Gene Symbol: rl
Description: rolled
Alias: 12559, BcDNA:RE08694, CG12559, CG18732, CT34260, CT39192, D-ERK, DERK, DERK-A, DmERK-A, DmERKA, DmErk, DmMAPK, Dmel\CG12559, DpERK, DpErk, Dsor2, E(sina)7, EC2-1, EK2-1, ERK, ERK-A, ERKA, ERKa, EY2-2, Erk, Erk/Map kinase, Erk1, Erk1/2, ErkA, GroupII, MAP-k, MAPK, MapK, Mapk, SEM, SR2-1, Sem, Su(Raf)2B, dERK, dm-dpERK, dp-ERK, dpERK, dpERK1, dpERk, dpErk, dpMAPK, erk, l(2)41Ac, l(2R)EMS45-39, mapk, p-ERK, pERK, pMAPK, pMapK, rl/ERK, rl/MAPK, rll, sem, rolled, CG12559-PA, CG12559-PC, CG12559-PD, CG12559-PE, CG12559-PG, CG12559-PH, CG12559-PI, Diphospho-ERK, ERK, ERK/rolled, Erk MAP kinase, Extracellular-regulated kinase A, Extracellular-signal-related kinase A, MAP kinase, MAP-kinase, drosophila ERK, enhancer of seven in absentia 7, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase A, mitogen activated protein kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, phospho-ERK, rl-PA, rl-PC, rl-PD, rl-PE, rl-PG, rl-PH, rl-PI, roll, sevenmaker
Species: fruit fly
Products:     rl

Top Publications

  1. Jekely G, Sung H, Luque C, Rørth P. Regulators of endocytosis maintain localized receptor tyrosine kinase signaling in guided migration. Dev Cell. 2005;9:197-207 pubmed
    ..Cbl and Sprint both regulate early steps of RTK endocytosis. Thus, a physiological role of RTK endocytosis is to ensure localized intracellular response to guidance cues by stimulating spatial restriction of signaling. ..
  2. Kim S, Kwon H, Kim Y, Ryu J, Kim K, Ahn Y, et al. Isolation and characterization of a Drosophila homologue of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-3 which has a high substrate specificity towards extracellular-signal-regulated kinase. Biochem J. 2002;361:143-51 pubmed
    ..DMKP-3 interacted specifically with Drosophila ERK (DERK) via its N-terminal domain...
  3. Galindo M, Bishop S, Greig S, Couso J. Leg patterning driven by proximal-distal interactions and EGFR signaling. Science. 2002;297:256-9 pubmed
    ..Our results uncover a mechanism for appendage patterning directed by genes expressed in proximal-distal domains and possibly conserved in other arthropods and vertebrates. ..
  4. Simcox A, Mitra S, Truesdell S, Paul L, Chen T, Butchar J, et al. Efficient genetic method for establishing Drosophila cell lines unlocks the potential to create lines of specific genotypes. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000142 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that expression of Ras(V12) is a powerful genetic mechanism to promote proliferation in Drosophila primary culture cells and serves as an efficient means to generate continuous cell lines of a given genotype. ..
  5. Biteau B, Jasper H. EGF signaling regulates the proliferation of intestinal stem cells in Drosophila. Development. 2011;138:1045-55 pubmed publisher
  6. Li J, Xia F, Li W. Coactivation of STAT and Ras is required for germ cell proliferation and invasive migration in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2003;5:787-98 pubmed
    ..A requirement for RTK in Drosophila PGC development is analogous to the mouse, in which the RTK c-kit is required, suggesting a conserved molecular mechanism governing PGC behavior in flies and mammals. ..
  7. Halfon M, Carmena A, Gisselbrecht S, Sackerson C, Jimenez F, Baylies M, et al. Ras pathway specificity is determined by the integration of multiple signal-activated and tissue-restricted transcription factors. Cell. 2000;103:63-74 pubmed
    ..coordinate the direct effects of three signal-activated (dTCF, Mad, and Pointed-functioning in the Wg, Dpp, and Ras/MAPK pathways, respectively) and two tissue-restricted (Twist and Tinman) transcription factors on a progenitor identity ..
