Gene Symbol: Rh4
Description: Rhodopsin 4
Alias: CG9668, DMELRH4, Dm Rh4, Dmel\CG9668, FBgn0003250, RH4, rh4, rhodopsin 4, CG9668-PA, Rh4-PA, Rhodopsin4, rhodopsin
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Hardie R, Raghu P. Visual transduction in Drosophila. Nature. 2001;413:186-93 pubmed
    ..Analysis in Drosophila has revealed many of the underlying molecular strategies, leading to the discovery and characterization of signalling molecules of widespread importance. ..
  2. Earl J, Britt S. Expression of Drosophila rhodopsins during photoreceptor cell differentiation: insights into R7 and R8 cell subtype commitment. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:687-94 pubmed
    ..We examined the onset of expression of the rhodopsin genes to determine the latest time point by which photoreceptor subtype commitment must have occurred...
  3. Sarfare S, Ahmad S, Joyce M, Boggess B, O Tousa J. The Drosophila ninaG oxidoreductase acts in visual pigment chromophore production. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:11895-901 pubmed
    The Drosophila ninaG mutant is characterized by low levels of Rh1 rhodopsin, because of the inability to transport this rhodopsin from the endoplasmic reticulum to the rhabdomere...
  4. Domingos P, Brown S, Barrio R, Ratnakumar K, Frankfort B, Mardon G, et al. Regulation of R7 and R8 differentiation by the spalt genes. Dev Biol. 2004;273:121-33 pubmed
    ..Final photoreceptor differentiation, including rhabdomere formation and rhodopsin expression, is completed during pupal life...
  5. Wernet M, VELEZ M, Clark D, Baumann Klausener F, Brown J, Klovstad M, et al. Genetic dissection reveals two separate retinal substrates for polarization vision in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2012;22:12-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This work establishes a behavioral paradigm that will enable genetic dissection of the circuits underlying polarization vision. ..
  6. Feiler R, Bjornson R, Kirschfeld K, Mismer D, Rubin G, Smith D, et al. Ectopic expression of ultraviolet-rhodopsins in the blue photoreceptor cells of Drosophila: visual physiology and photochemistry of transgenic animals. J Neurosci. 1992;12:3862-8 pubmed
    ..We show that the Rh3 and Rh4 opsin genes encode UV-sensitive opsins with similar spectral properties (lambda max = 345 nm and 375 nm), and that ..
  7. Johnston R, Otake Y, Sood P, Vogt N, Behnia R, Vasiliauskas D, et al. Interlocked feedforward loops control cell-type-specific Rhodopsin expression in the Drosophila eye. Cell. 2011;145:956-68 pubmed publisher
    ..for the transcription factor gene defective proventriculus (dve) as a critical node in the network regulating Rhodopsin expression. dve is a shared component of two opposing, interlocked feedforward loops (FFLs)...
  8. Sprecher S, Pichaud F, Desplan C. Adult and larval photoreceptors use different mechanisms to specify the same Rhodopsin fates. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2182-95 pubmed
    ..Therefore, even though the larval PRs and adult R8 PRs express the same rhodopsins (rh5 and rh6), they use very distinct mechanisms for their specification. ..
  9. Wang T, Montell C. Rhodopsin formation in Drosophila is dependent on the PINTA retinoid-binding protein. J Neurosci. 2005;25:5187-94 pubmed
    ..In a genetic screen for mutations that affect the biosynthesis of rhodopsin, we identified a novel CRAL-TRIO domain protein, prolonged depolarization afterpotential is not apparent (PINTA),..

More Information


  1. Papatsenko D, Sheng G, Desplan C. A new rhodopsin in R8 photoreceptors of Drosophila: evidence for coordinate expression with Rh3 in R7 cells. Development. 1997;124:1665-73 pubmed
    ..All cells of the primary system, R1-R6, express the same rhodopsin and are functionally identical. In contrast, the R7 and R8 photoreceptors are different from each other...
  2. Xie B, Charlton Perkins M, McDonald E, Gebelein B, Cook T. Senseless functions as a molecular switch for color photoreceptor differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 2007;134:4243-53 pubmed
    ..and Sens function together with the transcription factor Orthodenticle (Otd) to oppositely regulate R7 and R8 PR Rhodopsin gene expression in vitro...
