Gene Symbol: Rdl
Description: Resistant to dieldrin
Alias: CG10537, CT29555, DmRDL, DmRdl, Dmel\CG10537, GABA, GABA-R, GABA[[A]], GABA[[A]] receptor, GABA[[A]]-R, GABA[[A]]R, GABAr, LCCH1, RDL, Rd1, gaba, rdl, resistant to dieldrin, CG10537-PA, CG10537-PC, CG10537-PD, CG10537-PE, CG10537-PF, CG10537-PG, GABA A beta-subunit, GABA receptor, GABA[[A]] receptor, Rdl-PA, Rdl-PC, Rdl-PD, Rdl-PE, Rdl-PF, Rdl-PG, resistance to dieldrin
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Hosie A, Aronstein K, Sattelle D, ffrench Constant R. Molecular biology of insect neuronal GABA receptors. Trends Neurosci. 1997;20:578-83 pubmed
    Ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors are distributed throughout the nervous systems of many insect species...
  2. Okada R, Awasaki T, Ito K. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated neural connections in the Drosophila antennal lobe. J Comp Neurol. 2009;514:74-91 pubmed publisher
    Inhibitory synaptic connections mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) play important roles in the neural computation of the brain...
  3. ffrench Constant R, Rocheleau T, Steichen J, Chalmers A. A point mutation in a Drosophila GABA receptor confers insecticide resistance. Nature. 1993;363:449-51 pubmed
    ..Previously, we used a field-isolated Drosophila mutant Rdl (Resistant to dieldrin) insensitive to PTX and cyclodienes to clone a putative GABA receptor...
  4. Jones A, Buckingham S, Papadaki M, Yokota M, Sattelle B, Matsuda K, et al. Splice-variant- and stage-specific RNA editing of the Drosophila GABA receptor modulates agonist potency. J Neurosci. 2009;29:4287-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Using RDL, a Drosophila melanogaster GABA-gated ion channel, we examined the functional impact of RNA editing at several sites along with alternative ..
  5. McGonigle I, Lummis S. Molecular characterization of agonists that bind to an insect GABA receptor. Biochemistry. 2010;49:2897-902 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the most widely studied insect GABA receptors is constructed from RDL (resistance to dieldrin) subunits from Drosophila melanogaster...
  6. Jepson J, Reenan R. Adenosine-to-inosine genetic recoding is required in the adult stage nervous system for coordinated behavior in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:31391-400 pubmed publisher
  7. Le Goff G, Hamon A, Berg J, Amichot M. Resistance to fipronil in Drosophila simulans: influence of two point mutations in the RDL GABA receptor subunit. J Neurochem. 2005;92:1295-305 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular cloning of the cDNA encoding the RDL GABA receptor subunit of this strain revealed the presence of two mutations: the Rdl mutation (A301G) and an additional ..
  8. Henderson J, Soderlund D, Knipple D. Characterization of a putative gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor beta subunit gene from Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;193:474-82 pubmed
    ..Among characterized members of this gene family, this gene exhibits the greatest similarity to GABA receptor beta subunit genes...
  9. Kolodziejczyk A, Sun X, Meinertzhagen I, Nassel D. Glutamate, GABA and acetylcholine signaling components in the lamina of the Drosophila visual system. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2110 pubmed publisher
    ..combined Gal4 driven green fluorescent protein in specific lamina neurons with antisera to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid decarboxylase, a GABA(B) type of receptor, L-glutamate, a vesicular glutamate transporter (vGluT), ..

More Information


  1. Ludmerer S, Warren V, Williams B, Zheng Y, Hunt D, Ayer M, et al. Ivermectin and nodulisporic acid receptors in Drosophila melanogaster contain both gamma-aminobutyric acid-gated Rdl and glutamate-gated GluCl alpha chloride channel subunits. Biochemistry. 2002;41:6548-60 pubmed
    ..chloride channel subunit GluCl alpha (DmGluCl alpha) and the GABA-gated chloride channel subunit Rdl (DmRdl) proteins were generated and used to examine the possible coassembly of these two subunits within a single ..
  2. Hoopengardner B, Bhalla T, Staber C, Reenan R. Nervous system targets of RNA editing identified by comparative genomics. Science. 2003;301:832-6 pubmed
    ..These results point to a pivotal role for RNA editing in nervous system function. ..