  8. Rebay I, Chen F, Hsiao F, Kolodziej P, Kuang B, Laverty T, et al. A genetic screen for novel components of the Ras/Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway that interact with the yan gene of Drosophila identifies split ends, a new RNA recognition motif-containing protein. Genetics. 2000;154:695-712 pubmed
    ..Among the previously known genes we recovered are four RTK pathway components, rolled (MAPK), son-of-sevenless, Star, and pointed, and two genes, eyes absent and string, that have not been implicated ..
  9. Wang S, Tsarouhas V, Xylourgidis N, Sabri N, Tiklová K, Nautiyal N, et al. The tyrosine kinase Stitcher activates Grainy head and epidermal wound healing in Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:890-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Stit activation also induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation along with the Grh-dependent expression of stit and barrier repair genes at the wound sites...

More Information


  1. Tsai P, Kao H, Grabbe C, Lee Y, Ghose A, Lai T, et al. Fak56 functions downstream of integrin alphaPS3betanu and suppresses MAPK activation in neuromuscular junction growth. Neural Dev. 2008;3:26 pubmed publisher
    ..kinase (FAK) functions in cell migration and signaling through activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade...
  2. Smith R, Carroll P, Allard J, Simon M. MASK, a large ankyrin repeat and KH domain-containing protein involved in Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Development. 2002;129:71-82 pubmed
    ..Although MASK is localized predominantly in the cellular cytoplasm, it is not absolutely required for MAPK activation or nuclear translocation...
  3. Rintelen F, Hafen E, Nairz K. The Drosophila dual-specificity ERK phosphatase DMKP3 cooperates with the ERK tyrosine phosphatase PTP-ER. Development. 2003;130:3479-90 pubmed
    b>ERK MAP kinase plays a key role in relaying extracellular signals to transcriptional regulation...
  4. Decotto E, Spradling A. The Drosophila ovarian and testis stem cell niches: similar somatic stem cells and signals. Dev Cell. 2005;9:501-10 pubmed
    ..These observations reveal striking similarities in the stem cell niches of male and female gonads, and suggest that they are largely governed by common mechanisms. ..
  5. Sato M, Kornberg T. FGF is an essential mitogen and chemoattractant for the air sacs of the drosophila tracheal system. Dev Cell. 2002;3:195-207 pubmed
  6. Kim M, Lee J, Koh H, Lee S, Jang C, Chung C, et al. Inhibition of ERK-MAP kinase signaling by RSK during Drosophila development. EMBO J. 2006;25:3056-67 pubmed
    ..as an important downstream effector of the ribosomal protein S6 kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras/ERK) pathway, its endogenous role, and precise molecular function remain unclear...
  7. Lim Y, Nishizawa K, Nishi Y, Tsuda L, Inoue Y, Nishida Y. Genetic analysis of rolled, which encodes a Drosophila mitogen-activated protein kinase. Genetics. 1999;153:763-71 pubmed
    ..Involvement of rl in cell proliferation was also demonstrated by clonal analysis. Branching and integration of signals in the MAP kinase cascade is discussed.
  8. Lin X, Buff E, Perrimon N, Michelson A. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are essential for FGF receptor signaling during Drosophila embryonic development. Development. 1999;126:3715-23 pubmed
    ..Moreover, both Heartless- and Breathless-dependent MAPK activation is significantly reduced in embryos which fail to synthesize heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans...
  9. Eddison M, Guarnieri D, Cheng L, Liu C, Moffat K, Davis G, et al. arouser reveals a role for synapse number in the regulation of ethanol sensitivity. Neuron. 2011;70:979-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic evidence suggests that aru regulates ethanol sensitivity through its activation by Egfr/Erk signaling and its inhibition by PI3K/Akt signaling...
