Gene Symbol: rk
Description: rickets
Alias: BG:DS00180.13, CG8930, CT25644, DLGR-2, DLGR2, Dmel\CG8930, LGR2, lgr2, rk/CG8930, rickets, CG8930-PA, glycoprotein hormone receptor II, glycoprotein-hormone-receptor-II, leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 2, rk-PA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Baker J, Truman J. Mutations in the Drosophila glycoprotein hormone receptor, rickets, eliminate neuropeptide-induced tanning and selectively block a stereotyped behavioral program. J Exp Biol. 2002;205:2555-65 pubmed
    ..We examined the molecular mechanisms contributing to these processes in Drosophila by analyzing mutants for the rickets gene. These flies fail to initiate the behavioral and tanning processes that normally follow ecdysis...
  2. Dewey E, McNabb S, Ewer J, Kuo G, Takanishi C, Truman J, et al. Identification of the gene encoding bursicon, an insect neuropeptide responsible for cuticle sclerotization and wing spreading. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1208-13 pubmed
    ..It is the first member of the cystine knot family to have a defined function in invertebrates. Mutants show that the spectrum of bursicon actions is broader than formerly demonstrated. ..
  3. Diao F, White B. A novel approach for directing transgene expression in Drosophila: T2A-Gal4 in-frame fusion. Genetics. 2012;190:1139-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This method requires explicit knowledge only of the endogenous gene's open reading frame and not its regulatory elements. ..
  4. Peabody N, Diao F, Luan H, Wang H, Dewey E, Honegger H, et al. Bursicon functions within the Drosophila CNS to modulate wing expansion behavior, hormone secretion, and cell death. J Neurosci. 2008;28:14379-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal novel neuromodulatory functions for bursicon and support the hypothesis that the B(SEG) are essential for orchestrating both the behavioral and somatic processes underlying wing expansion. ..
  5. Davis M, O Keefe S, Primrose D, Hodgetts R. A neuropeptide hormone cascade controls the precise onset of post-eclosion cuticular tanning in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2007;134:4395-404 pubmed
    ..peptide (CCAP) together control pre-eclosion and eclosion events, whereas bursicon, through its receptor rickets (RK), controls post-eclosion development...
  6. Eriksen K, Hauser F, Schiøtt M, Pedersen K, Søndergaard L, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning, genomic organization, developmental regulation, and a knock-out mutant of a novel leu-rich repeats-containing G protein-coupled receptor (DLGR-2) from Drosophila melanogaster. Genome Res. 2000;10:924-38 pubmed
    ..This finding, together with the expression data, strongly suggests that DLGR-2 is exclusively involved in development. ..
  7. Kimura K, Kodama A, Hayasaka Y, Ohta T. Activation of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is required for post-ecdysial cell death in wing epidermal cells of Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2004;131:1597-606 pubmed
    ..This was supported by evidence that wing cell death was inhibited by a mutation of rickets, which encodes a G-protein coupled receptor in the glycoprotein hormone family that is a putative bursicon ..
  8. Luo C, Dewey E, Sudo S, Ewer J, Hsu S, Honegger H, et al. Bursicon, the insect cuticle-hardening hormone, is a heterodimeric cystine knot protein that activates G protein-coupled receptor LGR2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:2820-5 pubmed publisher
    ..from Drosophila melanogaster binds with high affinity and specificity to activate the G protein-coupled receptor DLGR2, leading to the stimulation of cAMP signaling in vitro and tanning in neck-ligated blowflies...
  9. Mendive F, Van Loy T, Claeysen S, Poels J, Williamson M, Hauser F, et al. Drosophila molting neurohormone bursicon is a heterodimer and the natural agonist of the orphan receptor DLGR2. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:2171-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The heterodimeric Drosophila protein displays bursicon bioactivity in freshly enclosed neck-ligated flies and is the natural agonist of the orphan G protein-coupled receptor DLGR2.

More Information


  1. An S, Dong S, Wang Q, Li S, Gilbert L, Stanley D, et al. Insect neuropeptide bursicon homodimers induce innate immune and stress genes during molting by activating the NF-?B transcription factor Relish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34510 pubmed publisher
    ..and sclerotization) through the Drosophila leucine-rich repeats-containing G protein-coupled receptor 2 (DLGR2). Recent studies show that both bursicon subunits also form homodimers...
  2. Scopelliti A, Cordero J, Diao F, Strathdee K, White B, Sansom O, et al. Local control of intestinal stem cell homeostasis by enteroendocrine cells in the adult Drosophila midgut. Curr Biol. 2014;24:1199-211 pubmed publisher
    ..Bursicon binding to its receptor, DLGR2, the ortholog of mammalian leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptors (LGR4-6), represses the ..
  3. Natzle J, Kiger J, Green M. Bursicon signaling mutations separate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition from programmed cell death during Drosophila melanogaster wing maturation. Genetics. 2008;180:885-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations establish that the Bursicon/Rickets signaling pathway is necessary for both wing expansion and initiation of the EMT that leads to removal of the ..