  3. Sanchez Soriano N, Bottenberg W, Fiala A, Haessler U, Kerassoviti A, Knust E, et al. Are dendrites in Drosophila homologous to vertebrate dendrites?. Dev Biol. 2005;288:126-38 pubmed
    ..Implications of these findings for studies of dendrite development, neuronal polarity, transport and evolution are discussed. ..
  4. Hosie A, Sattelle D. Agonist pharmacology of two Drosophila GABA receptor splice variants. Br J Pharmacol. 1996;119:1577-85 pubmed
    ..The differences in the potency of agonists on RDLac and DRC 17-1-2 homo-oligomers observed in the present study may assist in identification of further molecular determinants of GABA receptor function.
  5. ffrench Constant R, Mortlock D, Shaffer C, MacIntyre R, Roush R. Molecular cloning and transformation of cyclodiene resistance in Drosophila: an invertebrate gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype A receptor locus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:7209-13 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this represents the first cloning of an invertebrate GABA receptor and also allows us to manipulate the resistance status of an insect via germ-line transformation...
  6. Millar N, Buckingham S, Sattelle D. Stable expression of a functional homo-oligomeric Drosophila GABA receptor in a Drosophila cell line. Proc Biol Sci. 1994;258:307-14 pubmed
    A cloned Drosophila gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA receptor subunit (Rdl) has been stably expressed as a functional homo-oligomeric ion channel in a Drosophila cell line...
  7. Keegan L, McGurk L, Palavicini J, Brindle J, Paro S, Li X, et al. Functional conservation in human and Drosophila of Metazoan ADAR2 involved in RNA editing: loss of ADAR1 in insects. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:7249-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The ADAR1 gene has been lost several times, including during the evolution of insects and crustacea. These data complement our rescue results, supporting the idea that ADAR1 and ADAR2 have evolved highly conserved, distinct functions. ..
  8. ffrench Constant R, Roush R, Mortlock D, Dively G. Isolation of dieldrin resistance from field populations of Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae). J Econ Entomol. 1990;83:1733-7 pubmed
    High levels (about 4,000-fold) of resistance to dieldrin were isolated by screening field-collected populations of Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen). The resistance was made homozygous following 2-4 generations of selection...
  9. Glazov E, Pheasant M, McGraw E, Bejerano G, Mattick J. Ultraconserved elements in insect genomes: a highly conserved intronic sequence implicated in the control of homothorax mRNA splicing. Genome Res. 2005;15:800-8 pubmed
  10. Stilwell G, ffrench Constant R. Transcriptional analysis of the Drosophila GABA receptor gene resistance to dieldrin. J Neurobiol. 1998;36:468-84 pubmed
    The Resistance to dieldrin (Rdl) gene encodes a novel subunit of a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride ion channel in Drosophila...
  11. Zhang H, ffrench Constant R, Jackson M. A unique amino acid of the Drosophila GABA receptor with influence on drug sensitivity by two mechanisms. J Physiol. 1994;479 ( Pt 1):65-75 pubmed
    1. The Drosophila gene Rdl (resistance to dieldrin) encodes a GABA receptor. An alanine-to-serine mutation in this gene at residue 302 confers resistance to cyclodiene insecticides and picrotoxin...
  12. Enell L, Hamasaka Y, Kolodziejczyk A, Nassel D. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling components in Drosophila: immunocytochemical localization of GABA(B) receptors in relation to the GABA(A) receptor subunit RDL and a vesicular GABA transporter. J Comp Neurol. 2007;505:18-31 pubmed
    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in insects and is widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS)...
  13. McGurk K, Pistis M, Belelli D, Hope A, Lambert J. The effect of a transmembrane amino acid on etomidate sensitivity of an invertebrate GABA receptor. Br J Pharmacol. 1998;124:13-20 pubmed
    ..the equivalent amino acid (M314) on the actions of this anaesthetic at an etomidate-insensitive invertebrate GABA receptor (Rdl) of Drosophila melanogaster. 2...
  14. Liu X, Buchanan M, Han K, Davis R. The GABAA receptor RDL suppresses the conditioned stimulus pathway for olfactory learning. J Neurosci. 2009;29:1573-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Prior studies have shown that the GABA receptor RDL inhibits aversive olfactory learning via its role in the Drosophila mushroom bodies (MBs)...