  10. Dumstrei K, Nassif C, Abboud G, Aryai A, Hartenstein V. EGFR signaling is required for the differentiation and maintenance of neural progenitors along the dorsal midline of the Drosophila embryonic head. Development. 1998;125:3417-26 pubmed
    ..We show that, beside their requirement for EGFR signaling, head and ventral midline structures share several morphogenetic and molecular properties. ..
  11. Peverali F, Isaksson A, Papavassiliou A, Plastina P, Staszewski L, Mlodzik M, et al. Phosphorylation of Drosophila Jun by the MAP kinase rolled regulates photoreceptor differentiation. EMBO J. 1996;15:3943-50 pubmed
    ..Here we show that D-Jun is a substrate for the ERK-related Drosophila MAP kinase Rolled, which has previously been shown to be a part of this pathway...
  12. Cinnamon E, Helman A, Ben Haroush Schyr R, Orian A, Jiménez G, Paroush Z. Multiple RTK pathways downregulate Groucho-mediated repression in Drosophila embryogenesis. Development. 2008;135:829-37 pubmed publisher
    RTK pathways establish cell fates in a wide range of developmental processes. However, how the pathway effector MAPK coordinately regulates the expression of multiple target genes is not fully understood...
  13. Foltenyi K, Greenspan R, NEWPORT J. Activation of EGFR and ERK by rhomboid signaling regulates the consolidation and maintenance of sleep in Drosophila. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:1160-7 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that rhomboid (Rho)- and Star-mediated activation of EGFR and ERK signaling increases sleep in a dose-dependent manner, and that blockade of rhomboid (rho) expression in the nervous ..
  14. Astigarraga S, Grossman R, Diaz Delfin J, Caelles C, Paroush Z, Jiménez G. A MAPK docking site is critical for downregulation of Capicua by Torso and EGFR RTK signaling. EMBO J. 2007;26:668-77 pubmed
    ..regulatory effects are direct and depend on a MAPK docking site in Capicua that physically interacts with the MAPK Rolled. Capicua derivatives lacking this docking site cause dominant phenotypes similar to those resulting from loss of ..
  15. Moon N, Di Stefano L, Dyson N. A gradient of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling determines the sensitivity of rbf1 mutant cells to E2F-dependent apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7601-15 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that a gradient of DER/ras/raf signaling that occurs naturally during development provides the contextual signals that determine when and where the inactivation of rbf1 results in dE2F1-dependent apoptosis. ..
  16. Kurada P, White K. Ras promotes cell survival in Drosophila by downregulating hid expression. Cell. 1998;95:319-29 pubmed
    ..activity in the developing eye is regulated by the Drosophila EGF receptor and operates through the Raf/MAPK pathway...
  17. Walker J, Tchoudakova A, McKenney P, Brill S, Wu D, Cowley G, et al. Reduced growth of Drosophila neurofibromatosis 1 mutants reflects a non-cell-autonomous requirement for GTPase-Activating Protein activity in larval neurons. Genes Dev. 2006;20:3311-23 pubmed
  18. Nagaraj R, Banerjee U. Combinatorial signaling in the specification of primary pigment cells in the Drosophila eye. Development. 2007;134:825-31 pubmed
    ..Combined with previous work, these data show that unique combinations of only two pathways--Notch and EGFR--can specify at least five different cell types within the Drosophila eye. ..
  19. Cabernard C, Affolter M. Distinct roles for two receptor tyrosine kinases in epithelial branching morphogenesis in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2005;9:831-42 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, we find that Fgf signaling requires Ras, the Mapk pathway, and Pointed to direct migration, suggesting that both cytoskeletal and nuclear events are downstream of ..
  20. Gómez A, López Varea A, Molnar C, de la Calle Mustienes E, Ruiz Gomez M, Gomez Skarmeta J, et al. Conserved cross-interactions in Drosophila and Xenopus between Ras/MAPK signaling and the dual-specificity phosphatase MKP3. Dev Dyn. 2005;232:695-708 pubmed
    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is a key transducer of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling pathways, and its function is required in multiple processes during ..
