Gene Symbol: Rh5
Description: Rhodopsin 5
Alias: CG5279, DMELRH5, Dm Rh5, Dmel\CG5279, RH5, rh5, rhodopsin 5, CG5279-PA, CG5279-PB, Rh5-PA, Rh5-PB, Rhodopsin5, rhodopsin, rhodopsin-5
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Earl J, Britt S. Expression of Drosophila rhodopsins during photoreceptor cell differentiation: insights into R7 and R8 cell subtype commitment. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:687-94 pubmed
    ..We examined the onset of expression of the rhodopsin genes to determine the latest time point by which photoreceptor subtype commitment must have occurred...
  2. Johnston R, Otake Y, Sood P, Vogt N, Behnia R, Vasiliauskas D, et al. Interlocked feedforward loops control cell-type-specific Rhodopsin expression in the Drosophila eye. Cell. 2011;145:956-68 pubmed publisher
    ..for the transcription factor gene defective proventriculus (dve) as a critical node in the network regulating Rhodopsin expression. dve is a shared component of two opposing, interlocked feedforward loops (FFLs)...
  3. Sprecher S, Pichaud F, Desplan C. Adult and larval photoreceptors use different mechanisms to specify the same Rhodopsin fates. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2182-95 pubmed
    ..We show here that the larval eye is composed of 12 PRs, four of which express blue-sensitive rhodopsin5 (rh5) while the other eight contain green-sensitive rh6...
  4. Mishra M, Oke A, Lebel C, McDonald E, Plummer Z, Cook T, et al. Pph13 and orthodenticle define a dual regulatory pathway for photoreceptor cell morphogenesis and function. Development. 2010;137:2895-904 pubmed publisher
    ..Rh2 and Rh6, and other phototransduction genes, demonstrating that Pph13 and Otd control a distinct subset of Rhodopsin-encoding genes in adult visual systems...
  5. Vasiliauskas D, Mazzoni E, Sprecher S, Brodetskiy K, Johnston R, Lidder P, et al. Feedback from rhodopsin controls rhodopsin exclusion in Drosophila photoreceptors. Nature. 2011;479:108-12 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that the green-light sensing receptor rhodopsin 6 (Rh6) acts to exclude an alternative blue-sensitive rhodopsin 5 (Rh5) from a subset of Drosophila R8 photoreceptor neurons...
  6. Wardill T, List O, Li X, Dongre S, McCulloch M, Ting C, et al. Multiple spectral inputs improve motion discrimination in the Drosophila visual system. Science. 2012;336:925-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that inputs from photoreceptors of different spectral sensitivities improve motion discrimination, increasing robustness of perception. ..
  7. Wernet M, VELEZ M, Clark D, Baumann Klausener F, Brown J, Klovstad M, et al. Genetic dissection reveals two separate retinal substrates for polarization vision in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2012;22:12-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This work establishes a behavioral paradigm that will enable genetic dissection of the circuits underlying polarization vision. ..
  8. TERRELL D, Xie B, Workman M, Mahato S, Zelhof A, Gebelein B, et al. OTX2 and CRX rescue overlapping and photoreceptor-specific functions in the Drosophila eye. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:215-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings have important implications for understanding how Otx proteins have subfunctionalized during evolution, and cement Drosophila as an effective tool to unravel the molecular bases of photoreceptor pathogenesis. ..
  9. Yamaguchi S, Wolf R, Desplan C, Heisenberg M. Motion vision is independent of color in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:4910-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Under these conditions, mutant flies lacking functional rhodopsin in R1-R6 cells do not respond at all...

More Information


  1. Yuan Q, Xiang Y, Yan Z, Han C, Jan L, Jan Y. Light-induced structural and functional plasticity in Drosophila larval visual system. Science. 2011;333:1458-62 pubmed publisher
  2. Sprecher S, Cardona A, Hartenstein V. The Drosophila larval visual system: high-resolution analysis of a simple visual neuropil. Dev Biol. 2011;358:33-43 pubmed publisher
    ..larval optic neuropil, LON) that consists of 12 PRs falling into two classes: blue-senstive PRs expressing Rhodopsin 5 (Rh5) and green-sensitive PRs expressing Rhodopsin 6 (Rh6)...
