Rel

Summary

Gene Symbol: Rel
Description: Relish
Alias: CG11992, Dmel\CG11992, NF-kappaB, NFkappaB, REL, RELI, Rel-p110, Rel/NF-kappaB, RelA, ird, ird4, l(3)neo36, rel, relish, relish, CG11992-PA, CG11992-PB, CG11992-PC, CG11992-PD, Rel-PA, Rel-PB, Rel-PC, Rel-PD, immune response deficient 4, nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p110 subunit, positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; GO:0045944 , IMP
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Rel

Top Publications

  1. Vidal S, Khush R, Leulier F, Tzou P, Nakamura M, Lemaitre B. Mutations in the Drosophila dTAK1 gene reveal a conserved function for MAPKKKs in the control of rel/NF-kappaB-dependent innate immune responses. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1900-12 pubmed
    ..Imd protein and upstream of the IKK complex in the Imd pathway that controls the Rel/NF-kappaB like transactivator Relish. In addition, our epistatic analysis places the caspase, Dredd, downstream of the IKK complex, which supports the ..
  2. Gendrin M, Welchman D, Poidevin M, Hervé M, Lemaitre B. Long-range activation of systemic immunity through peptidoglycan diffusion in Drosophila. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000694 pubmed publisher
    ..At late time points we detected bacteria in the haemolymph of immune deficient Relish(E20) flies, indicating that the genital plate can be a route of entry for pathogens, and that the immune response ..
  3. Lindmark H, Johansson K, Stoven S, Hultmark D, Engstrom Y, Soderhall K. Enteric bacteria counteract lipopolysaccharide induction of antimicrobial peptide genes. J Immunol. 2001;167:6920-3 pubmed
    ..suggests that the inhibitory effect is upstream or at the level of the activation of the transcription factor Relish, a member of the NF-kappaB/Rel family...
  4. Chinchore Y, Gerber G, Dolph P. Alternative pathway of cell death in Drosophila mediated by NF-?B transcription factor Relish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E605-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that the NF-?B transcription factor Relish regulates neuronal cell death...
  5. Takehana A, Yano T, Mita S, Kotani A, Oshima Y, Kurata S. Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP)-LE and PGRP-LC act synergistically in Drosophila immunity. EMBO J. 2004;23:4690-700 pubmed
    ..A role for PGRP-LE in the epithelial induction of antimicrobial peptides is also suggested. ..
  6. Avadhanula V, Weasner B, Hardy G, Kumar J, Hardy R. A novel system for the launch of alphavirus RNA synthesis reveals a role for the Imd pathway in arthropod antiviral response. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000582 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that the Imd pathway mediates an antiviral response to Sindbis virus replication. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an antiviral role for the Imd pathway in insects. ..
  7. De Gregorio E, Han S, Lee W, Baek M, Osaki T, Kawabata S, et al. An immune-responsive Serpin regulates the melanization cascade in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2002;3:581-92 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that Serpin-27A is required to restrict the phenoloxidase activity to the site of injury or infection, preventing the insect from excessive melanization. ..
  8. Ha E, Oh C, Ryu J, Bae Y, Kang S, Jang I, et al. An antioxidant system required for host protection against gut infection in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2005;8:125-32 pubmed
    ..These results imply that homeostasis of redox balance by IRC is one of the most critical factors affecting host survival during continuous host-microbe interaction in the gastrointestinal tract. ..
  9. Zaidman Rémy A, Poidevin M, Hervé M, Welchman D, Paredes J, Fahlander C, et al. Drosophila immunity: analysis of PGRP-SB1 expression, enzymatic activity and function. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17231 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible immune functions of PGRP-SB1 are discussed. ..

More Information

Publications83

  1. Hallem E, Rengarajan M, Ciche T, Sternberg P. Nematodes, bacteria, and flies: a tripartite model for nematode parasitism. Curr Biol. 2007;17:898-904 pubmed
  2. Narbonne Reveau K, Charroux B, Royet J. Lack of an antibacterial response defect in Drosophila Toll-9 mutant. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17470 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Toll-9 is neither required to maintain a basal anti-microbial response nor to mount an efficient immune response to bacterial infection. ..