  21. Therrien M, Morrison D, Wong A, Rubin G. A genetic screen for modifiers of a kinase suppressor of Ras-dependent rough eye phenotype in Drosophila. Genetics. 2000;156:1231-42 pubmed
    ..biochemical evidence suggests that the role of KSR is closely linked to the signal transduction mechanism of the MAPK cascade, the precise molecular function of KSR remains unresolved...
  22. Smith Bolton R, Worley M, Kanda H, Hariharan I. Regenerative growth in Drosophila imaginal discs is regulated by Wingless and Myc. Dev Cell. 2009;16:797-809 pubmed publisher
    ..This system is conducive to forward genetic screens, enabling an unbiased search for genes that regulate both the extent of and the capacity for regeneration. ..
  23. Kim M, McGinnis W. Phosphorylation of Grainy head by ERK is essential for wound-dependent regeneration but not for development of an epidermal barrier. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:650-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that GRH is directly regulated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, which is required for wound-dependent expression of GRH target genes in epidermal cells...
  24. Marenda D, Vrailas A, Rodrigues A, Cook S, Powers M, Lorenzen J, et al. MAP kinase subcellular localization controls both pattern and proliferation in the developing Drosophila wing. Development. 2006;133:43-51 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that phosphorylated MAPK (pMAPK) is held in the cytoplasm in differentiating larval and pupal wing vein cells, and we show that this cytoplasmic ..
  25. Cela C, Llimargas M. Egfr is essential for maintaining epithelial integrity during tracheal remodelling in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:3115-25 pubmed
    ..We show that the integrity-promoting Egfr function is transduced by the ERK-type MAPK pathway, but does not require the downstream transcription factor Pointed...
  26. Kim M, Cha G, Kim S, Lee J, Park J, Koh H, et al. MKP-3 has essential roles as a negative regulator of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway during Drosophila development. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:573-83 pubmed
    ..However, the physiological roles of MKP-3 and the mechanism by which MKP-3 regulates Ras/Drosophila ERK (DERK) signaling in vivo have not been determined...
  27. Yang L, Baker N. Cell cycle withdrawal, progression, and cell survival regulation by EGFR and its effectors in the differentiating Drosophila eye. Dev Cell. 2003;4:359-69 pubmed
    ..Each response requires the same Ras, Raf, MAPK, and Pnt signal transduction pathway...
  28. Hirabayashi S, Baranski T, Cagan R. Transformed Drosophila cells evade diet-mediated insulin resistance through wingless signaling. Cell. 2013;154:664-75 pubmed publisher
    ..By targeting multiple steps in this circuit with rationally applied drug combinations, we demonstrate the potential of combinatorial drug intervention to treat diet-enhanced malignant tumors. ..
  29. Clemens J, Worby C, Simonson Leff N, Muda M, Maehama T, Hemmings B, et al. Use of double-stranded RNA interference in Drosophila cell lines to dissect signal transduction pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:6499-503 pubmed
    ..of the DSOR1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, MAPKK) prevents the activation of the downstream ERK-A (MAPK). In contrast, blocking ERK-A expression results in increased activation of DSOR1...
  30. Kubota K, Goto S, Eto K, Hayashi S. EGF receptor attenuates Dpp signaling and helps to distinguish the wing and leg cell fates in Drosophila. Development. 2000;127:3769-76 pubmed
    ..Differential activation of the two signals and the cross talk between them critically affect this cell fate choice. ..
  31. Hannan F, Ho I, Tong J, Zhu Y, Nurnberg P, Zhong Y. Effect of neurofibromatosis type I mutations on a novel pathway for adenylyl cyclase activation requiring neurofibromin and Ras. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:1087-98 pubmed
    ..Further, we demonstrate that sequences in the C-terminal region of hNF1 are sufficient for NF1/Galpha(s)-dependent neurotransmitter stimulated AC activity, and for rescue of body size defects in Nf1 mutant flies. ..