  15. Liu X, Krause W, Davis R. GABAA receptor RDL inhibits Drosophila olfactory associative learning. Neuron. 2007;56:1090-102 pubmed
    ..The GABAA receptor, resistance to dieldrin (Rdl), is highly expressed in the Drosophila mushroom bodies (MBs), a group of neurons playing essential ..
  16. Hosie A, Buckingham S, Presnail J, Sattelle D. Alternative splicing of a Drosophila GABA receptor subunit gene identifies determinants of agonist potency. Neuroscience. 2001;102:709-14 pubmed
    Alternative splicing of the Drosophila melanogaster Rdl gene yields four ionotropic GABA receptor subunits. The two Rdl splice variants cloned to date, RDL(ac) and RDL(bd) (DRC17-1-2), differ in their apparent agonist affinity...
  17. Witte I, Kreienkamp H, Gewecke M, Roeder T. Putative histamine-gated chloride channel subunits of the insect visual system and thoracic ganglion. J Neurochem. 2002;83:504-14 pubmed
    ..These ion-channels are the first specific molecular markers for postsynaptic cells in the insect visual system, thus representing ideal tools to study its physiology and development. ..
  18. Zheng Y, Hirschberg B, Yuan J, Wang A, Hunt D, Ludmerer S, et al. Identification of two novel Drosophila melanogaster histamine-gated chloride channel subunits expressed in the eye. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:2000-5 pubmed
    ..either HisCl1 or HisCl2, produced substantial chloride currents in response to histamine but not in response to GABA, glycine, and glutamate. The histamine sensitivity was similar to that observed in insect laminar neurons...
  19. ffrench Constant R, Steichen J, Rocheleau T, Aronstein K, Roush R. A single-amino acid substitution in a gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype A receptor locus is associated with cyclodiene insecticide resistance in Drosophila populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:1957-61 pubmed
  20. Hosie A, Sattelle D. Allosteric modulation of an expressed homo-oligomeric GABA-gated chloride channel of Drosophila melanogaster. Br J Pharmacol. 1996;117:1229-37 pubmed
    1. Functional GABA-gated chloride channels are formed when cRNA encoding the Drosophila melanogaster GABA receptor subunit RDL is injected into the cytoplasm of Xenopus oocytes...
  21. Harrison J, Chen H, Sattelle E, Barker P, Huskisson N, Rauh J, et al. Immunocytochemical mapping of a C-terminus anti-peptide antibody to the GABA receptor subunit, RDL in the nervous system in Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Tissue Res. 1996;284:269-78 pubmed
    ..on the C-terminal derived amino acid sequence from a cloned Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) gene, Rdl (resistant to dieldrin), was used to investigate localization of a GABA receptor subunit in adult male D. melanogaster...
  22. Kane N, Hirschberg B, Qian S, Hunt D, Thomas B, Brochu R, et al. Drug-resistant Drosophila indicate glutamate-gated chloride channels are targets for the antiparasitics nodulisporic acid and ivermectin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:13949-54 pubmed
  23. Edwards M, Lees G. Modulation of a recombinant invertebrate gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-chloride channel complex by isoflurane: effects of a point mutation in the M2 domain. Br J Pharmacol. 1997;122:726-32 pubmed
    ..In this paper we address submolecular mechanisms for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor modulation by isoflurane. 2...
  24. Liu J, Gong Z, Liu L. ?-glutamyl transpeptidase 1 specifically suppresses green-light avoidance via GABAA receptors in Drosophila. J Neurochem. 2014;130:408-18 pubmed publisher
    ..However, rather than directly, glutamate affected green-light avoidance indirectly through GABA, the level of which was also lower in Ggt-1 mutants compared with controls...
  25. Copley R. Evolutionary convergence of alternative splicing in ion channels. Trends Genet. 2004;20:171-6 pubmed
    ..The result has important implications for the analysis of regulation of alternative splicing using comparative genomics and our understanding of molecular evolution. ..
  26. Grolleau F, Sattelle D. Single channel analysis of the blocking actions of BIDN and fipronil on a Drosophila melanogaster GABA receptor (RDL) stably expressed in a Drosophila cell line. Br J Pharmacol. 2000;130:1833-42 pubmed
    ..RDL(ac) Drosophila melanogaster homomer-forming ionotropic GABA receptor subunit, a product of the resistance to dieldrin gene, RDL: GABA (50 microM) was applied by pressure ejection to outside-out patches from S2-RDL cells at a ..
