Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: repo
Description: reversed polarity
Alias: 3702, AbRK2, CG31240, CG8045(CT24072), CT24072, Dmel\CG31240, REPO, RK2, Repo, l(3)03702, rk2, reversed polarity, CG31240-PA, antibody RK2, repo-PA, reverse polarity
Species: fruit fly
- Hosoya T, Takizawa K, Nitta K, Hotta Y. glial cells missing: a binary switch between neuronal and glial determination in Drosophila. Cell. 1995;82:1025-36 pubmed..Analyses of the mutant revealed that "pioneer neurons" can find correct pathways without glial cells and that neurons and glia have a common molecular basis for individual identity. ..
- Badenhorst P. Tramtrack controls glial number and identity in the Drosophila embryonic CNS. Development. 2001;128:4093-101 pubmed..I propose that Tramtrack ensures stable mature glial identity by both repressing neuroblast-specific genes and controlling glial cell proliferation. ..
- Halter D, Urban J, Rickert C, Ner S, Ito K, Travers A, et al. The homeobox gene repo is required for the differentiation and maintenance of glia function in the embryonic nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 1995;121:317-32 pubmedWe describe the cloning, expression and phenotypic characterisation of repo, a gene from Drosophila melanogaster that is essential for the differentiation and maintenance of glia function...
- Giesen K, Hummel T, Stollewerk A, Harrison S, Travers A, Klämbt C. Glial development in the Drosophila CNS requires concomitant activation of glial and repression of neuronal differentiation genes. Development. 1997;124:2307-16 pubmed
- Soustelle L, Giangrande A. Novel gcm-dependent lineages in the postembryonic nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2101-8 pubmed..It is also expressed in a thoracic glial lineage and in neurons of the ventral nerve cord (VNC). Finally, while gcm is required for gliogenesis in medulla and VNC, it does not seem to be required for the generation of VNC neurons. ..
- Miguel Aliaga I, Allan D, Thor S. Independent roles of the dachshund and eyes absent genes in BMP signaling, axon pathfinding and neuronal specification. Development. 2004;131:5837-48 pubmed..Thus, we show that dac and eya perform entirely different functions in a single cell type to ultimately regulate a single phenotypic outcome. ..
- Bainton R, Tsai L, Schwabe T, DeSalvo M, Gaul U, Heberlein U. moody encodes two GPCRs that regulate cocaine behaviors and blood-brain barrier permeability in Drosophila. Cell. 2005;123:145-56 pubmed..We propose that a Moody-mediated signaling pathway functions in glia to regulate nervous system insulation and drug-related behaviors. ..
- Xie X, Auld V. Integrins are necessary for the development and maintenance of the glial layers in the Drosophila peripheral nerve. Development. 2011;138:3813-22 pubmed publisher..Together, our data suggest that integrins are employed in different glial layers to mediate the development and maintenance of the protective glial sheath in Drosophila peripheral nerves. ..
- Xiong W, Montell C. Defective glia induce neuronal apoptosis in the repo visual system of Drosophila. Neuron. 1995;14:581-90 pubmed..of glia in suppressing neuronal cell death was investigated in the visual system of the Drosophila mutant, reversed polarity (repo). The repo locus encodes a glial-specific homeodomain protein expressed in the optic lobes...
- Hasegawa E, Kitada Y, Kaido M, Takayama R, Awasaki T, Tabata T, et al. Concentric zones, cell migration and neuronal circuits in the Drosophila visual center. Development. 2011;138:983-93 pubmed publisher..Thus, genes that show the concentric zones may form a genetic hierarchy to establish neuronal circuits in the medulla. ..
- Rangarajan R, Gong Q, Gaul U. Migration and function of glia in the developing Drosophila eye. Development. 1999;126:3285-92 pubmed..3) A few glia close to the entry of the optic stalk suffice to guide the axons into the stalk, suggesting that glia instruct axons by local interaction. ..
- Lin Y, Reddy B, Irvine K. Requirement for a core 1 galactosyltransferase in the Drosophila nervous system. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3703-14 pubmed publisher..Lectin staining and blotting experiments confirmed that C1GalTA contributes to the synthesis of Gal-beta1,3-GalNAc in vivo. Our results identify a role for mucin-type O-glycosylation during neural development in Drosophila. ..
