Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: RnrS
Description: Ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase small subunit
Alias: CG8975, DmRNR2, Dmel\CG8975, RNR2, RNRS, RNrS, Rnr2, Rnrs, anon-WO0118547.148, dRNR2, rnr2, rnrS, ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase small subunit, CG8975-PA, RnrS-PA, ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase small subunit, ribonucleotide reductase, ribonucleotide reductase small subunit
Species: fruit fly
- Duronio R, O Farrell P, Xie J, Brook A, Dyson N. The transcription factor E2F is required for S phase during Drosophila embryogenesis. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1445-55 pubmed..We conclude that in most cells dE2F is essential for a G1-S transcriptional program and for G1-S progression. ..
- Royzman I, Whittaker A, Orr Weaver T. Mutations in Drosophila DP and E2F distinguish G1-S progression from an associated transcriptional program. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1999-2011 pubmed..Both dDP and dE2F are necessary for viability, and mutations in the genes cause lethality at the late larval/pupal stage. The mutant phenotypes reveal that both genes promote progression of the cell cycle. ..
- Frolov M, Huen D, Stevaux O, Dimova D, Balczarek Strang K, Elsdon M, et al. Functional antagonism between E2F family members. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2146-60 pubmed..This study shows how repressor and activator E2Fs are used to pattern transcription and how the net effect of E2F on cell proliferation results from the interplay between two types of E2F complexes that have antagonistic functions. ..
- Zraly C, Marenda D, Dingwall A. SNR1 (INI1/SNF5) mediates important cell growth functions of the Drosophila Brahma (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex. Genetics. 2004;168:199-214 pubmed..Thus, in addition to important functions of the Brm complex in G1-S control, the complex also appears to be important for transcription of genes required for cell cycle progression. ..
- Swanhart L, Sanders A, Duronio R. Normal regulation of Rbf1/E2f1 target genes in Drosophila type 1 protein phosphatase mutants. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2567-77 pubmed..We conclude that PP1 is not a major regulator of the Rbf1/E2F1 pathway in Drosophila. ..
- Follette P, Duronio R, O Farrell P. Fluctuations in cyclin E levels are required for multiple rounds of endocycle S phase in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 1998;8:235-8 pubmed..These results indicate that endocycle S phases require oscillations in Cdk activity, but, in contrast to oscillations in mitotic cells, these occur independently of mitosis. ..
- Sauer K, Knoblich J, Richardson H, Lehner C. Distinct modes of cyclin E/cdc2c kinase regulation and S-phase control in mitotic and endoreduplication cycles of Drosophila embryogenesis. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1327-39 pubmed..Observations in cyclin A mutants implicate G2 cyclins in this regulation. Our results suggest molecular explanations for the different rules governing S phase during mitotic and endoreduplication cycles. ..
- Chen X, Oh S, Zheng Z, Chen H, Shin H, Hou S. Cyclin D-Cdk4 and cyclin E-Cdk2 regulate the Jak/STAT signal transduction pathway in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2003;4:179-90 pubmed..STAT92E regulates gene expression for various biological processes, including the endocycle S phase. These data suggest that Cyclin D-Cdk4 and Cyclin E-Cdk2 play more versatile roles in Drosophila development. ..
- Fuss B, Meissner T, Bauer R, Lehmann C, Eckardt F, Hoch M. Control of endoreduplication domains in the Drosophila gut by the knirps and knirps-related genes. Mech Dev. 2001;100:15-23 pubmed..Our results provide a novel link between morphogen-dependent positional information and the spatio-temporal regulation of cell cycle activity in the gut. ..
- Ashburner M, Ball C, Blake J, Botstein D, Butler H, Cherry J, et al. Gene ontology: tool for the unification of biology. The Gene Ontology Consortium. Nat Genet. 2000;25:25-9 pubmed
- Asano M, Wharton R. E2F mediates developmental and cell cycle regulation of ORC1 in Drosophila. EMBO J. 1999;18:2435-48 pubmed..Furthermore, we find that overexpression of ORC1 alters the pattern of DNA synthesis in the eye disc and the ovary. Thus, replication origin activity appears to be governed in part by the level of ORC1 in Drosophila. ..
- Duronio R, Bonnette P, O Farrell P. Mutations of the Drosophila dDP, dE2F, and cyclin E genes reveal distinct roles for the E2F-DP transcription factor and cyclin E during the G1-S transition. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:141-51 pubmed..As expected for a defect in the dE2F partner, this mutation blocks G1-S transcription of DmRNR2 and cyclin E as previously described for mutations of dE2F...
- Royzman I, Orr Weaver T. S phase and differential DNA replication during Drosophila oogenesis. Genes Cells. 1998;3:767-76 pubmed..Cyclin E and E2F are needed for this differential DNA replication during Drosophila oogenesis. ..
- Davidson J, Duronio R. S phase-coupled E2f1 destruction ensures homeostasis in proliferating tissues. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002831 pubmed publisher..We propose that inappropriate accumulation of E2f1 protein during S phase triggers the elimination of potentially hyperplastic cells via apoptosis in order to ensure normal development of rapidly proliferating tissues. ..