  3. Paredes J, Welchman D, Poidevin M, Lemaitre B. Negative regulation by amidase PGRPs shapes the Drosophila antibacterial response and protects the fly from innocuous infection. Immunity. 2011;35:770-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of the immune phenotype of flies lacking all catalytic PGRPs and the Imd regulator Pirk reveals that the Imd-mediated immune response is highly constrained by the existence of multiple negative feedbacks. ..
  4. Bettencourt R, Asha H, Dearolf C, Ip Y. Hemolymph-dependent and -independent responses in Drosophila immune tissue. J Cell Biochem. 2004;92:849-63 pubmed
    ..Using GFP-Dorsal, -Dif, and -Relish reporter proteins in ex vivo assays, we demonstrate that Drosophila fat bodies, a major immune tissue, have both ..
  5. Ekengren S, Tryselius Y, Dushay M, Liu G, Steiner H, Hultmark D. A humoral stress response in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2001;11:714-8 pubmed
    ..Although TotA is only induced by severe stress, it responds to a much wider range of stimuli than heat shock genes such as hsp70 or immune genes such as Cecropin A1. ..
  6. Erturk Hasdemir D, Broemer M, Leulier F, Lane W, Paquette N, Hwang D, et al. Two roles for the Drosophila IKK complex in the activation of Relish and the induction of antimicrobial peptide genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9779-84 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila NF-kappaB transcription factor Relish is an essential regulator of antimicrobial peptide gene induction after gram-negative bacterial infection...
  7. Wang Z, Berkey C, Watnick P. The Drosophila protein mustard tailors the innate immune response activated by the immune deficiency pathway. J Immunol. 2012;188:3993-4000 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that this Mtd isoform does not block Relish cleavage or translocation into the nucleus...
  8. Bosco Drayon V, Poidevin M, Boneca I, Narbonne Reveau K, Royet J, Charroux B. Peptidoglycan sensing by the receptor PGRP-LE in the Drosophila gut induces immune responses to infectious bacteria and tolerance to microbiota. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;12:153-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these data indicate that PGRP-LE functions as a master gut bacterial sensor that induces balanced responses to infectious bacteria and tolerance to microbiota. ..
  9. Buchon N, Broderick N, Chakrabarti S, Lemaitre B. Invasive and indigenous microbiota impact intestinal stem cell activity through multiple pathways in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2333-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these results indicate that gut homeostasis is achieved by a complex interregulation of the immune response, gut microbiota, and stem cell activity...
  10. Peng J, Zipperlen P, Kubli E. Drosophila sex-peptide stimulates female innate immune system after mating via the Toll and Imd pathways. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1690-4 pubmed
    ..Mating may physically damage females and pathogens may be transferred. Thus, endogenous stimulation of AMP transcription by SP at mating might be considered as a preventive step to encounter putative immunogenic attacks. ..
  11. Leulier F, Lhocine N, Lemaitre B, Meier P. The Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis protein DIAP2 functions in innate immunity and is essential to resist gram-negative bacterial infection. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7821-31 pubmed
    ..Our genetic epistasis analysis places diap2 downstream of or in parallel to imd, Dredd, Tak1, and Relish. Therefore, DIAP2 functions in the host immune response to gram-negative bacteria...
  12. Maillet F, Bischoff V, Vignal C, Hoffmann J, Royet J. The Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein PGRP-LF blocks PGRP-LC and IMD/JNK pathway activation. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;3:293-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PGRP-LF prevents constitutive activation of both the JNK and the IMD pathways. We propose a model in which PGRP-LF keeps the Drosophila IMD pathway silent by sequestering circulating peptidoglycan. ..
  13. Radyuk S, Michalak K, Klichko V, Benes J, Orr W. Peroxiredoxin 5 modulates immune response in Drosophila. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1800:1153-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Double mutants for dprx5 gene and genes comprising the Imd/Relish and dTak1/Basket branches of the immune signaling pathways were used in epistatic analysis...