  3. Mazzoni E, Desplan C, Blau J. Circadian pacemaker neurons transmit and modulate visual information to control a rapid behavioral response. Neuron. 2005;45:293-300 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, as clock gene mutations also affect photophobicity, the pacemaker neurons modulate the sensitivity of larvae to light, generating a circadian rhythm in visual sensitivity...
  4. Salcedo E, Huber A, Henrich S, Chadwell L, Chou W, Paulsen R, et al. Blue- and green-absorbing visual pigments of Drosophila: ectopic expression and physiological characterization of the R8 photoreceptor cell-specific Rh5 and Rh6 rhodopsins. J Neurosci. 1999;19:10716-26 pubmed
    ..The Rh5 and Rh6 opsins are expressed in nonoverlapping sets of R8 cells and are the only Drosophila visual pigments that ..
  5. Yamaguchi S, Desplan C, Heisenberg M. Contribution of photoreceptor subtypes to spectral wavelength preference in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:5634-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Involvement of all photoreceptors [R1-R6, R7, R8 (blue), R8 (green)] distinguishes phototaxis from motion detection that is mediated exclusively by R1-R6. ..
  6. Wernet M, Labhart T, Baumann F, Mazzoni E, Pichaud F, Desplan C. Homothorax switches function of Drosophila photoreceptors from color to polarized light sensors. Cell. 2003;115:267-79 pubmed
    ..Homothorax expression is induced by the iroquois complex and the wingless (wg) pathway. However, crucial wg pathway components are not required, suggesting that additional signals are involved. ..
  7. Domingos P, Brown S, Barrio R, Ratnakumar K, Frankfort B, Mardon G, et al. Regulation of R7 and R8 differentiation by the spalt genes. Dev Biol. 2004;273:121-33 pubmed
    ..Final photoreceptor differentiation, including rhabdomere formation and rhodopsin expression, is completed during pupal life...
  8. Jukam D, Xie B, Rister J, TERRELL D, Charlton Perkins M, Pistillo D, et al. Opposite feedbacks in the Hippo pathway for growth control and neural fate. Science. 2013;342:1238016 pubmed publisher
    ..Altering feedback architecture provides an efficient mechanism to co-opt conserved signaling networks for diverse purposes in development and evolution. ..
  9. Xie B, Charlton Perkins M, McDonald E, Gebelein B, Cook T. Senseless functions as a molecular switch for color photoreceptor differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 2007;134:4243-53 pubmed
    ..and Sens function together with the transcription factor Orthodenticle (Otd) to oppositely regulate R7 and R8 PR Rhodopsin gene expression in vitro...
  10. Shen W, Kwon Y, Adegbola A, Luo J, Chess A, Montell C. Function of rhodopsin in temperature discrimination in Drosophila. Science. 2011;331:1333-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that mutation of the gene (ninaE) encoding a classical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), Drosophila rhodopsin, eliminates thermotactic discrimination in the comfortable temperature range...
  11. Cook T, Pichaud F, Sonneville R, Papatsenko D, Desplan C. Distinction between color photoreceptor cell fates is controlled by Prospero in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2003;4:853-64 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, this study provides transcriptional targets for pros that may lend insight into its role in regulating neuronal development in flies and vertebrates. ..
  12. Wernet M, Desplan C. Building a retinal mosaic: cell-fate decision in the fly eye. Trends Cell Biol. 2004;14:576-84 pubmed
    ..Notably, several of the factors used in generating the retinal mosaic of the fruitfly have corresponding functions in vertebrates that are likely to have similar roles. ..
  13. Mikeladze Dvali T, Wernet M, Pistillo D, Mazzoni E, Teleman A, Chen Y, et al. The growth regulators warts/lats and melted interact in a bistable loop to specify opposite fates in Drosophila R8 photoreceptors. Cell. 2005;122:775-87 pubmed
    ..This represents an unexpected postmitotic role for genes controlling cell proliferation (warts and its partner hippo and salvador) and cell growth (melted). ..
  14. Sprecher S, Desplan C. Switch of rhodopsin expression in terminally differentiated Drosophila sensory neurons. Nature. 2008;454:533-7 pubmed publisher
    ..organ) is composed of about 12 photoreceptors, eight of which are green-sensitive (Rh6) and four blue-sensitive (Rh5). The larval eye becomes the adult extraretinal 'eyelet' composed of four green-sensitive (Rh6) photoreceptors...
