Gene Symbol: Rh6
Description: Rhodopsin 6
Alias: CG5192, DMELRH6, Dm Rh6, Dmel\CG5192, RH6, rh6, rhodopsin 6, CG5192-PC, R8 rhodopsin, Rh6-PC, Rhodopsin6, rhodopsin, rhodopsin-6
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Yamaguchi S, Desplan C, Heisenberg M. Contribution of photoreceptor subtypes to spectral wavelength preference in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:5634-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Involvement of all photoreceptors [R1-R6, R7, R8 (blue), R8 (green)] distinguishes phototaxis from motion detection that is mediated exclusively by R1-R6. ..
  2. Sprecher S, Pichaud F, Desplan C. Adult and larval photoreceptors use different mechanisms to specify the same Rhodopsin fates. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2182-95 pubmed
    ..of 12 PRs, four of which express blue-sensitive rhodopsin5 (rh5) while the other eight contain green-sensitive rh6. This is similar to the 30:70 ratio of adult blue and green R8 cells...
  3. Wernet M, Mazzoni E, Celik A, Duncan D, Duncan I, Desplan C. Stochastic spineless expression creates the retinal mosaic for colour vision. Nature. 2006;440:174-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The fly retina contains two types of ommatidia, called 'pale' and 'yellow', defined by different rhodopsin pairs expressed in R7 and R8 cells...
  4. Vasiliauskas D, Mazzoni E, Sprecher S, Brodetskiy K, Johnston R, Lidder P, et al. Feedback from rhodopsin controls rhodopsin exclusion in Drosophila photoreceptors. Nature. 2011;479:108-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the green-light sensing receptor rhodopsin 6 (Rh6) acts to exclude an alternative blue-sensitive rhodopsin 5 (Rh5) from a subset of Drosophila R8 ..
  5. Shen W, Kwon Y, Adegbola A, Luo J, Chess A, Montell C. Function of rhodopsin in temperature discrimination in Drosophila. Science. 2011;331:1333-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that mutation of the gene (ninaE) encoding a classical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), Drosophila rhodopsin, eliminates thermotactic discrimination in the comfortable temperature range...
  6. Wardill T, List O, Li X, Dongre S, McCulloch M, Ting C, et al. Multiple spectral inputs improve motion discrimination in the Drosophila visual system. Science. 2012;336:925-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that inputs from photoreceptors of different spectral sensitivities improve motion discrimination, increasing robustness of perception. ..
  7. Cook T, Pichaud F, Sonneville R, Papatsenko D, Desplan C. Distinction between color photoreceptor cell fates is controlled by Prospero in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2003;4:853-64 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, this study provides transcriptional targets for pros that may lend insight into its role in regulating neuronal development in flies and vertebrates. ..
  8. Huber A, Schulz S, Bentrop J, Groell C, Wolfrum U, Paulsen R. Molecular cloning of Drosophila Rh6 rhodopsin: the visual pigment of a subset of R8 photoreceptor cells. FEBS Lett. 1997;406:6-10 pubmed
    ..for photoreceptor-specifically expressed genes we have isolated and sequenced a cDNA clone encoding the rhodopsin (Rh6) of a subset of R8 photoreceptor cells of the Drosophila compound eye...
  9. Wernet M, VELEZ M, Clark D, Baumann Klausener F, Brown J, Klovstad M, et al. Genetic dissection reveals two separate retinal substrates for polarization vision in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2012;22:12-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This work establishes a behavioral paradigm that will enable genetic dissection of the circuits underlying polarization vision. ..

More Information


  1. Sprecher S, Desplan C. Switch of rhodopsin expression in terminally differentiated Drosophila sensory neurons. Nature. 2008;454:533-7 pubmed publisher
    ..much simpler larval eye (Bolwig organ) is composed of about 12 photoreceptors, eight of which are green-sensitive (Rh6) and four blue-sensitive (Rh5)...
  2. Mishra M, Oke A, Lebel C, McDonald E, Plummer Z, Cook T, et al. Pph13 and orthodenticle define a dual regulatory pathway for photoreceptor cell morphogenesis and function. Development. 2010;137:2895-904 pubmed publisher
    ..Rh2 and Rh6, and other phototransduction genes, demonstrating that Pph13 and Otd control a distinct subset of Rhodopsin-encoding genes in adult visual systems...