  14. Meinander A, Runchel C, Tenev T, Chen L, Kim C, Ribeiro P, et al. Ubiquitylation of the initiator caspase DREDD is required for innate immune signalling. EMBO J. 2012;31:2770-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Signal-dependent ubiquitylation of DREDD is required for full processing of IMD, NF-?B/Relish and expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in response to infection with Gram-negative bacteria...
  15. Ha E, Lee K, Park S, Kim S, Nam H, Lee H, et al. Regulation of DUOX by the Galphaq-phospholipase Cbeta-Ca2+ pathway in Drosophila gut immunity. Dev Cell. 2009;16:386-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that the Galphaq-PLCbeta-Ca(2+)-DUOX-ROS signaling pathway acts as a bona fide first line of defense that enables gut epithelia to dynamically control yeast during the Drosophila life cycle. ..
  16. Zerofsky M, Harel E, Silverman N, Tatar M. Aging of the innate immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. Aging Cell. 2005;4:103-8 pubmed
    ..Consequently, maximum reproduction will occur when the immune response is tightly controlled in young females, even if this increases infection risk at later ages. ..
  17. Yano T, Mita S, Ohmori H, Oshima Y, Fujimoto Y, Ueda R, et al. Autophagic control of listeria through intracellular innate immune recognition in drosophila. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:908-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Autophagy induction occurred independently of the Toll and IMD innate signaling pathways. Our findings define a pathway leading from the intracellular pattern-recognition receptors to the induction of autophagy to host defense...
  18. Boltz K, Carney G. Loss of p24 function in Drosophila melanogaster causes a stress response and increased levels of NF-kappaB-regulated gene products. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:212 pubmed publisher
  19. Pili Floury S, Leulier F, Takahashi K, Saigo K, Samain E, Ueda R, et al. In vivo RNA interference analysis reveals an unexpected role for GNBP1 in the defense against Gram-positive bacterial infection in Drosophila adults. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:12848-53 pubmed
    ..Altogether, our results demonstrate that the detection of Gram-positive bacteria in Drosophila requires two putative pattern recognition receptors, PGRP-SA and GNBP1. ..
  20. Choe K, Lee H, Anderson K. Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein LC (PGRP-LC) acts as a signal-transducing innate immune receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1122-6 pubmed
    ..of a cytoplasmic signaling cascade that requires the death-domain protein Imd and an IkappaB kinase to activate Relish, an NF-kappaB family member...
  21. Zambon R, Nandakumar M, Vakharia V, Wu L. The Toll pathway is important for an antiviral response in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:7257-62 pubmed
    ..Additionally, our results demonstrate the validity of using a genetic approach to identify genes and pathways used in viral innate immune responses in Drosophila...
  22. Ryu J, Nam K, Oh C, Nam H, Kim S, Yoon J, et al. The homeobox gene Caudal regulates constitutive local expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila epithelia. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:172-85 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that certain epithelial tissues have evolved a unique constitutive innate immune strategy by recruiting a developmental "master control" gene. ..
  23. Leclerc V, Pelte N, El Chamy L, Martinelli C, Ligoxygakis P, Hoffmann J, et al. Prophenoloxidase activation is not required for survival to microbial infections in Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2006;7:231-5 pubmed
    ..This raises the question with regard to the precise function of phenoloxidase activation in defence, if any. ..
  24. Defaye A, Evans I, Crozatier M, Wood W, Lemaitre B, Leulier F. Genetic ablation of Drosophila phagocytes reveals their contribution to both development and resistance to bacterial infection. J Innate Immun. 2009;1:322-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We now provide a blueprint of phagocyte importance during both development and innate immune responses in Drosophila. ..
  25. Hoffmann J. The immune response of Drosophila. Nature. 2003;426:33-8 pubmed
    ..Recent progress in research on Drosophila immune defence provides evidence for similarities and differences between Drosophila immune responses and mammalian innate immunity. ..