  15. Mazzoni E, Celik A, Wernet M, Vasiliauskas D, Johnston R, Cook T, et al. Iroquois complex genes induce co-expression of rhodopsins in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e97 pubmed publisher
    ..The exclusive expression of one rhodopsin per photoreceptor is a widespread phenomenon, although exceptions exist...
  16. Chou W, Hall K, Wilson D, Wideman C, Townson S, Chadwell L, et al. Identification of a novel Drosophila opsin reveals specific patterning of the R7 and R8 photoreceptor cells. Neuron. 1996;17:1101-15 pubmed
    ..b>Rh5 is a novel Drosophila opsin gene that encodes a biologically active visual pigment that is expressed in a subset of ..
  17. Tahayato A, Sonneville R, Pichaud F, Wernet M, Papatsenko D, Beaufils P, et al. Otd/Crx, a dual regulator for the specification of ommatidia subtypes in the Drosophila retina. Dev Cell. 2003;5:391-402 pubmed
    ..in the two classes of ommatidia depends on a series of highly conserved homeodomain binding sites present in the rhodopsin promoters...
  18. Chou W, Huber A, Bentrop J, Schulz S, Schwab K, Chadwell L, et al. Patterning of the R7 and R8 photoreceptor cells of Drosophila: evidence for induced and default cell-fate specification. Development. 1999;126:607-16 pubmed
    ..We have found that the R8 cell specific Rh5 and Rh6 opsins are expressed in non-overlapping sets of R8 cells, in a precise pairwise fashion with Rh3 and Rh4 in ..
  19. Yasuyama K, Meinertzhagen I. Extraretinal photoreceptors at the compound eye's posterior margin in Drosophila melanogaster. J Comp Neurol. 1999;412:193-202 pubmed
    ..that the photoreceptors are functional: they fail to immunostain with antibodies against NINAE (Rh1), Rh4, or Rh5. The photoreceptors have been shown previously to exhibit histamine-like immunoreactivity, but they also stain with ..
  20. Pichaud F, Desplan C. A new visualization approach for identifying mutations that affect differentiation and organization of the Drosophila ommatidia. Development. 2001;128:815-26 pubmed
    ..We illustrate the power of this detection system using known genetic backgrounds and new mutations that affect ommatidial differentiation, morphology or chirality. ..
  21. Keene A, Mazzoni E, Zhen J, Younger M, Yamaguchi S, Blau J, et al. Distinct visual pathways mediate Drosophila larval light avoidance and circadian clock entrainment. J Neurosci. 2011;31:6527-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Four PRs express blue-sensitive rhodopsin5 (rh5) and eight express green-sensitive rhodopsin6 (rh6)...
  22. Wernet M, Mazzoni E, Celik A, Duncan D, Duncan I, Desplan C. Stochastic spineless expression creates the retinal mosaic for colour vision. Nature. 2006;440:174-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The fly retina contains two types of ommatidia, called 'pale' and 'yellow', defined by different rhodopsin pairs expressed in R7 and R8 cells...
  23. McDonald E, Xie B, Workman M, Charlton Perkins M, Terrell D, Reischl J, et al. Separable transcriptional regulatory domains within Otd control photoreceptor terminal differentiation events. Dev Biol. 2010;347:122-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In the fly retina, Otd controls rhabdomere morphogenesis of all photoreceptors and regulates distinct Rhodopsin-encoding genes in a photoreceptor subtype-specific manner...
  24. Papatsenko D, Nazina A, Desplan C. A conserved regulatory element present in all Drosophila rhodopsin genes mediates Pax6 functions and participates in the fine-tuning of cell-specific expression. Mech Dev. 2001;101:143-53 pubmed
    The Drosophila rhodopsin genes (rh's) represent a unique family of highly regulated cell-specific genes, where each member has its own expression pattern in the visual system...
  25. Papatsenko D, Sheng G, Desplan C. A new rhodopsin in R8 photoreceptors of Drosophila: evidence for coordinate expression with Rh3 in R7 cells. Development. 1997;124:1665-73 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe the identification of a new opsin gene, rhodopsin 5, expressed in one subclass of R8 cells...
  26. Hardie R, Raghu P. Visual transduction in Drosophila. Nature. 2001;413:186-93 pubmed
    ..Analysis in Drosophila has revealed many of the underlying molecular strategies, leading to the discovery and characterization of signalling molecules of widespread importance. ..