- Kammerer M, Giangrande A. Glide2, a second glial promoting factor in Drosophila melanogaster. EMBO J. 2001;20:4664-73 pubmed..Finally, we show that lack of both products eliminates all lateral glial cells, which means that the two genes contain all the fly lateral glial promoting activity. ..
- Hummel T, Leifker K, Klämbt C. The Drosophila HEM-2/NAP1 homolog KETTE controls axonal pathfinding and cytoskeletal organization. Genes Dev. 2000;14:863-73 pubmed..In addition, the kette mutant phenotype can be partially rescued by expression of an activated DRAC1 transgene. Our data suggest an important role of the HEM-2 protein in cytoskeletal organization during axonal pathfinding. ..
- Sepp K, Schulte J, Auld V. Peripheral glia direct axon guidance across the CNS/PNS transition zone. Dev Biol. 2001;238:47-63 pubmed..This is not a result of motor neuron defects, as determined by motor/sensory double-labeling experiments. We conclude that peripheral glia prefigure the CNS/PNS transition zone and guide axons as they traverse this region. ..
- Garrity P, Lee C, Salecker I, Robertson H, Desai C, Zinn K, et al. Retinal axon target selection in Drosophila is regulated by a receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase. Neuron. 1999;22:707-17 pubmed..We propose PTP69D promotes R1-R6 targeting in response to extracellular signals by dephosphorylating substrate(s) in R1-R6 growth cones. ..
- Garces A, Thor S. Specification of Drosophila aCC motoneuron identity by a genetic cascade involving even-skipped, grain and zfh1. Development. 2006;133:1445-55 pubmed..Our results demonstrate that the specification of a unique neuron, within a given subclass, can be governed by a unique regulatory cascade of subclass determinants. ..
- Rogulja Ortmann A, Lüer K, Seibert J, Rickert C, Technau G. Programmed cell death in the embryonic central nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2007;134:105-16 pubmed..The data obtained in this analysis form the basis for further investigations into the mechanisms involved in the regulation of PCD and its role in segmental patterning in the embryonic CNS. ..
- Pandey R, Blanco J, Udolph G. The glucuronyltransferase GlcAT-P is required for stretch growth of peripheral nerves in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28106 pubmed publisher..The glial specific repo gene acts as a modifier of GlcAT-P and loss or reduction of repo function in a GlcAT-P mutant background enhances ..
- Sen A, Kuruvilla D, Pinto L, Sarin A, Rodrigues V. Programmed cell death and context dependent activation of the EGF pathway regulate gliogenesis in the Drosophila olfactory system. Mech Dev. 2004;121:65-78 pubmed..These results underscore the importance of developmental context of cell lineages in their responses to non-autonomous signaling in the choice between survival and death. ..
- Menne T, Lüer K, Technau G, Klämbt C. CNS midline cells in Drosophila induce the differentiation of lateral neural cells. Development. 1997;124:4949-58 pubmed..Furthermore, ectopic midline cells are able to induce enhanced expression of some lateral CNS cell markers. We thus conclude that the CNS midline plays an important role in the differentiation or maintenance of the lateral CNS cortex. ..
- Huang Z, Kunes S. Signals transmitted along retinal axons in Drosophila: Hedgehog signal reception and the cell circuitry of lamina cartridge assembly. Development. 1998;125:3753-64 pubmed..Thus retinal axons impose a program of developmental events on their postsynaptic field utilizing distinct signals for different precursor populations. ..
- Layden M, Odden J, Schmid A, Garces A, Thor S, Doe C. Zfh1, a somatic motor neuron transcription factor, regulates axon exit from the CNS. Dev Biol. 2006;291:253-63 pubmed..g. Islet, Hb9, Nkx6, Lim3)--to project laterally and exit the CNS. We conclude that Zfh1 is required for ventral motor axon exit from the CNS. ..
- Yuasa Y, Okabe M, Yoshikawa S, Tabuchi K, Xiong W, Hiromi Y, et al. Drosophila homeodomain protein REPO controls glial differentiation by cooperating with ETS and BTB transcription factors. Development. 2003;130:2419-28 pubmed..Expression of three transcription factors, Reversed Polarity (REPO), Tramtrack p69 (TTK69) and PointedP1 (PNTP1), is induced by GCM in glial cells...