  3. Wernet M, Labhart T, Baumann F, Mazzoni E, Pichaud F, Desplan C. Homothorax switches function of Drosophila photoreceptors from color to polarized light sensors. Cell. 2003;115:267-79 pubmed
    ..Homothorax expression is induced by the iroquois complex and the wingless (wg) pathway. However, crucial wg pathway components are not required, suggesting that additional signals are involved. ..
  4. Montell C, Jones K, Zuker C, Rubin G. A second opsin gene expressed in the ultraviolet-sensitive R7 photoreceptor cells of Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurosci. 1987;7:1558-66 pubmed
    ..Twenty-eight amino acids are conserved among all 4 invertebrate and 5 vertebrate opsin genes thus far sequenced, suggesting that these residues play an important role in rhodopsin function.
  5. Mishra M, Oke A, Lebel C, McDonald E, Plummer Z, Cook T, et al. Pph13 and orthodenticle define a dual regulatory pathway for photoreceptor cell morphogenesis and function. Development. 2010;137:2895-904 pubmed publisher
    ..Rh2 and Rh6, and other phototransduction genes, demonstrating that Pph13 and Otd control a distinct subset of Rhodopsin-encoding genes in adult visual systems...
  6. Papatsenko D, Nazina A, Desplan C. A conserved regulatory element present in all Drosophila rhodopsin genes mediates Pax6 functions and participates in the fine-tuning of cell-specific expression. Mech Dev. 2001;101:143-53 pubmed
    The Drosophila rhodopsin genes (rh's) represent a unique family of highly regulated cell-specific genes, where each member has its own expression pattern in the visual system...
  7. Wardill T, List O, Li X, Dongre S, McCulloch M, Ting C, et al. Multiple spectral inputs improve motion discrimination in the Drosophila visual system. Science. 2012;336:925-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that inputs from photoreceptors of different spectral sensitivities improve motion discrimination, increasing robustness of perception. ..
  8. Vasiliauskas D, Mazzoni E, Sprecher S, Brodetskiy K, Johnston R, Lidder P, et al. Feedback from rhodopsin controls rhodopsin exclusion in Drosophila photoreceptors. Nature. 2011;479:108-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the green-light sensing receptor rhodopsin 6 (Rh6) acts to exclude an alternative blue-sensitive rhodopsin 5 (Rh5) from a subset of Drosophila R8 ..
  9. Mlodzik M, Hiromi Y, Weber U, Goodman C, Rubin G. The Drosophila seven-up gene, a member of the steroid receptor gene superfamily, controls photoreceptor cell fates. Cell. 1990;60:211-24 pubmed
    ..Molecular analysis of svp reveals that it is a member of the steroid receptor gene superfamily and is likely to be a Drosophila homolog of the human transcription factor COUP. ..
  10. Bell M, Earl J, Britt S. Two types of Drosophila R7 photoreceptor cells are arranged randomly: a model for stochastic cell-fate determination. J Comp Neurol. 2007;502:75-85 pubmed
  11. Wernet M, Mazzoni E, Celik A, Duncan D, Duncan I, Desplan C. Stochastic spineless expression creates the retinal mosaic for colour vision. Nature. 2006;440:174-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The fly retina contains two types of ommatidia, called 'pale' and 'yellow', defined by different rhodopsin pairs expressed in R7 and R8 cells...
  12. Pollock J, Benzer S. Transcript localization of four opsin genes in the three visual organs of Drosophila; RH2 is ocellus specific. Nature. 1988;333:779-82 pubmed
    ..Four opsin genes have been identified thus far in Drosophila; Rh1, Rh2, Rh3 and Rh4 (refs 6-11)...
  13. Salcedo E, Huber A, Henrich S, Chadwell L, Chou W, Paulsen R, et al. Blue- and green-absorbing visual pigments of Drosophila: ectopic expression and physiological characterization of the R8 photoreceptor cell-specific Rh5 and Rh6 rhodopsins. J Neurosci. 1999;19:10716-26 pubmed
  14. Rosenbaum E, Hardie R, Colley N. Calnexin is essential for rhodopsin maturation, Ca2+ regulation, and photoreceptor cell survival. Neuron. 2006;49:229-41 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate a multifunctional role for calnexin as both a molecular chaperone uniquely required for rhodopsin maturation and a regulator of Ca2+ that enters photoreceptor cells during light stimulation...