  27. Kaul A, Schuster E, Jennings B. The Groucho co-repressor is primarily recruited to local target sites in active chromatin to attenuate transcription. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004595 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that Gro is recruited to local sites by transcription factors to attenuate rather than silence gene expression by promoting histone deacetylation and polymerase pausing. ..
  28. Hassan J, Iyengar B, Scantlebury N, Rodriguez Moncalvo V, Campos A. Photic input pathways that mediate the Drosophila larval response to light and circadian rhythmicity are developmentally related but functionally distinct. J Comp Neurol. 2005;481:266-75 pubmed
    ..In this study we determined the requirement of specific rhodopsin-expressing photoreceptors including the presumptive H-B eyelet and pacemaker neurons in the larval locomotory ..
  29. Bernardo Garcia F, Fritsch C, Sprecher S. The transcription factor Glass links eye field specification with photoreceptor differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 2016;143:1413-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results provide a transcriptional link between eye field specification and photoreceptor differentiation in Drosophila, placing Glass at a central position in this developmental process. ..
  30. Rodriguez Moncalvo V, Campos A. Genetic dissection of trophic interactions in the larval optic neuropil of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2005;286:549-58 pubmed
    ..visual system of Drosophila melanogaster consists of two bilateral clusters of 12 photoreceptors, which express Rhodopsin 5 and 6 (Rh5 and Rh6) in a non-overlapping manner...
  31. BIRKHOLZ D, Chou W, Phistry M, Britt S. Disruption of photoreceptor cell patterning in the Drosophila Scutoid mutant. Fly (Austin). 2009;3:253-62 pubmed
    ..R8 cell patterning in Scutoid mutants that is due to inappropriate signals from Rh4-expressing R7 cells inducing Rh5 expression in adjacent R8 cells...
  32. Hakeda Suzuki S, Suzuki T. Cell surface control of the layer specific targeting in the Drosophila visual system. Genes Genet Syst. 2014;89:9-15 pubmed
    ..Fundamental and comprehensive understanding of the crosstalk of growing axons and target regions in the Drosophila optic lobe will elucidate the general principles applicable to more complex nervous systems. ..
  33. Liu J, Gong Z, Liu L. ?-glutamyl transpeptidase 1 specifically suppresses green-light avoidance via GABAA receptors in Drosophila. J Neurochem. 2014;130:408-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms mediating green-light avoidance, which was inhibited in wild-type larvae. ..
  34. Hilbrant M, Almudi I, Leite D, Kuncheria L, Posnien N, Nunes M, et al. Sexual dimorphism and natural variation within and among species in the Drosophila retinal mosaic. BMC Evol Biol. 2014;14:240 pubmed publisher
    ..which contain photoreceptor cells that are sensitive to different wavelengths of light defined by the specific rhodopsin proteins that they express...
  35. Zhu Y. The Drosophila visual system: From neural circuits to behavior. Cell Adh Migr. 2013;7:333-44 pubmed publisher
  36. Schlichting M, Grebler R, Peschel N, Yoshii T, Helfrich Forster C. Moonlight detection by Drosophila's endogenous clock depends on multiple photopigments in the compound eyes. J Biol Rhythms. 2014;29:75-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The increase in relative nocturnal activity in response to moonlight is mainly mediated by the rhodopsin 6-expressing inner photoreceptor cell R8 together with the rhodopsin 1-expressing outer receptor cells (R1-R6), ..
  37. Mishra A, Tsachaki M, Rister J, Ng J, Celik A, Sprecher S. Binary cell fate decisions and fate transformation in the Drosophila larval eye. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1004027 pubmed publisher
    ..Drosophila larval eye, photoreceptor neurons (PRs) make a binary choice to express either the blue-sensitive Rhodopsin 5 (Rh5) or the green-sensitive Rhodopsin 6 (Rh6)...
  38. Pichaud F, Briscoe A, Desplan C. Evolution of color vision. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1999;9:622-7 pubmed
    ..Interesting new findings suggest that animals have evolved a strategy to achieve specific sensitivity through the mutually exclusive expression of different opsin genes in photoreceptors. ..
  39. Friedrich M. Continuity versus split and reconstitution: exploring the molecular developmental corollaries of insect eye primordium evolution. Dev Biol. 2006;299:310-29 pubmed
  40. Wernet M, Meier K, Baumann Klausener F, Dorfman R, Weihe U, Labhart T, et al. Genetic dissection of photoreceptor subtype specification by the Drosophila melanogaster zinc finger proteins elbow and no ocelli. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004210 pubmed publisher
    ..that Elb/Noc specifically interact with the transcription factor Orthodenticle (Otd)/Otx, a crucial regulator of rhodopsin gene transcription...