- Jhaveri D, Rodrigues V. Sensory neurons of the Atonal lineage pioneer the formation of glomeruli within the adult Drosophila olfactory lobe. Development. 2002;129:1251-60 pubmed..Furthermore, correct sensory innervation is necessary for the arborization of projection neurons into glomeruli and for the elaboration of processes of central glial cells into the lobe. ..
- Keleman K, Dickson B. Short- and long-range repulsion by the Drosophila Unc5 netrin receptor. Neuron. 2001;32:605-17 pubmed..Ectopic expression of Unc5 on CNS axons can elicit either short- or long-range repulsion from the midline. Both short- and long-range repulsion require Netrin function, but only long-range repulsion requires Frazzled. ..
- Shishido E, Ono N, Kojima T, Saigo K. Requirements of DFR1/Heartless, a mesoderm-specific Drosophila FGF-receptor, for the formation of heart, visceral and somatic muscles, and ensheathing of longitudinal axon tracts in CNS. Development. 1997;124:2119-28 pubmed..DFR1 mutant phenotypes were partially mimicked by the targeted expression of activated Yan, thus demonstrating the MAP kinase pathway to be involved in differentiation of mesoderm. ..
- Siegrist S, Haque N, Chen C, Hay B, Hariharan I. Inactivation of both Foxo and reaper promotes long-term adult neurogenesis in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2010;20:643-8 pubmed publisher..Thus, inhibition of the pathways that normally function to eliminate neural stem cells during development enables adult neurogenesis. ..
- Lai E, Orgogozo V. A hidden program in Drosophila peripheral neurogenesis revealed: fundamental principles underlying sensory organ diversity. Dev Biol. 2004;269:1-17 pubmed..We propose that most Drosophila sensory organs are built from an archetypal lineage, and we speculate about how this stereotyped pattern of cell divisions may have been built during evolution...
- Akiyama Oda Y, Hosoya T, Hotta Y. Asymmetric cell division of thoracic neuroblast 6-4 to bifurcate glial and neuronal lineage in Drosophila. Development. 1999;126:1967-74 pubmed..Our observations suggest that mechanisms regulating gcm mRNA expression and its translation play an important role in glial and neuronal lineage bifurcation that results from asymmetric cell division. ..
- Schmidt I, Thomas S, Kain P, Risse B, Naffin E, Kl mbt C. Kinesin heavy chain function in Drosophila glial cells controls neuronal activity. J Neurosci. 2012;32:7466-76 pubmed publisher..Our work shows that the role of Khc for neuronal excitability must be considered in the light of its necessity for directed transport in glia...
- Xiong W, Okano H, Patel N, Blendy J, Montell C. repo encodes a glial-specific homeo domain protein required in the Drosophila nervous system. Genes Dev. 1994;8:981-94 pubmedWe report the identification of a Drosophila locus, reversed polarity (repo). Weak repo alleles were viable but affected glia in the optic lobe, resulting in a reversal in polarity of the electrophysiological to light in the adult...
- Griffiths R, Hidalgo A. Prospero maintains the mitotic potential of glial precursors enabling them to respond to neurons. EMBO J. 2004;23:2440-50 pubmed..This enables prospero-expressing cells alone to divide further upon elimination of neurons and to adjust glial number to axons during development. ..
- Fichelson P, Gho M. The glial cell undergoes apoptosis in the microchaete lineage of Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:123-33 pubmed..Finally, we present evidences showing that glial cells are committed to apoptosis independently of gcm and prospero expression. We suggest that apoptosis is triggered by a cell autonomous mechanism...
- Jones B, Fetter R, Tear G, Goodman C. glial cells missing: a genetic switch that controls glial versus neuronal fate. Cell. 1995;82:1013-23 pubmed..Thus, gcm appears to function as a binary genetic switch for glia versus neurons. In the presence of gcm protein, presumptive neurons become glia, while in its absence, presumptive glia become neurons. ..
- Beckervordersandforth R, Rickert C, Altenhein B, Technau G. Subtypes of glial cells in the Drosophila embryonic ventral nerve cord as related to lineage and gene expression. Mech Dev. 2008;125:542-57 pubmed publisher..We demonstrate this by the analysis of a castor loss of function mutation, which affects the number and migration of specific glial cells. ..
- Song H, Billeter J, Reynaud E, Carlo T, Spana E, Perrimon N, et al. The fruitless gene is required for the proper formation of axonal tracts in the embryonic central nervous system of Drosophila. Genetics. 2002;162:1703-24 pubmed..Our results suggest that one of fru's sex-nonspecific roles is to regulate the pathfinding ability of axons in the embryonic CNS. ..