  3. McDonald E, Xie B, Workman M, Charlton Perkins M, Terrell D, Reischl J, et al. Separable transcriptional regulatory domains within Otd control photoreceptor terminal differentiation events. Dev Biol. 2010;347:122-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In the fly retina, Otd controls rhabdomere morphogenesis of all photoreceptors and regulates distinct Rhodopsin-encoding genes in a photoreceptor subtype-specific manner...
  4. Sprecher S, Cardona A, Hartenstein V. The Drosophila larval visual system: high-resolution analysis of a simple visual neuropil. Dev Biol. 2011;358:33-43 pubmed publisher
    ..PRs falling into two classes: blue-senstive PRs expressing Rhodopsin 5 (Rh5) and green-sensitive PRs expressing Rhodopsin 6 (Rh6)...
  5. Hardie R, Raghu P. Visual transduction in Drosophila. Nature. 2001;413:186-93 pubmed
    ..Analysis in Drosophila has revealed many of the underlying molecular strategies, leading to the discovery and characterization of signalling molecules of widespread importance. ..
  6. Helfrich Forster C, Edwards T, Yasuyama K, Wisotzki B, Schneuwly S, Stanewsky R, et al. The extraretinal eyelet of Drosophila: development, ultrastructure, and putative circadian function. J Neurosci. 2002;22:9255-66 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila melanogaster a pair of extraretinal eyelets expressing immunoreactivity to Rhodopsin 6 each contains four photoreceptors located beneath the posterior margin of the compound eye...
  7. Domingos P, Brown S, Barrio R, Ratnakumar K, Frankfort B, Mardon G, et al. Regulation of R7 and R8 differentiation by the spalt genes. Dev Biol. 2004;273:121-33 pubmed
    ..Moreover, misexpression of spalt or senseless is sufficient to induce ectopic rhodopsin 6 expression and partial suppression of rhodopsin 1...
  8. Xie B, Charlton Perkins M, McDonald E, Gebelein B, Cook T. Senseless functions as a molecular switch for color photoreceptor differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 2007;134:4243-53 pubmed
    ..and Sens function together with the transcription factor Orthodenticle (Otd) to oppositely regulate R7 and R8 PR Rhodopsin gene expression in vitro...
  9. Wernet M, Desplan C. Building a retinal mosaic: cell-fate decision in the fly eye. Trends Cell Biol. 2004;14:576-84 pubmed
    ..Notably, several of the factors used in generating the retinal mosaic of the fruitfly have corresponding functions in vertebrates that are likely to have similar roles. ..
  10. TERRELL D, Xie B, Workman M, Mahato S, Zelhof A, Gebelein B, et al. OTX2 and CRX rescue overlapping and photoreceptor-specific functions in the Drosophila eye. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:215-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings have important implications for understanding how Otx proteins have subfunctionalized during evolution, and cement Drosophila as an effective tool to unravel the molecular bases of photoreceptor pathogenesis. ..
  11. Mazzoni E, Celik A, Wernet M, Vasiliauskas D, Johnston R, Cook T, et al. Iroquois complex genes induce co-expression of rhodopsins in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e97 pubmed publisher
    ..The exclusive expression of one rhodopsin per photoreceptor is a widespread phenomenon, although exceptions exist...
  12. Yamaguchi S, Wolf R, Desplan C, Heisenberg M. Motion vision is independent of color in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:4910-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Under these conditions, mutant flies lacking functional rhodopsin in R1-R6 cells do not respond at all...
  13. Earl J, Britt S. Expression of Drosophila rhodopsins during photoreceptor cell differentiation: insights into R7 and R8 cell subtype commitment. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:687-94 pubmed
    ..1 has the earliest onset, followed by Rhodopsins 3, 4, and 5 at approximately the same time, and finally Rhodopsin 6. This sequence mimics the model for how R7 and R8 photoreceptor cells are specified, and defines the timing of ..
  14. Jukam D, Xie B, Rister J, TERRELL D, Charlton Perkins M, Pistillo D, et al. Opposite feedbacks in the Hippo pathway for growth control and neural fate. Science. 2013;342:1238016 pubmed publisher
    ..Altering feedback architecture provides an efficient mechanism to co-opt conserved signaling networks for diverse purposes in development and evolution. ..
  15. Pichaud F, Desplan C. A new visualization approach for identifying mutations that affect differentiation and organization of the Drosophila ommatidia. Development. 2001;128:815-26 pubmed
    ..We illustrate the power of this detection system using known genetic backgrounds and new mutations that affect ommatidial differentiation, morphology or chirality. ..