  26. Cha G, Cho K, Lee J, Kim M, Kim E, Park J, et al. Discrete functions of TRAF1 and TRAF2 in Drosophila melanogaster mediated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase and NF-kappaB-dependent signaling pathways. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7982-91 pubmed
    ..Ectopic expression of DTRAF2 induced nuclear translocation of two Drosophila NF-kappaBs, DIF and Relish, consequently activating the transcription of the antimicrobial peptide genes diptericin, diptericin-like protein, ..
  27. Kim L, Choi U, Cho H, Lee J, Lee W, Kim J, et al. Down-regulation of NF-kappaB target genes by the AP-1 and STAT complex during the innate immune response in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e238 pubmed
    ..The dAP-1-, Stat92E-, and Dsp1-containing complexes replace Relish at the promoters of diverse immune effector genes by binding to evolutionarily conserved cis-elements, and they ..
  28. Bidla G, Dushay M, Theopold U. Crystal cell rupture after injury in Drosophila requires the JNK pathway, small GTPases and the TNF homolog Eiger. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1209-15 pubmed
    ..Our results provide a more comprehensive view of immune signal transduction pathways, with implications for immune reactions where cell death is used as a terminal mode of cell activation. ..
  29. Senger K, Armstrong G, Rowell W, Kwan J, Markstein M, Levine M. Immunity regulatory DNAs share common organizational features in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 2004;13:19-32 pubmed
    ..of transcription factors have been implicated in this process: the REL-containing proteins, Dorsal, Dif, and Relish, and the GATA factor Serpent...
  30. Aggarwal K, Rus F, Vriesema Magnuson C, Erturk Hasdemir D, Paquette N, Silverman N. Rudra interrupts receptor signaling complexes to negatively regulate the IMD pathway. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000120 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that Rudra is a critical component in a negative feedback loop, whereby immune-induced gene expression rapidly produces a potent inhibitor that binds and inhibits pattern recognition receptors...
  31. Castillejo Lopez C, Hacker U. The serine protease Sp7 is expressed in blood cells and regulates the melanization reaction in Drosophila. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;338:1075-82 pubmed
  32. Takehana A, Katsuyama T, Yano T, Oshima Y, Takada H, Aigaki T, et al. Overexpression of a pattern-recognition receptor, peptidoglycan-recognition protein-LE, activates imd/relish-mediated antibacterial defense and the prophenoloxidase cascade in Drosophila larvae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:13705-10 pubmed
    ..Therefore, PGRP-LE acts as a pattern-recognition receptor to the diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycan and activates both the proteolytic cascade and intracellular signaling in Drosophila immunity. ..
  33. Han Z, Ip Y. Interaction and specificity of Rel-related proteins in regulating Drosophila immunity gene expression. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:21355-61 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the drosomycin and defensin expression is best induced by the Relish/Dif and the Relish/Dorsal heterodimers, respectively, whereas the attacin activity can be efficiently up-regulated ..
  34. Kim M, Lee J, Lee S, Kim E, Chung J. Caspar, a suppressor of antibacterial immunity in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:16358-63 pubmed
    ..negatively regulated the immune deficiency (Imd)-mediated immune responses by blocking nuclear translocation of Relish, an NF-kappaB transcription factor...
  35. Wu L, Anderson K. Regulated nuclear import of Rel proteins in the Drosophila immune response. Nature. 1998;392:93-7 pubmed
    ..as the mammalian innate immune response, including signalling pathways that activate transcription factors of the Rel/NK-kappaB family...
  36. Hedengren M, Asling B, Dushay M, Ando I, Ekengren S, Wihlborg M, et al. Relish, a central factor in the control of humoral but not cellular immunity in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 1999;4:827-37 pubmed
    The NF-kappa B-like Relish gene is complex, with four transcripts that are all located within an intron of the Nmdmc gene...
  37. Ha E, Lee K, Seo Y, Kim S, Lim J, Oh B, et al. Coordination of multiple dual oxidase-regulatory pathways in responses to commensal and infectious microbes in drosophila gut. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:949-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the coordinated regulation of DUOX enables the host to achieve gut-microbe homeostasis by efficiently combating infection while tolerating commensal microbes. ..