  4. Harwood B, Draper I, Kopin A. Targeted inactivation of the rickets receptor in muscle compromises Drosophila viability. J Exp Biol. 2014;217:4091-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Bursicon activity is mediated through its cognate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), rickets. We have developed a membrane-tethered bursicon construct that enables spatial modulation of rickets-mediated ..
  5. Nishi S, Nakabayashi K, Kobilka B, Hsueh A. The ectodomain of the luteinizing hormone receptor interacts with exoloop 2 to constrain the transmembrane region: studies using chimeric human and fly receptors. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:3958-64 pubmed
    ..We fused the ectodomain of human LH or FSH receptors to the transmembrane region of fly LGR2. The chimeric human/fly receptors, unlike their wild type counterparts, exhibited ligand-independent constitutive ..
  6. Vallejo D, Juarez Carreño S, Bolivar J, Morante J, Dominguez M. A brain circuit that synchronizes growth and maturation revealed through Dilp8 binding to Lgr3. Science. 2015;350:aac6767 pubmed publisher
    ..This previously unrecognized circuit suggests how growth and maturation rate are matched and co-regulated according to Dilp8 signals to stabilize organismal size. ..
  7. Gubb D, Ashburner M, Roote J, Davis T. A novel transvection phenomenon affecting the white gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1990;126:167-76 pubmed
    ..This effect of rearrangements has been used as the basis for a screen, gamma-ray induced aberrations with at least one breakpoint opposite the TE site were recovered by their suppression of the zeste phenotype. ..
  8. Fossett N, Arbour Reily P, Kilroy G, McDaniel M, Mahmoud J, Tucker A, et al. Analysis of ENU-induced mutations at the Adh locus in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1990;231:73-85 pubmed
    ..7 of the 9 intragenic mutations were GC to AT transitions which resulted in 5 single amino acid substitutions, 1 premature translation termination codon, and 1 splice site mutation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  9. Anllo L, Schupbach T. Signaling through the G-protein-coupled receptor Rickets is important for polarity, detachment, and migration of the border cells in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2016;414:193-206 pubmed publisher
    ..In a mutagenesis screen, we isolated two alleles of the gene rickets (rk) encoding a G-protein-coupled receptor...
  10. Flaven Pouchon J, Farine J, Ewer J, Ferveur J. Regulation of cuticular hydrocarbon profile maturation by Drosophila tanning hormone, bursicon, and its interaction with desaturase activity. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2016;79:87-96 pubmed publisher
    ..of the new cuticle are controlled by the neurohormone, bursicon, and its receptor, encoded by the DLGR2 receptor, rickets (rk); by contrast, little is known about the timecourse of changes in CH profile and about the role of bursicon ..
  11. Sudo S, Kuwabara Y, Park J, Hsu S, Hsueh A. Heterodimeric fly glycoprotein hormone-alpha2 (GPA2) and glycoprotein hormone-beta5 (GPB5) activate fly leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor-1 (DLGR1) and stimulation of human thyrotropin receptors by chimeric fly GPA2 and human . Endocrinology. 2005;146:3596-604 pubmed
    ..beta-subunits, capable of stimulating cAMP production mediated by fly orphan receptor DLGR1 but not DLGR2. Although the fly GPA2/GPB5 heterodimers did not activate human TSH or gonadotropin receptors, chimeric fly GPA2/..
  12. Harwood B, Fortin J, Gao K, Chen C, Beinborn M, Kopin A. Membrane tethered bursicon constructs as heterodimeric modulators of the Drosophila G protein-coupled receptor rickets. Mol Pharmacol. 2013;83:814-21 pubmed publisher
    ..focus on Drosophila bursicon, a heterodimeric cystine-knot protein that activates the G protein-coupled receptor rickets (rk)...
  13. Loveall B, Deitcher D. The essential role of bursicon during Drosophila development. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:92 pubmed publisher
    ..functional significance of bursicon signaling during development, by disrupting the expression of its receptor, rickets, in different target tissues...
  14. Woodruff R, Ashburner M. The genetics of a small autosomal region of Drosophila melanogaster containing the structural gene for alcohol dehydrogenase. I. Characterization of deficiencies and mapping of ADH and visible mutations. Genetics. 1979;92:117-32 pubmed
    ..These deficiencies probably include two polytene chromosome bands, 35B2 and 35B3. ..
  15. Gubb D, McGill S, Ashburner M. A selective screen to recover chromosomal deletions and duplications in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1988;119:377-90 pubmed
    ..Such aberration breakpoints can be genetically mapped, as synthetic deletions, and then used as transposon-tagged sites for the recovery of genomic clones. ..
  16. O DONNELL J, Mandel H, Krauss M, Sofer W. Genetic and cytogenetic analysis of the Adh region in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1977;86:553-66 pubmed
    ..If one includes three other loci known to belong there (el, Adh and Sco) a total of 16 complemetation groups have been identified in the region close to Adh. ..
  17. Woodruff R, Ashburner M. The genetics of a small autosomal region of Drosophila melanogaster containing the structural gene for alcohol dehydrogenase. II. Lethal mutations in the region. Genetics. 1979;92:133-49 pubmed