  16. Wernet M, Labhart T, Baumann F, Mazzoni E, Pichaud F, Desplan C. Homothorax switches function of Drosophila photoreceptors from color to polarized light sensors. Cell. 2003;115:267-79 pubmed
    ..Homothorax expression is induced by the iroquois complex and the wingless (wg) pathway. However, crucial wg pathway components are not required, suggesting that additional signals are involved. ..
  17. Mollereau B, Dominguez M, Webel R, Colley N, Keung B, de Celis J, et al. Two-step process for photoreceptor formation in Drosophila. Nature. 2001;412:911-3 pubmed
    ..Second, terminal differentiation is executed during pupal development and the photoreceptors adopt their final cellular properties. ..
  18. Mikeladze Dvali T, Wernet M, Pistillo D, Mazzoni E, Teleman A, Chen Y, et al. The growth regulators warts/lats and melted interact in a bistable loop to specify opposite fates in Drosophila R8 photoreceptors. Cell. 2005;122:775-87 pubmed
    ..This represents an unexpected postmitotic role for genes controlling cell proliferation (warts and its partner hippo and salvador) and cell growth (melted). ..
  19. Chou W, Huber A, Bentrop J, Schulz S, Schwab K, Chadwell L, et al. Patterning of the R7 and R8 photoreceptor cells of Drosophila: evidence for induced and default cell-fate specification. Development. 1999;126:607-16 pubmed
    ..We have found that the R8 cell specific Rh5 and Rh6 opsins are expressed in non-overlapping sets of R8 cells, in a precise pairwise fashion with Rh3 and Rh4 in the R7 ..
  20. Karuppudurai T, Lin T, Ting C, Pursley R, Melnattur K, Diao F, et al. A hard-wired glutamatergic circuit pools and relays UV signals to mediate spectral preference in Drosophila. Neuron. 2014;81:603-615 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that R7s→Dm8→Tm5c form a hard-wired glutamatergic circuit that mediates UV preference by pooling ∼16 R7 signals for transfer to the lobula, a higher visual center. ..
  21. Mazzoni E, Desplan C, Blau J. Circadian pacemaker neurons transmit and modulate visual information to control a rapid behavioral response. Neuron. 2005;45:293-300 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, as clock gene mutations also affect photophobicity, the pacemaker neurons modulate the sensitivity of larvae to light, generating a circadian rhythm in visual sensitivity...
  22. Papatsenko D, Nazina A, Desplan C. A conserved regulatory element present in all Drosophila rhodopsin genes mediates Pax6 functions and participates in the fine-tuning of cell-specific expression. Mech Dev. 2001;101:143-53 pubmed
    The Drosophila rhodopsin genes (rh's) represent a unique family of highly regulated cell-specific genes, where each member has its own expression pattern in the visual system...
  23. Johnston R, Otake Y, Sood P, Vogt N, Behnia R, Vasiliauskas D, et al. Interlocked feedforward loops control cell-type-specific Rhodopsin expression in the Drosophila eye. Cell. 2011;145:956-68 pubmed publisher
    ..for the transcription factor gene defective proventriculus (dve) as a critical node in the network regulating Rhodopsin expression. dve is a shared component of two opposing, interlocked feedforward loops (FFLs)...
  24. Keene A, Mazzoni E, Zhen J, Younger M, Yamaguchi S, Blau J, et al. Distinct visual pathways mediate Drosophila larval light avoidance and circadian clock entrainment. J Neurosci. 2011;31:6527-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Four PRs express blue-sensitive rhodopsin5 (rh5) and eight express green-sensitive rhodopsin6 (rh6)...
  25. Yuan Q, Xiang Y, Yan Z, Han C, Jan L, Jan Y. Light-induced structural and functional plasticity in Drosophila larval visual system. Science. 2011;333:1458-62 pubmed publisher
  26. Yasuyama K, Meinertzhagen I. Extraretinal photoreceptors at the compound eye's posterior margin in Drosophila melanogaster. J Comp Neurol. 1999;412:193-202 pubmed
    ..The rhabdomeres exhibit Rh6 opsin-like immunoreactivity, which provides evidence that the photoreceptors are functional: they fail to ..