  38. van Uden P, Kenneth N, Webster R, Müller H, Mudie S, Rocha S. Evolutionary conserved regulation of HIF-1β by NF-κB. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001285 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a novel mechanism of HIF regulation, with impact in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for HIF-related pathologies including ageing, ischemia, and cancer. ..
  39. Guntermann S, Primrose D, Foley E. Dnr1-dependent regulation of the Drosophila immune deficiency signaling pathway. Dev Comp Immunol. 2009;33:127-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we provide molecular data to indicate that Dnr1 inhibits the Imd pathway at the level of the initiator caspase Dredd. ..
  40. Lhocine N, Ribeiro P, Buchon N, Wepf A, Wilson R, Tenev T, et al. PIMS modulates immune tolerance by negatively regulating Drosophila innate immune signaling. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;4:147-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, PIMS is required to establish immune tolerance to commensal bacteria and to maintain a balanced Imd response following exposure to bacterial infections. ..
  41. Akira S, Uematsu S, Takeuchi O. Pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Cell. 2006;124:783-801 pubmed
    ..New insights into innate immunity are changing the way we think about pathogenesis and the treatment of infectious diseases, allergy, and autoimmunity. ..
  42. Ayyar S, Pistillo D, Calleja M, Brookfield A, Gittins K, Goldstone C, et al. NF-kappaB/Rel-mediated regulation of the neural fate in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1178 pubmed
    Two distinct roles are described for Dorsal, Dif and Relish, the three NF-kappaB/Rel proteins of Drosophila, in the development of the peripheral nervous system...
  43. Gesellchen V, Kuttenkeuler D, Steckel M, Pelte N, Boutros M. An RNA interference screen identifies Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein 2 as a regulator of innate immune signalling in Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:979-84 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that IAP gene family members may have acquired other functions, such as the regulation of the tumour necrosis factor-like IMD pathway during innate immune responses. ..
  44. Stoven S, Ando I, Kadalayil L, Engstrom Y, Hultmark D. Activation of the Drosophila NF-kappaB factor Relish by rapid endoproteolytic cleavage. EMBO Rep. 2000;1:347-52 pubmed
    The Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factor Relish plays a key role in the humoral immune response in Drosophila. We now find that activation of this innate immune response is preceded by rapid proteolytic cleavage of Relish into two parts...
  45. Williams J, Sathyanarayanan S, Hendricks J, Sehgal A. Interaction between sleep and the immune response in Drosophila: a role for the NFkappaB relish. Sleep. 2007;30:389-400 pubmed
    ..Since the expression of an NFkappaB, Relish, a central player in the inflammatory response, was increased with all manipulations that reduced sleep, ..
  46. Hoffmann J, Kafatos F, Janeway C, Ezekowitz R. Phylogenetic perspectives in innate immunity. Science. 1999;284:1313-8 pubmed
    ..In addition to its role in the early phase of defense, innate immunity in mammals appears to play a key role in stimulating the subsequent, clonal response of adaptive immunity. ..
  47. Tang H, Kambris Z, Lemaitre B, Hashimoto C. Two proteases defining a melanization cascade in the immune system of Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:28097-104 pubmed
    ..We have also shown that the melanization reaction activated by MP1 and MP2 plays an important role in augmenting the effectiveness of other immune reactions, thereby promoting resistance of Drosophila to microbial infection. ..
  48. Apidianakis Y, Rahme L. Drosophila melanogaster as a model for human intestinal infection and pathology. Dis Model Mech. 2011;4:21-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Perspective, we discuss recent advances in the study of Drosophila intestinal infection and pathology, and briefly review the parallels and differences between human and Drosophila intestinal regeneration and disease. ..
  49. Ryu J, Kim S, Lee H, Bai J, Nam Y, Bae J, et al. Innate immune homeostasis by the homeobox gene caudal and commensal-gut mutualism in Drosophila. Science. 2008;319:777-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal that a specific genetic deficiency within a host can profoundly influence the gut commensal microbial community and host physiology...