  27. Gassel M, Wolf C, Noack S, Williams H, Ilg T. The novel isoxazoline ectoparasiticide fluralaner: selective inhibition of arthropod ?-aminobutyric acid- and L-glutamate-gated chloride channels and insecticidal/acaricidal activity. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2014;45:111-24 pubmed publisher
    Isoxazolines are a novel class of parasiticides that are potent inhibitors of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channels (GABACls) and L-glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls)...
  28. Bolisetty M, Rajadinakaran G, Graveley B. Determining exon connectivity in complex mRNAs by nanopore sequencing. Genome Biol. 2015;16:204 pubmed publisher
    ..sequencer to identify 7,899 'full-length' isoforms expressed from four Drosophila genes, Dscam1, MRP, Mhc, and Rdl. These results demonstrate that nanopore sequencing can be used to deconvolute individual isoforms and that it has ..
  29. Iovchev M, Boutanaev A, Ivanov I, Wolstenholme A, Nurminsky D, Semenov E. Phylogenetic shadowing of a histamine-gated chloride channel involved in insect vision. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;36:10-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that hclA-mRNA is abundant in heads of adult Drosophila. However, species- and sex-specific variations of the hclA expression levels were also observed...
  30. Li Q, Li Y, Wang X, Qi J, Jin X, Tong H, et al. Fbxl4 Serves as a Clock Output Molecule that Regulates Sleep through Promotion of Rhythmic Degradation of the GABAA Receptor. Curr Biol. 2017;27:3616-3625.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we showed that Drosophila GABAA receptors undergo rhythmic degradation in arousal-promoting large ventral lateral neurons (lLNvs) and ..
  31. Handler A. A current perspective on insect gene transformation. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;31:111-28 pubmed
  32. Lees K, Musgaard M, Suwanmanee S, Buckingham S, Biggin P, Sattelle D. Actions of agonists, fipronil and ivermectin on the predominant in vivo splice and edit variant (RDLbd, I/V) of the Drosophila GABA receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e97468 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the most widely-studied insect GABA receptors is RDL (resistance to dieldrin), originally isolated from Drosophila melanogaster...
  33. Landgraf M, Sanchez Soriano N, Technau G, Urban J, Prokop A. Charting the Drosophila neuropile: a strategy for the standardised characterisation of genetically amenable neurites. Dev Biol. 2003;260:207-25 pubmed
    ..Using the Fasciclin2-based mapping procedure as a standard (e.g., in a common database) would facilitate studies on the functional architecture of the neuropile and the identification of candiate circuit elements. ..
  34. Ffrench Constant R, Daborn P, Le Goff G. The genetics and genomics of insecticide resistance. Trends Genet. 2004;20:163-70 pubmed
    ..These studies enable us to address three fundamental questions in the evolution of resistance. How many genes are involved? How many mutations are there within these genes? How often do these mutations arise in natural populations? ..
  35. Liu S, Lamaze A, Liu Q, Tabuchi M, Yang Y, Fowler M, et al. WIDE AWAKE mediates the circadian timing of sleep onset. Neuron. 2014;82:151-66 pubmed publisher
    ..WAKE interacts with the GABAA receptor Resistant to Dieldrin (RDL), upregulating its levels and promoting its localization to the plasma membrane...
  36. Hillman R, Sinani J, Pendleton R. The role of the GABA(B) receptor and calcium channels in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's Disease. Neurosci Lett. 2012;516:167-70 pubmed publisher
    ..L-DOPA and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) reverse the loss of this activity when placed in the food fed to these flies...
  37. Das S, Sadanandappa M, Dervan A, Larkin A, Lee J, Sudhakaran I, et al. Plasticity of local GABAergic interneurons drives olfactory habituation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E646-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The odorant selectivity of STH and LTH is mirrored by requirement for NMDA receptors and GABA(A) receptors in odorant-selective, glomerulus-specific projection neurons(PNs)...
  38. Henderson J, Knipple D, Soderlund D. PCR-based homology probing reveals a family of GABA receptor-like genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 1994;24:363-71 pubmed
    ..genomic DNA for sequences encoding a conserved amino acid 'signature motif' known to be present in vertebrate GABA receptor and glycine receptor subunit genes...