  32. Letizia A, Sotillos S, Campuzano S, Llimargas M. Regulated Crb accumulation controls apical constriction and invagination in Drosophila tracheal cells. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:240-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This hypothesis is supported by the phenotype of lethal giant larvae (lgl); crb double mutants. These results unveil a link between Crb and the organisation of the actin cytoskeleton during morphogenesis. ..
  33. Anselmo A, Bumeister R, Thomas J, White M. Critical contribution of linker proteins to Raf kinase activation. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:5940-3 pubmed
    ..These proteins, KSR, CNK, and Sur-8, can interact with multiple core components of the Ras/MAP kinase cascade and may contribute to the structural organization of this cascade...
  34. Sluss H, Han Z, Barrett T, Goberdhan D, Wilson C, Davis R, et al. A JNK signal transduction pathway that mediates morphogenesis and an immune response in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2745-58 pubmed
    The Drosophila MAP kinase DJNK is a homolog of the mammalian c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK). Mutations in the DJNK gene correspond to the complementation group basket...
  35. Jiang H, Edgar B. EGFR signaling regulates the proliferation of Drosophila adult midgut progenitors. Development. 2009;136:483-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that signaling through the EGFR/RAS/MAPK pathway is necessary and limiting for AMP proliferation...
  36. Mouchel Vielh E, Bloyer S, Salvaing J, Randsholt N, Peronnet F. Involvement of the MP1 scaffold protein in ERK signaling regulation during Drosophila wing development. Genes Cells. 2008;13:1099-111 pubmed publisher
    ..In mouse, the scaffold MP1 (MEK Partner 1) forms a signaling complex with MEK1 and ERK1. In this work, we focus on Drosophila MP1 (dMP1)...
  37. Halfar K, Rommel C, Stocker H, Hafen E. Ras controls growth, survival and differentiation in the Drosophila eye by different thresholds of MAP kinase activity. Development. 2001;128:1687-96 pubmed
    ..We show that the three different functions of Ras are mediated by distinct thresholds of MAPK activity...
  38. Robinson B, Huang J, Hong Y, Moberg K. Crumbs regulates Salvador/Warts/Hippo signaling in Drosophila via the FERM-domain protein Expanded. Curr Biol. 2010;20:582-90 pubmed publisher
  39. Schnepp B, Grumbling G, Donaldson T, Simcox A. Vein is a novel component in the Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor pathway with similarity to the neuregulins. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2302-13 pubmed
    ..growth factor receptor (EGFR), is relayed via a highly conserved intracellular pathway involving Ras, Raf, and MAPK. In Drosophila, the EGFR and components of the intracellular pathway are broadly expressed, yet receptor activation ..
  40. Roignant J, Treisman J. Exon junction complex subunits are required to splice Drosophila MAP kinase, a large heterochromatic gene. Cell. 2010;143:238-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of Mago prevents epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, due to a large reduction in MAPK mRNA levels. MAPK expression also requires the EJC subunits Y14 and eIF4AIII and EJC-associated splicing factors...
  41. Prober D, Edgar B. Interactions between Ras1, dMyc, and dPI3K signaling in the developing Drosophila wing. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2286-99 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that induction of dMyc and regulation of cell identity are separable effects of Raf/MAPK signaling...
  42. Lloyd T, Atkinson R, Wu M, Zhou Y, Pennetta G, Bellen H. Hrs regulates endosome membrane invagination and tyrosine kinase receptor signaling in Drosophila. Cell. 2002;108:261-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Hrs and MVB formation function to downregulate TKR signaling. ..
  43. Thackeray J, Gaines P, Ebert P, Carlson J. small wing encodes a phospholipase C-(gamma) that acts as a negative regulator of R7 development in Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:5033-42 pubmed
    ..The data presented here provide the first genetic evidence that PLC-(gamma) is involved in Ras-mediated signaling and indicate that PLC-(gamma) acts as a negative regulator in such pathways in Drosophila. ..