  27. Tahayato A, Sonneville R, Pichaud F, Wernet M, Papatsenko D, Beaufils P, et al. Otd/Crx, a dual regulator for the specification of ommatidia subtypes in the Drosophila retina. Dev Cell. 2003;5:391-402 pubmed
    ..in the two classes of ommatidia depends on a series of highly conserved homeodomain binding sites present in the rhodopsin promoters...
  28. Salcedo E, Huber A, Henrich S, Chadwell L, Chou W, Paulsen R, et al. Blue- and green-absorbing visual pigments of Drosophila: ectopic expression and physiological characterization of the R8 photoreceptor cell-specific Rh5 and Rh6 rhodopsins. J Neurosci. 1999;19:10716-26 pubmed
    ..The Rh5 and Rh6 opsins are expressed in nonoverlapping sets of R8 cells and are the only Drosophila visual pigments that remain ..
  29. Bateman J, McNeill H. Seeing in color--warts and all. Dev Cell. 2005;9:441-2 pubmed
    ..show that cell fate decisions needed for color vision are dependent on a bistable negative feedback loop between genes previously implicated in cell proliferation (warts) and growth (melted). ..
  30. Sood P, Johnston R, Kussell E. Stochastic de-repression of Rhodopsins in single photoreceptors of the fly retina. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012;8:e1002357 pubmed publisher
    ..In wild type flies, most PRs express a single type of Rhodopsin (Rh): inner PRs express either Rh3, Rh4, Rh5 or Rh6 and outer PRs express Rh1...
  31. Schnaitmann C, Garbers C, Wachtler T, Tanimoto H. Color discrimination with broadband photoreceptors. Curr Biol. 2013;23:2375-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show that receptors with a complex and broad spectral sensitivity can contribute to color vision and reveal that chromatic and achromatic circuits in the fly share common photoreceptors. ..
  32. Xiang Y, Yuan Q, Vogt N, Looger L, Jan L, Jan Y. Light-avoidance-mediating photoreceptors tile the Drosophila larval body wall. Nature. 2010;468:921-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel photoreceptors use phototransduction machinery distinct from other photoreceptors in Drosophila and enable larvae to sense light exposure over their entire bodies and move out of danger. ..
  33. Chin A, Lin C, Fu T, Dickson B, Chiang A. Diversity and wiring variability of visual local neurons in the Drosophila medulla M6 stratum. J Comp Neurol. 2014;522:3795-816 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the Drosophila medulla M6 stratum contains diverse LNs that form repeating functional modules similar to those found in the vertebrate inner plexiform layer. ..
  34. Tong C, Ohyama T, Tien A, Rajan A, Haueter C, Bellen H. Rich regulates target specificity of photoreceptor cells and N-cadherin trafficking in the Drosophila visual system via Rab6. Neuron. 2011;71:447-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The active form of Rab6 strongly suppresses the rich synaptic specificity defect, indicating that Rab6 is regulated by Rich. We propose that Rich activates Rab6 to regulate N-Cadherin trafficking and affects synaptic specificity. ..
  35. Dolezelova E, Dolezel D, Hall J. Rhythm defects caused by newly engineered null mutations in Drosophila's cryptochrome gene. Genetics. 2007;177:329-45 pubmed
    ..Because some norpAP24 cry0 individuals can resynchronize to novel photic regimes, an as-yet undetermined light-input route exists in Drosophila. ..
  36. Szular J, Sehadova H, Gentile C, Szabo G, Chou W, Britt S, et al. Rhodopsin 5- and Rhodopsin 6-mediated clock synchronization in Drosophila melanogaster is independent of retinal phospholipase C-? signaling. J Biol Rhythms. 2012;27:25-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that 2 of the photopigments present in these photoreceptors, Rhodopsin 5 (Rh5) and Rhodopsin 6 (Rh6), contribute to light synchronization in a mutant (norpA(P41) ) that disrupts canonical ..
  37. Xu X, Choudhury A, Li X, Montell C. Coordination of an array of signaling proteins through homo- and heteromeric interactions between PDZ domains and target proteins. J Cell Biol. 1998;142:545-55 pubmed
    ..The INAD signaling complex also includes rhodopsin, protein kinase C (PKC), and calmodulin, though it is not known whether these proteins bind to INAD...