  15. Zuker C, Montell C, Jones K, Laverty T, Rubin G. A rhodopsin gene expressed in photoreceptor cell R7 of the Drosophila eye: homologies with other signal-transducing molecules. J Neurosci. 1987;7:1550-7 pubmed
    ..Amino acid homologies between these different opsins and other signal-transducing molecules suggest an important role for the conserved domains of rhodopsin in the transduction of extracellular signals.
  16. Cook T. Cell diversity in the retina: more than meets the eye. Bioessays. 2003;25:921-5 pubmed
    ..As Prospero, the Drosophila homolog of Prox1, also participates in retinal cell specification, these data provide a forum for asking new questions concerning pathways that may regulate retinogenesis across evolution. ..
  17. Colley N, Baker E, Stamnes M, Zuker C. The cyclophilin homolog ninaA is required in the secretory pathway. Cell. 1991;67:255-63 pubmed
    In Drosophila, the major rhodopsin Rh1 is synthesized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound ribosomes of the R1-R6 photoreceptor cells and is then transported to the rhabdomeres where it functions in phototransduction...
  18. TERRELL D, Xie B, Workman M, Mahato S, Zelhof A, Gebelein B, et al. OTX2 and CRX rescue overlapping and photoreceptor-specific functions in the Drosophila eye. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:215-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings have important implications for understanding how Otx proteins have subfunctionalized during evolution, and cement Drosophila as an effective tool to unravel the molecular bases of photoreceptor pathogenesis. ..
  19. Cook T, Pichaud F, Sonneville R, Papatsenko D, Desplan C. Distinction between color photoreceptor cell fates is controlled by Prospero in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2003;4:853-64 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, this study provides transcriptional targets for pros that may lend insight into its role in regulating neuronal development in flies and vertebrates. ..
  20. Shen W, Kwon Y, Adegbola A, Luo J, Chess A, Montell C. Function of rhodopsin in temperature discrimination in Drosophila. Science. 2011;331:1333-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that mutation of the gene (ninaE) encoding a classical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), Drosophila rhodopsin, eliminates thermotactic discrimination in the comfortable temperature range...
  21. Chou W, Huber A, Bentrop J, Schulz S, Schwab K, Chadwell L, et al. Patterning of the R7 and R8 photoreceptor cells of Drosophila: evidence for induced and default cell-fate specification. Development. 1999;126:607-16 pubmed
    ..Rh5 and Rh6 opsins are expressed in non-overlapping sets of R8 cells, in a precise pairwise fashion with Rh3 and Rh4 in the R7 cells of individual ommatidia...
  22. McDonald E, Xie B, Workman M, Charlton Perkins M, Terrell D, Reischl J, et al. Separable transcriptional regulatory domains within Otd control photoreceptor terminal differentiation events. Dev Biol. 2010;347:122-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In the fly retina, Otd controls rhabdomere morphogenesis of all photoreceptors and regulates distinct Rhodopsin-encoding genes in a photoreceptor subtype-specific manner...
  23. Tahayato A, Sonneville R, Pichaud F, Wernet M, Papatsenko D, Beaufils P, et al. Otd/Crx, a dual regulator for the specification of ommatidia subtypes in the Drosophila retina. Dev Cell. 2003;5:391-402 pubmed
    ..in the two classes of ommatidia depends on a series of highly conserved homeodomain binding sites present in the rhodopsin promoters...
  24. Wernet M, Desplan C. Building a retinal mosaic: cell-fate decision in the fly eye. Trends Cell Biol. 2004;14:576-84 pubmed
    ..Notably, several of the factors used in generating the retinal mosaic of the fruitfly have corresponding functions in vertebrates that are likely to have similar roles. ..
  25. Ahmad S, Joyce M, Boggess B, O Tousa J. The role of Drosophila ninaG oxidoreductase in visual pigment chromophore biogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:9205-9 pubmed
    ..an oxidoreductase involved in the biosynthesis of the (3S)-3-hydroxyretinal serving as chromophore for Rh1 rhodopsin and that ninaG mutant flies expressing Rh4 as the major opsin accumulate large amounts of a different retinoid...
  26. Zelhof A, Koundakjian E, Scully A, Hardy R, Pounds L. Mutation of the photoreceptor specific homeodomain gene Pph13 results in defects in phototransduction and rhabdomere morphogenesis. Development. 2003;130:4383-92 pubmed
    ..In addition, we demonstrate that Pph13 exerts its effect by the regulation of photoreceptor specific gene expression. ..