  44. Nakato H, Kimata K. Heparan sulfate fine structure and specificity of proteoglycan functions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1573:312-8 pubmed
    ..In this review, we focus on the molecular basis of growth factor control by the sulfation status of heparan sulfate. ..
  45. Riesgo Escovar J, Jenni M, Fritz A, Hafen E. The Drosophila Jun-N-terminal kinase is required for cell morphogenesis but not for DJun-dependent cell fate specification in the eye. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2759-68 pubmed
    ..Although DJNK efficiently phosphorylates DJun in vitro, bsk function is not required for the specification of cell fate in the developing eye, a process that requires MAP kinase and DJun function.
  46. Schulz C, Wood C, Jones D, Tazuke S, Fuller M. Signaling from germ cells mediated by the rhomboid homolog stet organizes encapsulation by somatic support cells. Development. 2002;129:4523-34 pubmed
    ..The micro-environment provided by the surrounding somatic cells may, in turn, regulate differentiation of the germ cells they enclose. ..
  47. Mishra S, Smolik S, Forte M, Stork P. Ras-independent activation of ERK signaling via the torso receptor tyrosine kinase is mediated by Rap1. Curr Biol. 2005;15:366-70 pubmed
    ..These studies provide the first direct genetic evidence of Rap1-mediated activation of the MAP kinase cascade in eukaryotic organisms.
  48. Mace K, Pearson J, McGinnis W. An epidermal barrier wound repair pathway in Drosophila is mediated by grainy head. Science. 2005;308:381-5 pubmed publisher
    ..At the signaling level, tyrosine kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activities are induced in epidermal cells near wounds, and activated ERK is required for a robust wound response...
  49. Karim F, Rubin G. Ectopic expression of activated Ras1 induces hyperplastic growth and increased cell death in Drosophila imaginal tissues. Development. 1998;125:1-9 pubmed
    ..Loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding RAF, MEK, MAPK and KSR dominantly suppress RAS1V12-induced cell proliferation...
  50. Diaz Benjumea F, Hafen E. The sevenless signalling cassette mediates Drosophila EGF receptor function during epidermal development. Development. 1994;120:569-78 pubmed
    In Drosophila, Drk, an SH2 adaptor protein, Sos, a putative activator of Ras1, Ras1, raf and rolled/MAP kinase have been shown to be required for signalling from the sevenless and the torso receptor tyrosine kinase...
  51. Bergmann A, Agapite J, McCall K, Steller H. The Drosophila gene hid is a direct molecular target of Ras-dependent survival signaling. Cell. 1998;95:331-41 pubmed
    ..By using transgenic animals and cultured cells, we show that MAPK phosphorylation sites in Hid are critical for this response...
  52. Dar A, Das T, Shokat K, Cagan R. Chemical genetic discovery of targets and anti-targets for cancer polypharmacology. Nature. 2012;486:80-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Combining kinase-focused chemistry, kinome-wide profiling and Drosophila genetics provides a powerful systems pharmacology approach towards developing compounds with a maximal therapeutic index. ..
  53. zur Lage P, Jarman A. Antagonism of EGFR and notch signalling in the reiterative recruitment of Drosophila adult chordotonal sense organ precursors. Development. 1999;126:3149-57 pubmed
    ..SOP recruitment is reiterative because the inductive signal comes from previously recruited SOPs. ..
  54. Karim F, Chang H, Therrien M, Wassarman D, Laverty T, Rubin G. A screen for genes that function downstream of Ras1 during Drosophila eye development. Genetics. 1996;143:315-29 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the Drosophila homologues of Raf, MEK, MAPK, type I Geranylgeranyl Transferase and Protein Phosphatase 2A were isolated, as were mutations in several novel ..
  55. Dickson B, van der Straten A, Dominguez M, Hafen E. Mutations Modulating Raf signaling in Drosophila eye development. Genetics. 1996;142:163-71 pubmed
    ..We present the results of this screen in detail, as well as a preliminary genetic analysis of the six loci still to be characterized molecularly. ..