  38. Baumann O, Lutz K. Photoreceptor morphogenesis in the Drosophila compound eye: R1-R6 rhabdomeres become twisted just before eclosion. J Comp Neurol. 2006;498:68-79 pubmed
  39. Hassan J, Iyengar B, Scantlebury N, Rodriguez Moncalvo V, Campos A. Photic input pathways that mediate the Drosophila larval response to light and circadian rhythmicity are developmentally related but functionally distinct. J Comp Neurol. 2005;481:266-75 pubmed
    ..In this study we determined the requirement of specific rhodopsin-expressing photoreceptors including the presumptive H-B eyelet and pacemaker neurons in the larval locomotory ..
  40. Sokabe T, Chen H, Luo J, Montell C. A Switch in Thermal Preference in Drosophila Larvae Depends on Multiple Rhodopsins. Cell Rep. 2016;17:336-344 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations eliminating either of two rhodopsins, Rh5 and Rh6, wiped out these age-dependent changes in thermal preference...
  41. Voets T, Nilius B. TRPs make sense. J Membr Biol. 2003;192:1-8 pubmed
    ..In this review we discuss recent evidence that implicates members of the TRP superfamily in sensory signal transduction. ..
  42. Harteneck C. Proteins modulating TRP channel function. Cell Calcium. 2003;33:303-10 pubmed
    ..The prototype of calcium-binding protein used for experiments is calmodulin; whether or not calmodulin is also the natural interaction partner of TRP channels is an open question. ..
  43. Farca Luna A, Sprecher S. Plasticity in the Drosophila larval visual system. Front Cell Neurosci. 2013;7:105 pubmed publisher
    ..We review here recent progress on the genetic basis of neuronal plasticity in developing and functioning neural circuits focusing on the simple visual system of the Drosophila larva. ..
  44. Hakeda Suzuki S, Suzuki T. Cell surface control of the layer specific targeting in the Drosophila visual system. Genes Genet Syst. 2014;89:9-15 pubmed
    ..Fundamental and comprehensive understanding of the crosstalk of growing axons and target regions in the Drosophila optic lobe will elucidate the general principles applicable to more complex nervous systems. ..
  45. Schlichting M, Grebler R, Peschel N, Yoshii T, Helfrich Forster C. Moonlight detection by Drosophila's endogenous clock depends on multiple photopigments in the compound eyes. J Biol Rhythms. 2014;29:75-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The increase in relative nocturnal activity in response to moonlight is mainly mediated by the rhodopsin 6-expressing inner photoreceptor cell R8 together with the rhodopsin 1-expressing outer receptor cells (R1-R6), ..
  46. Bernardo Garcia F, Fritsch C, Sprecher S. The transcription factor Glass links eye field specification with photoreceptor differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 2016;143:1413-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results provide a transcriptional link between eye field specification and photoreceptor differentiation in Drosophila, placing Glass at a central position in this developmental process. ..
  47. Rodriguez Moncalvo V, Campos A. Genetic dissection of trophic interactions in the larval optic neuropil of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2005;286:549-58 pubmed
    ..visual system of Drosophila melanogaster consists of two bilateral clusters of 12 photoreceptors, which express Rhodopsin 5 and 6 (Rh5 and Rh6) in a non-overlapping manner...
  48. Wernet M, Meier K, Baumann Klausener F, Dorfman R, Weihe U, Labhart T, et al. Genetic dissection of photoreceptor subtype specification by the Drosophila melanogaster zinc finger proteins elbow and no ocelli. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004210 pubmed publisher
    ..that Elb/Noc specifically interact with the transcription factor Orthodenticle (Otd)/Otx, a crucial regulator of rhodopsin gene transcription...
  49. Jagadish S, Barnea G, Clandinin T, Axel R. Identifying functional connections of the inner photoreceptors in Drosophila using Tango-Trace. Neuron. 2014;83:630-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the Tango-Trace strategy we used may be applied more generally to identify neural circuits in the fly brain. ..
  50. Posnien N, Hopfen C, Hilbrant M, Ramos Womack M, Murat S, Schönauer A, et al. Evolution of eye morphology and rhodopsin expression in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37346 pubmed publisher
    ..cells that facilitate the discrimination of different colours via the expression of various light sensitive Rhodopsin proteins...
  51. Murali T, Pacifico S, Finley R. Integrating the interactome and the transcriptome of Drosophila. BMC Bioinformatics. 2014;15:177 pubmed publisher
    ..This organization implies that tissue or stage specific networks can be best identified from interactome data by using filters designed to include both ubiquitously expressed and specifically expressed genes and proteins. ..