  50. Lu Y, Wu L, Anderson K. The antibacterial arm of the drosophila innate immune response requires an IkappaB kinase. Genes Dev. 2001;15:104-10 pubmed
    ..The ird5 gene encodes a Drosophila homolog of mammalian IkappaB kinases (IKKs). The ird5 phenotype and sequence suggest that the gene is specifically required for the activation of Relish, a Drosophila NF-kappaB family member.
  51. Khush R, Cornwell W, Uram J, Lemaitre B. A ubiquitin-proteasome pathway represses the Drosophila immune deficiency signaling cascade. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1728-37 pubmed
    ..the NF-kappaB homologs, Dorsal and DIF; and the IMD pathway that regulates the compound NF-kappaB-like protein, Relish. Although numerous components of each pathway that are required to induce antimicrobial gene expression have been ..
  52. Tsichritzis T, Gaentzsch P, Kosmidis S, Brown A, SKOULAKIS E, Ligoxygakis P, et al. A Drosophila ortholog of the human cylindromatosis tumor suppressor gene regulates triglyceride content and antibacterial defense. Development. 2007;134:2605-14 pubmed
    ..All mutant phenotypes described were reversible upon conditional expression of CYLD transgenes. Our results implicate CYLD in a broad range of functions associated with fat homeostasis and host defence in Drosophila. ..
  53. Elrod Erickson M, Mishra S, Schneider D. Interactions between the cellular and humoral immune responses in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2000;10:781-4 pubmed
  54. Rutschmann S, Jung A, Zhou R, Silverman N, Hoffmann J, Ferrandon D. Role of Drosophila IKK gamma in a toll-independent antibacterial immune response. Nat Immunol. 2000;1:342-7 pubmed
    ..Our data show that Drosophila IKK gamma is required for the Relish-dependent immune induction of the genes encoding antibacterial peptides and for resistance to infections by ..
  55. Mace K, Pearson J, McGinnis W. An epidermal barrier wound repair pathway in Drosophila is mediated by grainy head. Science. 2005;308:381-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The conservation of this Grh-dependent pathway suggests that the repair of insect cuticle and mammal skin is controlled by an ancient, shared control system for constructing and healing the animal body surface barrier...
  56. Tanji T, Yun E, Ip Y. Heterodimers of NF-kappaB transcription factors DIF and Relish regulate antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14715-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Dorsal and DIF act downstream of Toll, whereas Relish acts downstream of IMD to regulate target gene expression...
  57. Buchon N, Poidevin M, Kwon H, Guillou A, Sottas V, Lee B, et al. A single modular serine protease integrates signals from pattern-recognition receptors upstream of the Drosophila Toll pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12442-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It also reveals the conserved role of modular serine proteases in the activation of insect immune reactions. ..
  58. Berkey C, Blow N, Watnick P. Genetic analysis of Drosophila melanogaster susceptibility to intestinal Vibrio cholerae infection. Cell Microbiol. 2009;11:461-74 pubmed publisher
  59. Bangi E, Pitsouli C, Rahme L, Cagan R, Apidianakis Y. Immune response to bacteria induces dissemination of Ras-activated Drosophila hindgut cells. EMBO Rep. 2012;13:569-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Drosophila hindgut provides a valuable system for the study of intestinal malignancies. ..
  60. Junell A, Uvell H, Pick L, Engstrom Y. Isolation of regulators of Drosophila immune defense genes by a double interaction screen in yeast. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;37:202-12 pubmed
    ..One of the Dif-independent cDNAs encoded the Rel/NF-kappaB protein Relish; a well-known activator of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila, demonstrating the applicability of this type ..
  61. Agaisse H, Perrimon N. The roles of JAK/STAT signaling in Drosophila immune responses. Immunol Rev. 2004;198:72-82 pubmed
  62. DiAngelo J, Bland M, Bambina S, Cherry S, Birnbaum M. The immune response attenuates growth and nutrient storage in Drosophila by reducing insulin signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20853-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that communication between these two regulatory systems evolved as a means to divert energy in times of need from organismal growth to the acute requirement of combating infection...