  27. Mazzoni E, Celik A, Wernet M, Vasiliauskas D, Johnston R, Cook T, et al. Iroquois complex genes induce co-expression of rhodopsins in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e97 pubmed publisher
    ..The exclusive expression of one rhodopsin per photoreceptor is a widespread phenomenon, although exceptions exist...
  28. Pichaud F, Desplan C. A new visualization approach for identifying mutations that affect differentiation and organization of the Drosophila ommatidia. Development. 2001;128:815-26 pubmed
    ..We illustrate the power of this detection system using known genetic backgrounds and new mutations that affect ommatidial differentiation, morphology or chirality. ..
  29. Yasuyama K, Meinertzhagen I. Extraretinal photoreceptors at the compound eye's posterior margin in Drosophila melanogaster. J Comp Neurol. 1999;412:193-202 pubmed
    ..evidence that the photoreceptors are functional: they fail to immunostain with antibodies against NINAE (Rh1), Rh4, or Rh5...
  30. Mikeladze Dvali T, Wernet M, Pistillo D, Mazzoni E, Teleman A, Chen Y, et al. The growth regulators warts/lats and melted interact in a bistable loop to specify opposite fates in Drosophila R8 photoreceptors. Cell. 2005;122:775-87 pubmed
    ..This represents an unexpected postmitotic role for genes controlling cell proliferation (warts and its partner hippo and salvador) and cell growth (melted). ..
  31. Fortini M, Rubin G. Analysis of cis-acting requirements of the Rh3 and Rh4 genes reveals a bipartite organization to rhodopsin promoters in Drosophila melanogaster. Genes Dev. 1990;4:444-63 pubmed
    The rhodopsin genes of Drosophila melanogaster are expressed in nonoverlapping subsets of photoreceptor cells within the insect visual system...
  32. D Costa A, Moses K. Looking up: regional patterning in the fly eye. Dev Cell. 2003;5:665-6 pubmed
    ..Two new papers show that this domain is controlled by graded Wingless signals acting through the homeodomain transcription factor Homothorax. ..
  33. Ranganathan R, Bacskai B, Tsien R, Zuker C. Cytosolic calcium transients: spatial localization and role in Drosophila photoreceptor cell function. Neuron. 1994;13:837-48 pubmed
    ..We genetically engineered flies that express a UV-specific rhodopsin in place of the normal rhodopsin, so that long wavelength light can be used to image [Ca2+]i changes while ..
  34. Voets T, Nilius B. TRPs make sense. J Membr Biol. 2003;192:1-8 pubmed
    ..In this review we discuss recent evidence that implicates members of the TRP superfamily in sensory signal transduction. ..
  35. Schnaitmann C, Garbers C, Wachtler T, Tanimoto H. Color discrimination with broadband photoreceptors. Curr Biol. 2013;23:2375-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show that receptors with a complex and broad spectral sensitivity can contribute to color vision and reveal that chromatic and achromatic circuits in the fly share common photoreceptors. ..
  36. Zuker C. Phototransduction in Drosophila: a paradigm for the genetic dissection of sensory transduction cascades. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1992;2:622-7 pubmed
    ..The availability of Drosophila mutants with defects in visual physiology allows for an in vivo dissection of this complex sensory signal transduction process. ..
  37. Wang T, Jiao Y, Montell C. Dissection of the pathway required for generation of vitamin A and for Drosophila phototransduction. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:305-16 pubmed
    ..of retinoids, which participate in many essential processes, including the formation of the photopigment rhodopsin. Despite the importance of conversion of carotenoids to vitamin A (all-trans-retinol), many questions remain ..
  38. Cooper S. In vivo function of a novel Siah protein in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 2007;124:584-91 pubmed
    ..I find no evidence for redundancy in the function of Sina and SinaH. ..
  39. Hibbard K, O Tousa J. A role for the cytoplasmic DEAD box helicase Dbp21E2 in rhodopsin maturation and photoreceptor viability. J Neurogenet. 2012;26:177-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors used genetic mosaics to identify mutants in Dbp21E2 that affect rhodopsin biogenesis and the maintenance of photoreceptor structure...
  40. Hsiao H, Johnston R, Jukam D, Vasiliauskas D, Desplan C, Rister J. Dissection and immunohistochemistry of larval, pupal and adult Drosophila retinas. J Vis Exp. 2012;:4347 pubmed publisher
    ..Rhs in two main subtypes: In the 'p' subtype, Rh3 in pR7s is coupled with Rh5 in pR8s, whereas in the 'y' subtype, Rh4 in yR7s is associated with Rh6 in yR8s...