  56. Hayashi T, Kojima T, Saigo K. Specification of primary pigment cell and outer photoreceptor fates by BarH1 homeobox gene in the developing Drosophila eye. Dev Biol. 1998;200:131-45 pubmed
    ..Extra outer photoreceptor formation was suppressed and enhanced, respectively, by reducing the activity of Ras/MAPK signaling and by dosage reduction of yan, a negative regulator of the pathway, suggesting interactions between Bar ..
  57. Griffiths R, Hidalgo A. Prospero maintains the mitotic potential of glial precursors enabling them to respond to neurons. EMBO J. 2004;23:2440-50 pubmed
    ..This enables prospero-expressing cells alone to divide further upon elimination of neurons and to adjust glial number to axons during development. ..
  58. Yang L, Baker N. Role of the EGFR/Ras/Raf pathway in specification of photoreceptor cells in the Drosophila retina. Development. 2001;128:1183-91 pubmed
    ..In addition Egfr is autonomously required for MAP kinase activation...
  59. Englund C, Lorén C, Grabbe C, Varshney G, Deleuil F, Hallberg B, et al. Jeb signals through the Alk receptor tyrosine kinase to drive visceral muscle fusion. Nature. 2003;425:512-6 pubmed
  60. Roy F, Laberge G, Douziech M, Ferland McCollough D, Therrien M. KSR is a scaffold required for activation of the ERK/MAPK module. Genes Dev. 2002;16:427-38 pubmed
    Mechanisms that regulate signal propagation through the ERK/MAPK pathway are still poorly understood. Several proteins are suspected to play critical roles in this process...
  61. Prober D, Edgar B. Ras1 promotes cellular growth in the Drosophila wing. Cell. 2000;100:435-46 pubmed
    ..We propose that Ras primarily promotes growth and that growth is coupled to G1/S progression via cyclin E. Interestingly, upregulation of growth by Ras did not deregulate G2/M progression or a developmentally regulated cell cycle exit. ..
  62. Koh Y, Ruiz Canada C, Gorczyca M, Budnik V. The Ras1-mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway regulates synaptic plasticity through fasciclin II-mediated cell adhesion. J Neurosci. 2002;22:2496-504 pubmed
    ..switches that can trigger distinct signal transduction pathways, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, the phosphoinositide-3 kinase pathway, and the Ral-guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator pathway...
  63. Lorén C, Scully A, Grabbe C, Edeen P, Thomas J, McKeown M, et al. Identification and characterization of DAlk: a novel Drosophila melanogaster RTK which drives ERK activation in vivo. Genes Cells. 2001;6:531-44 pubmed
    ..early role for DAlk in the developing visceral mesoderm where its expression is coincident with activated ERK. In this paper we describe a Drosophila melanogaster Alk RTK which is expressed in the developing embryonic ..
  64. Ciapponi L, Jackson D, Mlodzik M, Bohmann D. Drosophila Fos mediates ERK and JNK signals via distinct phosphorylation sites. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1540-53 pubmed
    During Drosophila development Fos acts downstream from the JNK pathway. Here we show that it can also mediate ERK signaling in wing vein formation and photoreceptor differentiation...
  65. Oellers N, Hafen E. Biochemical characterization of rolledSem, an activated form of Drosophila mitogen-activated protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:24939-44 pubmed
    The rolled (rl) gene of Drosophila encodes a homologue of vertebrate mitogen-activated protein kinases...
  66. Chen W, White M, Cobb M. Stimulus-specific requirements for MAP3 kinases in activating the JNK pathway. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:49105-10 pubmed
    ..MAPKs) are activated by numerous ligands typically through a protein kinase cascade minimally composed of the MAPK in series with a MAP2 kinase (MAP2K) and a MAP3K...