  41. Zhou Y, Ji X, Gong H, Gong Z, Liu L. Edge detection depends on achromatic channel in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 2012;215:3478-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, ectopic expression of rhodopsin 4 (Rh4), Rh5 or Rh6 could efficiently restore the edge-orientation defect in the ninaE(17) mutant...
  42. Yamanaka N, Romero N, Martín F, Rewitz K, Sun M, O Connor M, et al. Neuroendocrine control of Drosophila larval light preference. Science. 2013;341:1113-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PTTH controls the decisions of when and where animals undergo metamorphosis, optimizing conditions for adult development. ..
  43. Bateman J, McNeill H. Seeing in color--warts and all. Dev Cell. 2005;9:441-2 pubmed
    ..show that cell fate decisions needed for color vision are dependent on a bistable negative feedback loop between genes previously implicated in cell proliferation (warts) and growth (melted). ..
  44. Edgar B. From cell structure to transcription: Hippo forges a new path. Cell. 2006;124:267-73 pubmed
    ..This conserved signaling pathway contains several tumor-suppressor genes and regulates the contact inhibition of proliferation in cultured cells. ..
  45. Rosenbaum E, Hardie R, Colley N. Calnexin is essential for rhodopsin maturation, Ca2+ regulation, and photoreceptor cell survival. Neuron. 2006;49:229-41 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate a multifunctional role for calnexin as both a molecular chaperone uniquely required for rhodopsin maturation and a regulator of Ca2+ that enters photoreceptor cells during light stimulation...
  46. D Costa A, Moses K. Looking up: regional patterning in the fly eye. Dev Cell. 2003;5:665-6 pubmed
    ..Two new papers show that this domain is controlled by graded Wingless signals acting through the homeodomain transcription factor Homothorax. ..
  47. Townson S, Chang B, Salcedo E, Chadwell L, Pierce N, Britt S. Honeybee blue- and ultraviolet-sensitive opsins: cloning, heterologous expression in Drosophila, and physiological characterization. J Neurosci. 1998;18:2412-22 pubmed
  48. Mishra A, Bargmann B, Tsachaki M, Fritsch C, Sprecher S. Functional genomics identifies regulators of the phototransduction machinery in the Drosophila larval eye and adult ocelli. Dev Biol. 2016;410:164-177 pubmed publisher
    ..During development all PRs are genetically determined to express a specific Rhodopsin (Rh) gene and genes mediating a functional phototransduction pathway...
  49. Kunduri G, Yuan C, Parthibane V, Nyswaner K, Kanwar R, Nagashima K, et al. Phosphatidic acid phospholipase A1 mediates ER-Golgi transit of a family of G protein-coupled receptors. J Cell Biol. 2014;206:79-95 pubmed publisher
    ..phospholipase A1 (PAPLA1) interacts with COPII protein family members and is required for the transport of Rh1 (rhodopsin 1), an N-glycosylated G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), from the ER to the Golgi complex...
  50. Sokabe T, Chen H, Luo J, Montell C. A Switch in Thermal Preference in Drosophila Larvae Depends on Multiple Rhodopsins. Cell Rep. 2016;17:336-344 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations eliminating either of two rhodopsins, Rh5 and Rh6, wiped out these age-dependent changes in thermal preference...
  51. Klarsfeld A, Picot M, Vias C, Chélot E, Rouyer F. Identifying specific light inputs for each subgroup of brain clock neurons in Drosophila larvae. J Neurosci. 2011;31:17406-15 pubmed publisher
    ..CRY is present only in the PDF-expressing LNs and the DN1s. The larval visual organ expresses only two rhodopsins (RH5 and RH6) and projects onto the LNs...
  52. Hanai S, Ishida N. Entrainment of Drosophila circadian clock to green and yellow light by Rh1, Rh5, Rh6 and CRY. Neuroreport. 2009;20:755-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We generated Rh5 mutants to elucidate circadian photoreception by rhodopsins...