- Jhaveri D, Sen A, Rodrigues V. Mechanisms underlying olfactory neuronal connectivity in Drosophila-the atonal lineage organizes the periphery while sensory neurons and glia pattern the olfactory lobe. Dev Biol. 2000;226:73-87 pubmed..The influence of sensory neurons on the development of the olfactory lobe could serve to match and lock peripheral and central properties important for the generation of olfactory behavior. ..
- Mühlig Versen M, da Cruz A, Tschäpe J, Moser M, Buttner R, Athenstaedt K, et al. Loss of Swiss cheese/neuropathy target esterase activity causes disruption of phosphatidylcholine homeostasis and neuronal and glial death in adult Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2005;25:2865-73 pubmed..We conclude that SWS is essential for membrane lipid homeostasis and cell survival in both neurons and glia of the adult Drosophila brain and that NTE may play an analogous role in vertebrates. ..
- Watts R, Schuldiner O, Perrino J, Larsen C, Luo L. Glia engulf degenerating axons during developmental axon pruning. Curr Biol. 2004;14:678-84 pubmed..Our study reveals a key role for glia in the removal of axon fragments during developmental axon pruning. ..
- Akiyama Oda Y, Hotta Y, Tsukita S, Oda H. Distinct mechanisms triggering glial differentiation in Drosophila thoracic and abdominal neuroblasts 6-4. Dev Biol. 2000;222:429-39 pubmed..These results showed that NB6-4T, but not NB6-4A, requires cell cycle progression for acquisition of glial fate, suggesting that distinct mechanisms trigger glial differentiation in the different lineages. ..
- Górska Andrzejak J, Makuch R, Stefan J, Görlich A, Semik D, Pyza E. Circadian expression of the presynaptic active zone protein Bruchpilot in the lamina of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Neurobiol. 2013;73:14-26 pubmed publisher..In addition both peaks seem to depend on clock gene-expressing photoreceptors and glial cells of the visual system. ..
- Awasaki T, Ito K. Engulfing action of glial cells is required for programmed axon pruning during Drosophila metamorphosis. Curr Biol. 2004;14:668-77 pubmed..We therefore propose that neuron-glia interaction is essential for the precisely coordinated axon-pruning process during Drosophila metamorphosis. ..
- Booth G, Kinrade E, Hidalgo A. Glia maintain follower neuron survival during Drosophila CNS development. Development. 2000;127:237-44 pubmed..This differential requirement of neurons for glia is instructive in patterning and links control of cell number with axon guidance during CNS development. ..
- Awasaki T, Lai S, Ito K, Lee T. Organization and postembryonic development of glial cells in the adult central brain of Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2008;28:13742-53 pubmed publisher..It lays an essential foundation for studying glia development and function in the Drosophila brain. ..
- Aigouy B, Lepelletier L, Giangrande A. Glial chain migration requires pioneer cells. J Neurosci. 2008;28:11635-41 pubmed publisher..These in vivo data open novel perspectives for understanding the cellular bases of vertebrate glial migration in physiological and pathological conditions. ..
- Akiyama Oda Y, Hotta Y, Tsukita S, Oda H. Mechanism of glia-neuron cell-fate switch in the Drosophila thoracic neuroblast 6-4 lineage. Development. 2000;127:3513-22 pubmed..Furthermore, we showed that outside the NB6-4T lineage most glial cells appeared independently of Pros. ..
- Küppers Munther B, Letzkus J, Lüer K, Technau G, Schmidt H, Prokop A. A new culturing strategy optimises Drosophila primary cell cultures for structural and functional analyses. Dev Biol. 2004;269:459-78 pubmed
- Sousa Nunes R, Yee L, Gould A. Fat cells reactivate quiescent neuroblasts via TOR and glial insulin relays in Drosophila. Nature. 2011;471:508-12 pubmed publisher..This mechanism indicates that dietary nutrients and remote organs, as well as local niches, are key regulators of transitions in stem-cell behaviour...
- von Hilchen C, Beckervordersandforth R, Rickert C, Technau G, Altenhein B. Identity, origin, and migration of peripheral glial cells in the Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 2008;125:337-52 pubmed..By studying their lineages, we uncovered the origin of each of the peripheral glial cells and linked them to identified central and peripheral neural stem cells. ..
