tissue integrity during epithelial morphogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2014;206:435-50 pubmed publisher..Activation of nonmuscle myosin II (Myo-II) by kinases such as Rho-associated kinase (Rok) is important to generate contractile force during apical constriction...
- Martin P, Wood W. Epithelial fusions in the embryo. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2002;14:569-74 pubmed..It is now clear that there are intriguing parallels with more complex morphogenetic tissue movements in vertebrates. ..
- Lan H, Wang Q, Fernandez Gonzalez R, Feng J. A biomechanical model for cell polarization and intercalation during Drosophila germband extension. Phys Biol. 2015;12:056011 pubmed publisher..Model predictions of the polarity of the proteins and cell and tissue deformation are in good agreement with experimental observations. ..
- Yashiro H, Loza A, Skeath J, Longmore G. Rho1 regulates adherens junction remodeling by promoting recycling endosome formation through activation of myosin II. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:2956-69 pubmed publisher..This effect of Rho1 is mediated through Rok-dependent, but not MLCK-dependent, stimulation of myosin II activity yet independent of its effects upon actin ..
- Alves Silva J, Hahn I, Huber O, Mende M, Reissaus A, Prokop A. Prominent actin fiber arrays in Drosophila tendon cells represent architectural elements different from stress fibers. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:4287-97 pubmed publisher..Features reported here and elsewhere for tendon cells are reminiscent of the structural and molecular features of support cells in the inner ear of vertebrates, and they might have potential translational value. ..
- ..Together, these findings are shedding light on how global cues integrate with local cell interactions to organize cellular polarity at the tissue level. ..
- Meserve J, Duronio R. Scalloped and Yorkie are required for cell cycle re-entry of quiescent cells after tissue damage. Development. 2015;142:2740-51 pubmed publisher..Thus, in addition to its well-established role in modulating proliferation during periods of tissue growth, Hippo signaling maintains homeostasis by regulating quiescent cell populations affected by tissue damage. ..
- Flores Benitez D, Knust E. Crumbs is an essential regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics and cell-cell adhesion during dorsal closure in Drosophila. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher..Data presented here point to a critical role of Crumbs in regulating actomyosin dynamics, cell junctions and morphogenesis. ..
- Veeman M, Axelrod J, Moon R. A second canon. Functions and mechanisms of beta-catenin-independent Wnt signaling. Dev Cell. 2003;5:367-77 pubmed
- Meyer E, Ikmi A, Gibson M. Interkinetic nuclear migration is a broadly conserved feature of cell division in pseudostratified epithelia. Curr Biol. 2011;21:485-91 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, our studies suggest a mechanistic link between IKNM and the fundamental process of mitotic cell rounding. ..
- Xie S, Martin A. Intracellular signalling and intercellular coupling coordinate heterogeneous contractile events to facilitate tissue folding. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7161 pubmed publisher..We demonstrate that ratcheted pulses have higher probability of having neighbouring contractions, and that ratcheting of pulses prevents competition between neighbouring contractions, allowing collective behaviour. ..
- Muller U, Littlewood Evans A. Mechanisms that regulate mechanosensory hair cell differentiation. Trends Cell Biol. 2001;11:334-42 pubmed..The studies have also provided new insights into the function of receptors such as integrins and protocadherins, and cytoplasmic proteins such as Rho-type GTPases and unconventional myosins, in organizing the actin cytoskeleton. ..
- Tsankova A, Pham T, Garcia D, Otte F, Cabernard C. Cell Polarity Regulates Biased Myosin Activity and Dynamics during Asymmetric Cell Division via Drosophila Rho Kinase and Protein Kinase N. Dev Cell. 2017;42:143-155.e5 pubmed publisher..Using live cell imaging and a genetically encoded Myosin activity sensor, we found that Drosophila Rho kinase (Rok) enriches for activated Myosin on the neuroblast cortex prior to nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB)...
- Xu N, Bagumian G, Galiano M, Myat M. Rho GTPase controls Drosophila salivary gland lumen size through regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and Moesin. Development. 2011;138:5415-27 pubmed publisher..actin polymerization and regulating F-actin distribution at the apical and basolateral membranes through Rho kinase. Loss of Rho1 resulted in reduction of F-actin at the basolateral membrane and enrichment of apical F-actin, the ..
- Neubueser D, Hipfner D. Overlapping roles of Drosophila Drak and Rok kinases in epithelial tissue morphogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2869-79 pubmed publisher..Rho GTPase and its effector kinase ROCK have been implicated in regulating MRLC phosphorylation in vivo, but evidence suggests that other mechanisms must ..
- Loh S, Francescut L, Lingor P, Bahr M, Nicotera P. Identification of new kinase clusters required for neurite outgrowth and retraction by a loss-of-function RNA interference screen. Cell Death Differ. 2008;15:283-98 pubmed..Finally, we demonstrated that haploinsufficiency of two members of the AGC kinase subgroup, ROCK1 and PKN1, was able to suppress retinal degeneration in Drosophila model of class III Autosomal Dominant Retinitis ..
- Ferreira T, Prudêncio P, Martinho R. Drosophila protein kinase N (Pkn) is a negative regulator of actin-myosin activity during oogenesis. Dev Biol. 2014;394:277-91 pubmed publisher..This is likely to be important for directional cytoplasmic flow. We propose Pkn provides a negative feedback loop to help avoid excessive contractility after local activation of Rho GTPase. ..
- Verdier V, Johndrow J, Betson M, Chen G, Hughes D, Parkhurst S, et al. Drosophila Rho-kinase (DRok) is required for tissue morphogenesis in diverse compartments of the egg chamber during oogenesis. Dev Biol. 2006;297:417-32 pubmed..We have determined that the single closely related Drosophila Rho-kinase ortholog, DRok, is required for several aspects of oogenesis, including maintaining the integrity of the oocyte cortex, actin-..