  39. Busch S, Selcho M, Ito K, Tanimoto H. A map of octopaminergic neurons in the Drosophila brain. J Comp Neurol. 2009;513:643-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The map may provide an anatomical framework for the functional constitution of the octopaminergic system. It also serves as a model for the single-cell organization of a particular neurotransmitter in the brain. ..
  40. Narusuye K, Nakao T, Abe R, Nagatomi Y, Hirase K, Ozoe Y. Molecular cloning of a GABA receptor subunit from Laodelphax striatella (Fallén) and patch clamp analysis of the homo-oligomeric receptors expressed in a Drosophila cell line. Insect Mol Biol. 2007;16:723-33 pubmed
    ..The L. striatella GABA receptor subunit was found to have high amino acid sequence similarity to the bd-type splice variant of the Drosophila ..
  41. Aronstein K, ffrench Constant R. Immunocytochemistry of a novel GABA receptor subunit Rdl in Drosophila melanogaster. Invert Neurosci. 1995;1:25-31 pubmed
    Following our recent cloning of a novel gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor subunit gene Resistance to dieldrin or Rdl form cyclodiene resistance locus in Drosophila melanogaster, we were interested in defining its pattern of ..
  42. ffrench Constant R. Cloning of a putative GABAA receptor from cyclodiene-resistant Drosophila: a case study in the use of insecticide-resistant mutants to isolate neuroreceptors. EXS. 1993;63:210-23 pubmed
    ..Thus examination of resistance-associated mutations in this receptor in a range of species will enhance our understanding of both the binding sites of toxic ligands and the genetic basis of pesticide resistance. ..
  43. ffrench Constant R. The molecular and population genetics of cyclodiene insecticide resistance. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 1994;24:335-45 pubmed
    ..The cyclodiene resistance gene Rdl (resistance to dieldrin) was cloned from a mutant of the model insect Drosophila resistant to cyclodienes and picrotoxinin...
  44. Haynes P, Christmann B, Griffith L. A single pair of neurons links sleep to memory consolidation in Drosophila melanogaster. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..DPMs increase sleep via release of GABA onto wake-promoting mushroom body (MB) α'/β' neurons...
  45. Li X, Overton I, Baines R, Keegan L, O Connell M. The ADAR RNA editing enzyme controls neuronal excitability in Drosophila melanogaster. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:1139-51 pubmed publisher
    ..to screen for genetic modifiers; Adar overexpression lethality is rescued by reduced dosage of the Rdl (Resistant to dieldrin), gene encoding a subunit of inhibitory GABA receptors...
  46. Buckingham S, Hosie A, Roush R, Sattelle D. Actions of agonists and convulsant antagonists on a Drosophila melanogaster GABA receptor (Rdl) homo-oligomer expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Neurosci Lett. 1994;181:137-40 pubmed
    ..injection of Xenopus oocytes with cDNA-derived RNA (cRNA) encoding a wild-type Drosophila melanogaster GABA receptor subunit (Rdl) resulted in functional expression of a GABA receptor homo-oligomer...
  47. Chung B, Kilman V, Keath J, Pitman J, Allada R. The GABA(A) receptor RDL acts in peptidergic PDF neurons to promote sleep in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2009;19:386-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the GABA(A) receptor gene, Resistant to dieldrin (Rdl), in PDF neurons reduces sleep, consistent with a role for GABA in inhibiting PDF neuron function...
  48. Shotkoski F, Morris A, James A, ffrench Constant R. Functional analysis of a mosquito gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor gene promoter. Gene. 1996;168:127-33 pubmed
    A single point mutation in the insect gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAR)-encoding gene (Rdl) confers high levels of resistance to cyclodienes in Drosophila and other insects...
  49. Raccuglia D, Mueller U. Temporal integration of cholinergic and GABAergic inputs in isolated insect mushroom body neurons exposes pairing-specific signal processing. J Neurosci. 2014;34:16086-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In the whole population of honeybee KCs we find that pairing of acetylcholine (ACh) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) Comment: Please use the greek letter for gamma reduces the ACh-induced calcium influx, and depending on their ..
  50. ffrench Constant R, Rocheleau T. Drosophila cyclodiene resistance gene shows conserved genomic organization with vertebrate gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptors. J Neurochem. 1992;59:1562-5 pubmed
    Genomic clones from the Rdl locus of Drosophila, whose mutant phenotype is resistant to cyclodiene insecticides and picrotoxin, were characterized by restriction mapping and partial sequencing to determine intron/exon structure...