- Odden J, Holbrook S, Doe C. Drosophila HB9 is expressed in a subset of motoneurons and interneurons, where it regulates gene expression and axon pathfinding. J Neurosci. 2002;22:9143-9 pubmed..Thus, Drosophila HB9 is required in a subset of motoneurons and interneurons for establishing proper axon projections but does not have a general role in distinguishing motoneuron and interneuron cell types. ..
- Sun B, Xu P, Wang W, Salvaterra P. In vivo modification of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in Drosophila. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;130:521-36 pubmed..These transgenic lines will be useful for disrupting function in a broad range of cell types. ..
- Colodner K, Feany M. Glial fibrillary tangles and JAK/STAT-mediated glial and neuronal cell death in a Drosophila model of glial tauopathy. J Neurosci. 2010;30:16102-13 pubmed publisher..In summary, we present a genetically tractable model of glial fibrillary tau tangle formation and identify JAK/STAT signaling as mediating the death of both glia and neurons in this model. ..
- Berger C, Pallavi S, Prasad M, Shashidhara L, Technau G. A critical role for cyclin E in cell fate determination in the central nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:56-62 pubmed..However, other components of the cell cycle seem to have a minor role in this process, suggesting a critical role for CycE in regulating cell fate in segment-specific neural lineages. ..
- Schmidt H, Rickert C, Bossing T, Vef O, Urban J, Technau G. The embryonic central nervous system lineages of Drosophila melanogaster. II. Neuroblast lineages derived from the dorsal part of the neuroectoderm. Dev Biol. 1997;189:186-204 pubmed..This complete set of data provides a foundation for the interpretation of mutant phenotypes and for future investigations on cell fate specification and differentiation. ..
- Vincent S, Vonesch J, Giangrande A. Glide directs glial fate commitment and cell fate switch between neurones and glia. Development. 1996;122:131-9 pubmed..glide mutants also display defects in axonal navigation, which confirms and extends previous results indicating a role for glial cells in these processes. ..
- Reddy B, Irvine K. Regulation of Drosophila glial cell proliferation by Merlin-Hippo signaling. Development. 2011;138:5201-12 pubmed publisher..Moreover, as several of the genes we studied have been linked to human gliomas, our results suggest that this linkage could reflect their organization into a conserved pathway for the control of glial cell proliferation. ..
- Sen A, Reddy G, Rodrigues V. Combinatorial expression of Prospero, Seven-up, and Elav identifies progenitor cell types during sense-organ differentiation in the Drosophila antenna. Dev Biol. 2003;254:79-92 pubmed..An understanding of the lineage and development of olfactory sense-organs provides a handle for the analysis of how olfactory neurons acquire distinct terminal fates. ..
- Olofsson B, Page D. Condensation of the central nervous system in embryonic Drosophila is inhibited by blocking hemocyte migration or neural activity. Dev Biol. 2005;279:233-43 pubmed
- Hidalgo A, Booth G. Glia dictate pioneer axon trajectories in the Drosophila embryonic CNS. Development. 2000;127:393-402 pubmed..Secondly, glia direct the fasciculation and defasciculation of axons, which pattern the pioneer pathways. Together these events are essential for the selective fasciculation of follower axons along the longitudinal pathways. ..
- Pereanu W, Shy D, Hartenstein V. Morphogenesis and proliferation of the larval brain glia in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2005;283:191-203 pubmed..This increase results from mitosis of differentiated glia, but, more significantly, from the proliferation of neuroblasts. ..
- Awasaki T, Tatsumi R, Takahashi K, Arai K, Nakanishi Y, Ueda R, et al. Essential role of the apoptotic cell engulfment genes draper and ced-6 in programmed axon pruning during Drosophila metamorphosis. Neuron. 2006;50:855-67 pubmed..These findings suggest that glial cells engulf degenerating axons through drpr and ced-6. We propose that apoptotic cells and degenerating axons of living neurons are removed by a similar molecular mechanism. ..
- Jhaveri D, Saharan S, Sen A, Rodrigues V. Positioning sensory terminals in the olfactory lobe of Drosophila by Robo signaling. Development. 2004;131:1903-12 pubmed..The location of sensory arbors at distinct positions within the lobe allows short-range interactions with projection neurons leading to formation of the glomeruli. ..