  41. BIRKHOLZ D, Chou W, Phistry M, Britt S. Disruption of photoreceptor cell patterning in the Drosophila Scutoid mutant. Fly (Austin). 2009;3:253-62 pubmed
    ..we describe a disruption in R7 and R8 cell patterning in Scutoid mutants that is due to inappropriate signals from Rh4-expressing R7 cells inducing Rh5 expression in adjacent R8 cells...
  42. Fanning A, Anderson J. Protein modules as organizers of membrane structure. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1999;11:432-9 pubmed
    ..The organization of these proteins into discreet structures has functional consequences for downstream signaling. ..
  43. Hyde D, Mecklenburg K, Pollock J, Vihtelic T, Benzer S. Twenty Drosophila visual system cDNA clones: one is a homolog of human arrestin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:1008-12 pubmed
    ..Vertebrate arrestin interacts with rhodopsin in phototransduction and has been associated with an autoimmune form of uveitis in primates...
  44. Hilbrant M, Almudi I, Leite D, Kuncheria L, Posnien N, Nunes M, et al. Sexual dimorphism and natural variation within and among species in the Drosophila retinal mosaic. BMC Evol Biol. 2014;14:240 pubmed publisher
    ..which contain photoreceptor cells that are sensitive to different wavelengths of light defined by the specific rhodopsin proteins that they express...
  45. Zhang Z, Hambuch T, Parsch J. Molecular evolution of sex-biased genes in Drosophila. Mol Biol Evol. 2004;21:2130-9 pubmed
    ..melanogaster, and comparisons of polymorphism/divergence ratios suggest that the rapid evolution of male-biased genes is caused by positive selection. ..
  46. Aoyagi N, Wassarman D. Developmental and transcriptional consequences of mutations in Drosophila TAF(II)60. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:6808-19 pubmed
    ..Finally, TAF(II)60 plays roles in developmental regulation of gene expression that are distinct from those of other TAF(II) proteins. ..
  47. Fridell R, Pret A, Searles L. A retrotransposon 412 insertion within an exon of the Drosophila melanogaster vermilion gene is spliced from the precursor RNA. Genes Dev. 1990;4:559-66 pubmed
    ..Four different 5' donor sites are alternatively spliced to a single 3' acceptor site. The implications of this finding are discussed in relation to possible functions of the su(s)+ gene product. ..
  48. Schlichting M, Grebler R, Peschel N, Yoshii T, Helfrich Forster C. Moonlight detection by Drosophila's endogenous clock depends on multiple photopigments in the compound eyes. J Biol Rhythms. 2014;29:75-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The increase in relative nocturnal activity in response to moonlight is mainly mediated by the rhodopsin 6-expressing inner photoreceptor cell R8 together with the rhodopsin 1-expressing outer receptor cells (R1-R6), ..
  49. Ranganathan R, Harris W, Zuker C. The molecular genetics of invertebrate phototransduction. Trends Neurosci. 1991;14:486-93 pubmed
    ..The results of a combination of molecular, genetic, physiological and biochemical studies are beginning to produce a clearer model for the complex mechanisms involved in invertebrate visual transduction. ..
  50. Bhutkar A, Russo S, Smith T, Gelbart W. Genome-scale analysis of positionally relocated genes. Genome Res. 2007;17:1880-7 pubmed
  51. Britt S, Feiler R, Kirschfeld K, Zuker C. Spectral tuning of rhodopsin and metarhodopsin in vivo. Neuron. 1993;11:29-39 pubmed
    Color vision is dependent upon the expression of spectrally distinct forms of rhodopsin in different photoreceptor cells...
  52. Alvarez C, Robison K, Gilbert W. Novel Gq alpha isoform is a candidate transducer of rhodopsin signaling in a Drosophila testes-autonomous pacemaker. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:12278-82 pubmed
    DGq is the alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric GTPase (G alpha), which couples rhodopsin to phospholipase C in Drosophila vision...
  53. Bernardo Garcia F, Fritsch C, Sprecher S. The transcription factor Glass links eye field specification with photoreceptor differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 2016;143:1413-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results provide a transcriptional link between eye field specification and photoreceptor differentiation in Drosophila, placing Glass at a central position in this developmental process. ..