  63. Stoven S, Silverman N, Junell A, Hedengren Olcott M, Erturk D, Engstrom Y, et al. Caspase-mediated processing of the Drosophila NF-kappaB factor Relish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:5991-6 pubmed
    The NF-kappaB-like transcription factor Relish plays a central role in the innate immune response of Drosophila...
  64. Mulinari S, Hacker U, Castillejo Lopez C. Expression and regulation of Spätzle-processing enzyme in Drosophila. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:5406-10 pubmed
  65. Wiklund M, Steinert S, Junell A, Hultmark D, Stoven S. The N-terminal half of the Drosophila Rel/NF-kappaB factor Relish, REL-68, constitutively activates transcription of specific Relish target genes. Dev Comp Immunol. 2009;33:690-6 pubmed publisher
    The Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factor Relish is a major regulator of the antimicrobial response in Drosophila...
  66. Mellroth P, Karlsson J, Håkansson J, Schultz N, Goldman W, Steiner H. Ligand-induced dimerization of Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition proteins in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:6455-60 pubmed
    ..PGRP-LCx, the default peptidoglycan receptor of the Imd/Relish pathway, has strong affinity for all polymeric peptidoglycans tested and for monomeric peptidoglycan...
  67. Cornwell W, Kirkpatrick R. Cactus-independent nuclear translocation of Drosophila RELISH. J Cell Biochem. 2001;82:22-37 pubmed
    ..here for a molecular mechanism of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced signaling involving Drosophila NF-kappaB, RELISH, in Drosophila S2 cells...
  68. Leulier F, Rodriguez A, Khush R, Abrams J, Lemaitre B. The Drosophila caspase Dredd is required to resist gram-negative bacterial infection. EMBO Rep. 2000;1:353-8 pubmed
    ..demonstrate that Dredd regulates antibacterial peptide gene expression, and we propose that Dredd, Immune Deficiency and the P105-like rel protein Relish define a pathway that is required to resist gram-negative bacterial infections.
  69. Choi Y, Hwang M, Park J, Bae S, Kim Y, Yoo M. Age-related upregulation of Drosophila caudal gene via NF-kappaB in the adult posterior midgut. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1780:1093-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results may contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms of age-related changes in the number and activity of intestinal stem cells and progenitors in the Drosophila adult midgut. ..
  70. Tsuda M, Langmann C, Harden N, Aigaki T. The RING-finger scaffold protein Plenty of SH3s targets TAK1 to control immunity signalling in Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:1082-7 pubmed
    ..response to infection by Gram-negative bacteria and leads to the activation of Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and Relish, a nuclear factor-kappaB transcription factor responsible for the expression of antimicrobial peptides...
  71. Kambris Z, Brun S, Jang I, Nam H, Romeo Y, Takahashi K, et al. Drosophila immunity: a large-scale in vivo RNAi screen identifies five serine proteases required for Toll activation. Curr Biol. 2006;16:808-13 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the existence of a common cascade of SPs upstream of Spz, integrating signals sent by various secreted recognition molecules via more specialized SPs. ..
  72. Choe K, Werner T, Stoven S, Hultmark D, Anderson K. Requirement for a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) in Relish activation and antibacterial immune responses in Drosophila. Science. 2002;296:359-62 pubmed
    ..recognition protein, PGRP-LC, is absolutely required for the induction of antibacterial peptide genes in response to infection in Drosophila and acts by controlling activation of the NF-kappaB family transcription factor Relish.
  73. Zaidman Rémy A, Hervé M, Poidevin M, Pili Floury S, Kim M, Blanot D, et al. The Drosophila amidase PGRP-LB modulates the immune response to bacterial infection. Immunity. 2006;24:463-73 pubmed
    ..Our work highlights the key role of PGRPs that encode both sensors and scavengers of peptidoglycan, which modulate the level of the host immune response to the presence of infectious microorganisms. ..
  74. Dushay M, Asling B, Hultmark D. Origins of immunity: Relish, a compound Rel-like gene in the antibacterial defense of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:10343-7 pubmed
    ..We identified the gene for Relish, a compound Drosophila protein that, like mammalian p105 and p100, contains both a Rel homology domain and an I ..