- Maqbool S, Mehrotra S, Kolpakas A, Durden C, Zhang B, Zhong H, et al. Dampened activity of E2F1-DP and Myb-MuvB transcription factors in Drosophila endocycling cells. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:4095-106 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that dampened transcriptional activation by E2F1-DP and Myb-MuvB is important to repress mitosis and coordinate the endocycle transcriptional and protein stability oscillators. ..
- King E, Kislukhin G, Walters K, Long A. Using Drosophila melanogaster to identify chemotherapy toxicity genes. Genetics. 2014;198:31-43 pubmed publisher..We find little evidence for nonsynonymous SNPs explaining mapped QTL; thus it seems likely that standing variation in toxicity is due to regulatory alleles. ..
- Meyer C, Jacobs H, Lehner C. Cyclin D-cdk4 is not a master regulator of cell multiplication in Drosophila embryos. Curr Biol. 2002;12:661-6 pubmed..on Cyclin E expression and does not interfere with the initial G1 arrest, while it readily induces the E2F target RnrS in arresting epidermal cells...
- Emmerich J, Meyer C, de la Cruz A, Edgar B, Lehner C. Cyclin D does not provide essential Cdk4-independent functions in Drosophila. Genetics. 2004;168:867-75 pubmed..The reduced cellular and organismal growth rates observed in both mutants indicate that Cyclin D-Cdk4 acts as a growth driver. ..
- Korenjak M, Taylor Harding B, Binné U, Satterlee J, Stevaux O, Aasland R, et al. Native E2F/RBF complexes contain Myb-interacting proteins and repress transcription of developmentally controlled E2F target genes. Cell. 2004;119:181-93 pubmed..These results reveal an extensive evolutionary conservation of specific pRb repressor complexes that physically combine subunits with established roles in the regulation of transcription, DNA replication, and chromatin structure. ..
- Delanoue R, Legent K, Godefroy N, Flagiello D, Dutriaux A, Vaudin P, et al. The Drosophila wing differentiation factor vestigial-scalloped is required for cell proliferation and cell survival at the dorso-ventral boundary of the wing imaginal disc. Cell Death Differ. 2004;11:110-22 pubmed..In Drosophila, ectopic vg induces expression of dE2F1 and its targets dRNR2 and string. In addition vg, but not dE2F1, interacts with and induces expression of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)...
- Zielke N, Querings S, Rottig C, Lehner C, Sprenger F. The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is required for rereplication control in endoreplication cycles. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1690-703 pubmed publisher..Geminin is only abundant in cells with high CycE-Cdk2 activity, suggesting that APC/C-Fzr activity is periodically inhibited by CycE-Cdk2, to prevent relicensing in S-phase cells. ..
- Cayirlioglu P, Bonnette P, Dickson M, Duronio R. Drosophila E2f2 promotes the conversion from genomic DNA replication to gene amplification in ovarian follicle cells. Development. 2001;128:5085-98 pubmed..These data indicate that E2f2 functions to inhibit widespread genomic DNA synthesis in late stage follicle cells, and may do so by repressing the expression of specific components of the replication machinery. ..
- Hsieh T, Nicolay B, Frolov M, Moon N. Tuberous sclerosis complex 1 regulates dE2F1 expression during development and cooperates with RBF1 to control proliferation and survival. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001071 pubmed publisher..Our results provide evidence to suggest that dE2F1 is an important cell cycle regulator that translates the growth-promoting signal downstream of the TSC/Rheb/Tor/S6k pathway. ..
- Myster D, Bonnette P, Duronio R. A role for the DP subunit of the E2F transcription factor in axis determination during Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 2000;127:3249-61 pubmed..Thus we have uncovered new functions for E2F transcription factors during development, including an unexpected role in pattern formation. ..
- Duronio R, O Farrell P. Developmental control of a G1-S transcriptional program in Drosophila. Development. 1994;120:1503-15 pubmed..defined a coordinate program of transcription of S-phase genes (DNA polymerase alpha, PCNA and the two ribonucleotide reductase subunits) that can be induced by the G1 cyclin, cyclin E...
- Bosco G, Du W, Orr Weaver T. DNA replication control through interaction of E2F-RB and the origin recognition complex. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:289-95 pubmed..Our results indicate that dE2F1 and Rbf function together at replication origins to limit DNA replication through interactions with DmORC. ..
- Johnston L, Edgar B. Wingless and Notch regulate cell-cycle arrest in the developing Drosophila wing. Nature. 1998;394:82-4 pubmed..Notch activity creates a third domain by preventing arrest at G2 in wg-expressing cells, resulting in their arrest in G1. ..
- Bradley Gill M, Kim M, Feingold D, Yergeau C, Houde J, Moon N. Alternate transcripts of the Drosophila "activator" E2F are necessary for maintenance of cell cycle exit during development. Dev Biol. 2016;411:195-206 pubmed publisher..Overall, our study suggests that specific alternate transcripts of "activator" E2F, dE2F1, may have a dual function on cell cycle progression and cannot simply be viewed as a pro-proliferative transcription factor. ..