  52. Mishra A, Tsachaki M, Rister J, Ng J, Celik A, Sprecher S. Binary cell fate decisions and fate transformation in the Drosophila larval eye. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1004027 pubmed publisher
    ..PRs) make a binary choice to express either the blue-sensitive Rhodopsin 5 (Rh5) or the green-sensitive Rhodopsin 6 (Rh6)...
  53. Massouras A, Waszak S, Albarca Aguilera M, Hens K, Holcombe W, Ayroles J, et al. Genomic variation and its impact on gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003055 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we performed RNA-seq-based allelic expression imbalance analyses in the offspring of crosses between sequenced lines, which revealed that the majority of strong cis-eQTLs can be validated in heterozygous individuals. ..
  54. Freeman M. Eye development: stable cell fate decisions in insect colour vision. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R924-6 pubmed
    ..A recent paper reports a double negative feedback loop that leads to bistable fate decisions in the colour-detecting photoreceptors of Drosophila. ..
  55. Zhu Y. The Drosophila visual system: From neural circuits to behavior. Cell Adh Migr. 2013;7:333-44 pubmed publisher
  56. Cook T. Cell diversity in the retina: more than meets the eye. Bioessays. 2003;25:921-5 pubmed
    ..As Prospero, the Drosophila homolog of Prox1, also participates in retinal cell specification, these data provide a forum for asking new questions concerning pathways that may regulate retinogenesis across evolution. ..
  57. Klarsfeld A, Picot M, Vias C, Chélot E, Rouyer F. Identifying specific light inputs for each subgroup of brain clock neurons in Drosophila larvae. J Neurosci. 2011;31:17406-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The larval visual organ expresses only two rhodopsins (RH5 and RH6) and projects onto the LNs...
  58. BIRKHOLZ D, Chou W, Phistry M, Britt S. rhomboid mediates specification of blue- and green-sensitive R8 photoreceptor cells in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2009;29:2666-75 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that rhomboid may function in R8 cells to activate Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in R7 cells and promote their differentiation to a signaling competent state. ..
  59. Pichaud F, Briscoe A, Desplan C. Evolution of color vision. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1999;9:622-7 pubmed
    ..Interesting new findings suggest that animals have evolved a strategy to achieve specific sensitivity through the mutually exclusive expression of different opsin genes in photoreceptors. ..
  60. Miller A, Seymour H, King C, Herman T. Loss of seven-up from Drosophila R1/R6 photoreceptors reveals a stochastic fate choice that is normally biased by Notch. Development. 2008;135:707-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that N specifies the R7 fate by a novel branched pathway: N represses Svp expression, thereby exposing an underlying stochastic choice between the R7 and R8 fates, and then tips this choice towards the R7 fate. ..
  61. Zhou Y, Ji X, Gong H, Gong Z, Liu L. Edge detection depends on achromatic channel in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 2012;215:3478-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, ectopic expression of rhodopsin 4 (Rh4), Rh5 or Rh6 could efficiently restore the edge-orientation defect in the ninaE(17) mutant...
  62. D Costa A, Moses K. Looking up: regional patterning in the fly eye. Dev Cell. 2003;5:665-6 pubmed
    ..Two new papers show that this domain is controlled by graded Wingless signals acting through the homeodomain transcription factor Homothorax. ..
  63. Bazigou E, Apitz H, Johansson J, Lorén C, Hirst E, Chen P, et al. Anterograde Jelly belly and Alk receptor tyrosine kinase signaling mediates retinal axon targeting in Drosophila. Cell. 2007;128:961-75 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings suggest that Jeb/Alk signaling helps R-cell axons to shape their environment for target recognition. ..
  64. Schlichting M, Grebler R, Menegazzi P, Helfrich Förster C. Twilight dominates over moonlight in adjusting Drosophila's activity pattern. J Biol Rhythms. 2015;30:117-28 pubmed publisher
    ..To adjust nocturnal activity levels to a wild-type manner, all photoreceptor cells work together in a complex way, with rhodopsin 6 having a prominent role.
  65. Townson S, Chang B, Salcedo E, Chadwell L, Pierce N, Britt S. Honeybee blue- and ultraviolet-sensitive opsins: cloning, heterologous expression in Drosophila, and physiological characterization. J Neurosci. 1998;18:2412-22 pubmed