  51. Towers P, Sattelle D. A Drosophila melanogaster cell line (S2) facilitates post-genome functional analysis of receptors and ion channels. Bioessays. 2002;24:1066-73 pubmed
    ..In addition, many useful orthologues of human disease genes are emerging from the Drosophila genome and the study of their functions and interactions is another area for postgenome applications of S2 cell lines. ..
  52. Hosie A, Ozoe Y, Koike K, Ohmoto T, Nikaido T, Sattelle D. Actions of picrodendrin antagonists on dieldrin-sensitive and -resistant Drosophila GABA receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 1996;119:1569-76 pubmed
    ..related terpenoids have been assayed on homooligomeric GABA receptors formed by the expression of a Drosophila GABA receptor subunit (RDLac) in Xenopus oocytes. 2...
  53. Schneider D. Using Drosophila as a model insect. Nat Rev Genet. 2000;1:218-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, I discuss recent work on the use of Drosophila to study the transmission of disease by insect vectors and to investigate insecticide function and development. ..
  54. Sanchez Soriano N, Prokop A. The influence of pioneer neurons on a growing motor nerve in Drosophila requires the neural cell adhesion molecule homolog FasciclinII. J Neurosci. 2005;25:78-87 pubmed
    ..Therefore, FasciclinII is to a degree required and sufficient for pioneer-follower interactions, but its mode of action cannot be explained merely through an equally bidirectional adhesive interaction. ..
  55. Xue H. Identification of major phylogenetic branches of inhibitory ligand-gated channel receptors. J Mol Evol. 1998;47:323-33 pubmed
    ..Branch IIIB, composed of invertebrate GluCl receptors, to form Branch III, which is designated NA for being non-GABA responsive. Branch IV is called UD for being undefined in specificity...
  56. Gengs C, Leung H, Skingsley D, Iovchev M, Yin Z, Semenov E, et al. The target of Drosophila photoreceptor synaptic transmission is a histamine-gated chloride channel encoded by ort (hclA). J Biol Chem. 2002;277:42113-20 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the present work shows that this function of the HCLA (ORT) protein is its native function in vivo. ..
  57. Wang C, Zhang H, Rocheleau T, ffrench Constant R, Jackson M. Cation permeability and cation-anion interactions in a mutant GABA-gated chloride channel from Drosophila. Biophys J. 1999;77:691-700 pubmed
    To investigate the structural basis of anion selectivity of Drosophila GABA-gated Cl(-) channels, the permeation properties of wild-type and mutant channels were studied in Xenopus oocytes...
  58. Stilwell G, Saraswati S, Littleton J, Chouinard S. Development of a Drosophila seizure model for in vivo high-throughput drug screening. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24:2211-22 pubmed
    ..screening for antiepileptic drug candidates, we characterized a Drosophila chemical treatment model using the GABA(A) receptor antagonist picrotoxin...
  59. Weber J, Taxman D, Lu Q, Gilmour D. Molecular architecture of the hsp70 promoter after deletion of the TATA box or the upstream regulation region. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:3799-808 pubmed
    ..GAGA factor alone might be capable of establishing an open chromatin structure that encompasses the upstream regulatory region as well as the core promoter region, thus facilitating the binding of TFIID. ..
  60. Agosto J, Choi J, Parisky K, Stilwell G, Rosbash M, Griffith L. Modulation of GABAA receptor desensitization uncouples sleep onset and maintenance in Drosophila. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:354-9 pubmed publisher
    Many lines of evidence indicate that GABA and GABA(A) receptors make important contributions to human sleep regulation. Pharmacological manipulation of these receptors has differential effects on sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia...
  61. Nakao T, Banba S. Minireview: Mode of action of meta-diamide insecticides. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2015;121:39-46 pubmed publisher
    Meta-diamides [3-benzamido-N-(4-(perfluoropropan-2-yl)phenyl)benzamides] are a distinct class of RDL GABA receptor noncompetitive antagonists showing high insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura...
  62. Singh K, Ju J, Walsh M, Diiorio M, Hart A. Deep conservation of genes required for both Drosphila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans sleep includes a role for dopaminergic signaling. Sleep. 2014;37:1439-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative analysis of various components of quiescence suggests that interdependent or identical cellular and molecular mechanisms are likely to regulate both arousal and sleep entry. ..