  53. Landry C, Castillo Davis C, Ogura A, Liu J, Hartl D. Systems-level analysis and evolution of the phototransduction network in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3283-8 pubmed
    ..These results provide a preliminary quantification of variation and divergence of gene expression between species in a known gene network and provide a foundation for a system-level understanding of functional and evolutionary change. ..
  54. Salcedo E, Zheng L, Phistry M, Bagg E, Britt S. Molecular basis for ultraviolet vision in invertebrates. J Neurosci. 2003;23:10873-8 pubmed
    ..UV: lysine vs blue:asparagine or glutamate) corresponds to amino acid position glycine 90 (G90) in bovine rhodopsin, a site affected in autosomal dominant human congenital night blindness...
  55. Hsiao H, Johnston R, Jukam D, Vasiliauskas D, Desplan C, Rister J. Dissection and immunohistochemistry of larval, pupal and adult Drosophila retinas. J Vis Exp. 2012;:4347 pubmed publisher
    ..express different combinations of Rhs in two main subtypes: In the 'p' subtype, Rh3 in pR7s is coupled with Rh5 in pR8s, whereas in the 'y' subtype, Rh4 in yR7s is associated with Rh6 in yR8s...
  56. Xiang Y, Yuan Q, Vogt N, Looger L, Jan L, Jan Y. Light-avoidance-mediating photoreceptors tile the Drosophila larval body wall. Nature. 2010;468:921-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel photoreceptors use phototransduction machinery distinct from other photoreceptors in Drosophila and enable larvae to sense light exposure over their entire bodies and move out of danger. ..
  57. Murali T, Pacifico S, Finley R. Integrating the interactome and the transcriptome of Drosophila. BMC Bioinformatics. 2014;15:177 pubmed publisher
    ..This organization implies that tissue or stage specific networks can be best identified from interactome data by using filters designed to include both ubiquitously expressed and specifically expressed genes and proteins. ..
  58. Collins B, Dissel S, Gaten E, Rosato E, Kyriacou C. Disruption of Cryptochrome partially restores circadian rhythmicity to the arrhythmic period mutant of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:19021-6 pubmed
    ..Although we do not yet have a molecular correlate for these apparently iconoclastic observations, we provide a systems explanation for these results based on differential sensitivities of subsets of circadian pacemaker neurons to light. ..
  59. Edwards T, Meinertzhagen I. Photoreceptor neurons find new synaptic targets when misdirected by overexpressing runt in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2009;29:828-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This uniformity indicates the cell-autonomous determination of the architecture of its synaptic organelles by the presynaptic photoreceptor terminal. ..
  60. Ting C, Yonekura S, Chung P, Hsu S, Robertson H, Chiba A, et al. Drosophila N-cadherin functions in the first stage of the two-stage layer-selection process of R7 photoreceptor afferents. Development. 2005;132:953-63 pubmed
    ..We propose that Ncad isoforms do not form an adhesion code; rather, they provide permissive adhesion between R7 growth cones and their temporary targets. ..
  61. Schlichting M, Grebler R, Menegazzi P, Helfrich Förster C. Twilight dominates over moonlight in adjusting Drosophila's activity pattern. J Biol Rhythms. 2015;30:117-28 pubmed publisher
    ..To adjust nocturnal activity levels to a wild-type manner, all photoreceptor cells work together in a complex way, with rhodopsin 6 having a prominent role.
  62. Pool J. The Mosaic Ancestry of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel and the D. melanogaster Reference Genome Reveals a Network of Epistatic Fitness Interactions. Mol Biol Evol. 2015;32:3236-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that admixed D. melanogaster samples could become an important study system for the genetics of early-stage isolation between populations. ..
  63. Voets T, Nilius B. TRPs make sense. J Membr Biol. 2003;192:1-8 pubmed
    ..In this review we discuss recent evidence that implicates members of the TRP superfamily in sensory signal transduction. ..
  64. Posnien N, Hopfen C, Hilbrant M, Ramos Womack M, Murat S, Schönauer A, et al. Evolution of eye morphology and rhodopsin expression in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37346 pubmed publisher
    ..cells that facilitate the discrimination of different colours via the expression of various light sensitive Rhodopsin proteins...
  65. Cook T. Cell diversity in the retina: more than meets the eye. Bioessays. 2003;25:921-5 pubmed
    ..As Prospero, the Drosophila homolog of Prox1, also participates in retinal cell specification, these data provide a forum for asking new questions concerning pathways that may regulate retinogenesis across evolution. ..