  67. Terriente Félix A, de Celis J. Osa, a subunit of the BAP chromatin-remodelling complex, participates in the regulation of gene expression in response to EGFR signalling in the Drosophila wing. Dev Biol. 2009;329:350-61 pubmed publisher
  68. Carmena A, Gisselbrecht S, Harrison J, Jimenez F, Michelson A. Combinatorial signaling codes for the progressive determination of cell fates in the Drosophila embryonic mesoderm. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3910-22 pubmed
    ..By monitoring the expression of the diphosphorylated form of mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK), we found that these RTKs are activated in small clusters of cells within the original competence domain...
  69. Wairkar Y, Toda H, Mochizuki H, Furukubo Tokunaga K, Tomoda T, DiAntonio A. Unc-51 controls active zone density and protein composition by downregulating ERK signaling. J Neurosci. 2009;29:517-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, Unc-51 inhibits the activity of the MAP kinase ERK to promote synaptic development...
  70. Kumar J, Tio M, Hsiung F, Akopyan S, Gabay L, Seger R, et al. Dissecting the roles of the Drosophila EGF receptor in eye development and MAP kinase activation. Development. 1998;125:3875-85 pubmed
    ..EGFR is required subsequently for recruitment of all other neuronal cells. The initial EGFR-dependent MAP kinase activation occurs in the furrow, but the active kinase (dp-ERK) is observed only in the cytoplasm for over 2 ..
  71. Vincent S, Wilson R, Coelho C, Affolter M, Leptin M. The Drosophila protein Dof is specifically required for FGF signaling. Mol Cell. 1998;2:515-25 pubmed
    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) transmit signals to the cell nucleus via the MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade, using specific molecules to link the activated receptors to the MAPK cascade activator, Ras...
  72. Rohrbough J, Kent K, Broadie K, Weiss J. Jelly Belly trans-synaptic signaling to anaplastic lymphoma kinase regulates neurotransmission strength and synapse architecture. Dev Neurobiol. 2013;73:189-208 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of Jeb-Alk signaling triggers the Ras-MAP kinase cascade in both pre- and postsynaptic compartments...
  73. Oldham S, Hafen E. Insulin/IGF and target of rapamycin signaling: a TOR de force in growth control. Trends Cell Biol. 2003;13:79-85 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes current studies primarily from Drosophila regarding the function of the insulin/IGF system in the control of growth. ..
  74. Gabay L, Seger R, Shilo B. In situ activation pattern of Drosophila EGF receptor pathway during development. Science. 1997;277:1103-6 pubmed
    ..of the in situ distribution of the active, dual phosphorylated form of mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK) with a specific monoclonal antibody...
  75. Martin Blanco E, Roch F, Noll E, Baonza A, Duffy J, Perrimon N. A temporal switch in DER signaling controls the specification and differentiation of veins and interveins in the Drosophila wing. Development. 1999;126:5739-47 pubmed
    ..2) The late downregulation of DER activity. At this point, the inactivation of MAPK in vein cells is necessary for the maintenance of the expression of decapentaplegic (dpp) and becomes essential for ..
  76. Bergmann A, Tugentman M, Shilo B, Steller H. Regulation of cell number by MAPK-dependent control of apoptosis: a mechanism for trophic survival signaling. Dev Cell. 2002;2:159-70 pubmed
    ..glia cells in Drosophila depends upon direct suppression of the proapoptotic protein HID via the EGF receptor/RAS/MAPK pathway...
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    ..The activation of Torso by PTTH stimulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, and the loss of ERK in the PG phenocopies the loss of PTTH and Torso...
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    ..Since inductive signalling is common in many organisms and its components have been conserved, it is possible that the logic of signalling may also be conserved. ..
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    ..Furthermore, this study identifies a Phyl-regulated class of endosomal vesicles that specifically include components of Notch and Wg signalling. ..
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    ..regions of the Drosophila embryo are patterned by the localized activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. This depends on the MAPK-mediated downregulation of Capicua (Cic), a repressor of the terminal gap genes...