  63. Rothenfluh A, Heberlein U. Drugs, flies, and videotape: the effects of ethanol and cocaine on Drosophila locomotion. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2002;12:639-45 pubmed
    ..Surprising similarities between flies and mammals have begun to emerge at the behavioral, neurochemical and molecular levels. ..
  64. Sudhakaran I, Holohan E, Osman S, Rodrigues V, Vijayraghavan K, Ramaswami M. Plasticity of recurrent inhibition in the Drosophila antennal lobe. J Neurosci. 2012;32:7225-31 pubmed publisher
    ..PN-induced habituation occludes further odor-induced habituation and similarly requires GABA(A)Rs and NMDARs in PNs, as well as VGLUT and cAMP signaling in the multiglomerular inhibitory local interneurons (..
  65. Cole L, Roush R, Casida J. Drosophila GABA-gated chloride channel: modified [3H]EBOB binding site associated with Ala-->Ser or Gly mutants of Rdl subunit. Life Sci. 1995;56:757-65 pubmed
    ..melanogaster has been attributed to a mutation resulting in an Ala302-->Ser replacement in the Rdl GABA receptor subunit and in D. simulans to an homologous Ala-->Ser or Gly replacement...
  66. Tchurikov N, Ponomarenko N. Detection of DNA domains in Drosophila, human, and plant chromosomes possessing mainly 50- to 150-kilobase stretches of DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:6751-5 pubmed
    ..We propose that f-DNA segments may correspond to some regular higher-order structures in the eukaryotic chromosomes. ..
  67. Raghu S, Joesch M, Borst A, Reiff D. Synaptic organization of lobula plate tangential cells in Drosophila: gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors and chemical release sites. J Comp Neurol. 2007;502:598-610 pubmed
    ..and immunohistochemistry, our results suggest that HS and VS cells of Drosophila express gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in their dendritic region within the lobula plate, thus being postsynaptic to inhibitory input there...
  68. ffrench Constant R. Cloning of the Drosophila cyclodiene insecticide resistance gene: a novel GABAA receptor subtype?. Comp Biochem Physiol C. 1993;104:9-12 pubmed
    1. gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in both vertebrates and invertebrates. GABAA receptors are composed of a number of different subunits that assemble to form a chloride ionophore. 2...
  69. Sanders J, Singh A, Sterne G, Ye B, Zhou J. Learning-guided automatic three dimensional synapse quantification for drosophila neurons. BMC Bioinformatics. 2015;16:177 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison with some existing tools used in automatic 3D synapse quantification also proved the effectiveness of the proposed method. ..
  70. Matsuda K, Hosie A, Holyoke C, Rauh J, Sattelle D. Cross-resistance with dieldrin of a novel tricyclic dinitrile GABA receptor antagonist. Br J Pharmacol. 1999;127:1305-7 pubmed
    ..tricyclic dinitrile, KN244, blocked the wild-type (dieldrin-sensitive) homo-oligomeric gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel of Drosophila melanogaster expressed in Xenopus oocytes...
  71. Guven Ozkan T, Davis R. Functional neuroanatomy of Drosophila olfactory memory formation. Learn Mem. 2014;21:519-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite this progress, a complete and unified model that details the pathway from acquisition to memory expression remains elusive. ..
  72. Hosie A, Shirai Y, Buckingham S, Rauh J, Roush R, Baylis H, et al. Blocking actions of BIDN, a bicyclic dinitrile convulsant compound, on wild-type and dieldrin-resistant GABA receptor homo-oligomers of Drosophila melanogaster expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Brain Res. 1995;693:257-60 pubmed
    ..BIDN was found to be less effective against a mutant (A(302) --> S) form of the receptor resistant to dieldrin and picrotoxinin...
  73. ffrench Constant R, Pittendrigh B, Vaughan A, Anthony N. Why are there so few resistance-associated mutations in insecticide target genes?. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1998;353:1685-93 pubmed
    The genes encoding the three major targets of conventional insecticides are: Rdl, which encodes a gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit (RDL); para, which encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel (PARA); and Ace, which encodes insect ..
  74. Aronstein K, Auld V, ffrench Constant R. Distribution of two GABA receptor-like subunits in the Drosophila CNS. Invert Neurosci. 1996;2:115-20 pubmed
    Previously we have described the distribution of the Rdl GABA receptor subunit in the Drosophila CNS...