  54. Schlichting M, Grebler R, Menegazzi P, Helfrich Förster C. Twilight dominates over moonlight in adjusting Drosophila's activity pattern. J Biol Rhythms. 2015;30:117-28 pubmed publisher
    ..To adjust nocturnal activity levels to a wild-type manner, all photoreceptor cells work together in a complex way, with rhodopsin 6 having a prominent role.
  55. Satoh T, Ohba A, Liu Z, Inagaki T, Satoh A. dPob/EMC is essential for biosynthesis of rhodopsin and other multi-pass membrane proteins in Drosophila photoreceptors. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..We screened the mutants affecting rhabdomeric expression of rhodopsin 1 (Rh1) in the Drosophila photoreceptors and found that dPob/EMC3, EMC1, and EMC8/9, Drosophila homologs of ..
  56. Palazzolo M, Hyde D, Vijayraghavan K, Mecklenburg K, Benzer S, Meyerowitz E. Use of a new strategy to isolate and characterize 436 Drosophila cDNA clones corresponding to RNAs detected in adult heads but not in early embryos. Neuron. 1989;3:527-39 pubmed
    ..Many of these genes are likely to encode eye- and nervous system-specific products. ..
  57. Xiang Y, Yuan Q, Vogt N, Looger L, Jan L, Jan Y. Light-avoidance-mediating photoreceptors tile the Drosophila larval body wall. Nature. 2010;468:921-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel photoreceptors use phototransduction machinery distinct from other photoreceptors in Drosophila and enable larvae to sense light exposure over their entire bodies and move out of danger. ..
  58. Zhu Y. The Drosophila visual system: From neural circuits to behavior. Cell Adh Migr. 2013;7:333-44 pubmed publisher
  59. Wernet M, Meier K, Baumann Klausener F, Dorfman R, Weihe U, Labhart T, et al. Genetic dissection of photoreceptor subtype specification by the Drosophila melanogaster zinc finger proteins elbow and no ocelli. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004210 pubmed publisher
    ..that Elb/Noc specifically interact with the transcription factor Orthodenticle (Otd)/Otx, a crucial regulator of rhodopsin gene transcription...
  60. Lee R, Thomas C, Marietta R, Stark W. Vitamin A, visual pigments, and visual receptors in Drosophila. Microsc Res Tech. 1996;35:418-30 pubmed
    ..suggest that retinoic acid-rearing stimulates membrane export and rhabdomere buildup, even though functional rhodopsin is missing...
  61. Posnien N, Hopfen C, Hilbrant M, Ramos Womack M, Murat S, Schönauer A, et al. Evolution of eye morphology and rhodopsin expression in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37346 pubmed publisher
    ..cells that facilitate the discrimination of different colours via the expression of various light sensitive Rhodopsin proteins...
  62. Charlton Perkins M, Whitaker S, Fei Y, Xie B, Li Kroeger D, Gebelein B, et al. Prospero and Pax2 combinatorially control neural cell fate decisions by modulating Ras- and Notch-dependent signaling. Neural Dev. 2011;6:20 pubmed publisher
  63. Rosenbaum E, Brehm K, Vasiljevic E, Gajeski A, Colley N. Drosophila GPI-mannosyltransferase 2 is required for GPI anchor attachment and surface expression of chaoptin. Vis Neurosci. 2012;29:143-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings on GPI-MT2 provide a mechanistic link between GPI anchor biosynthesis and protein trafficking in Drosophila and shed light on a novel mechanism for inherited retinal degeneration. ..
  64. Wang X, Wang T, Jiao Y, von Lintig J, Montell C. Requirement for an enzymatic visual cycle in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2010;20:93-102 pubmed publisher
    ..pathway employed in the vertebrate retina to regenerate the chromophore after its release from light-activated rhodopsin. However, a visual cycle is thought to be absent in invertebrates such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster...
  65. Hakeda Suzuki S, Suzuki T. Cell surface control of the layer specific targeting in the Drosophila visual system. Genes Genet Syst. 2014;89:9-15 pubmed
    ..Fundamental and comprehensive understanding of the crosstalk of growing axons and target regions in the Drosophila optic lobe will elucidate the general principles applicable to more complex nervous systems. ..
  66. Bazigou E, Apitz H, Johansson J, Lorén C, Hirst E, Chen P, et al. Anterograde Jelly belly and Alk receptor tyrosine kinase signaling mediates retinal axon targeting in Drosophila. Cell. 2007;128:961-75 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings suggest that Jeb/Alk signaling helps R-cell axons to shape their environment for target recognition. ..