Gene Symbol: rdgC
Description: retinal degeneration C
Alias: CG13814, CG44746, CG6571, Dmel\CG44746, Dmel_CG13814, Dmel_CG6571, DmrdgC-77B, RDGC, RDGC/PP5, RdgC, RdgC 77B, retinal degeneration C, CG44746-PB, CG44746-PF, CG44746-PG, CG44746-PH, rdgC-PB, rdgC-PF, rdgC-PG, rdgC-PH
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Steele F, O Tousa J. Rhodopsin activation causes retinal degeneration in Drosophila rdgC mutant. Neuron. 1990;4:883-90 pubmed
    Drosophila rdgC (retinal degeneration-C) mutants show normal retinal morphology and photoreceptor physiology at young ages. Dark-reared rdgC flies retain this wild-type phenotype, but light-reared mutants undergo retinal degeneration...
  2. Milligan S, Alb J, Elagina R, Bankaitis V, Hyde D. The phosphatidylinositol transfer protein domain of Drosophila retinal degeneration B protein is essential for photoreceptor cell survival and recovery from light stimulation. J Cell Biol. 1997;139:351-63 pubmed
    ..This in vivo analysis of PITP function in a metazoan system provides further insights into the links between PITP dysfunction and an inherited disease in a higher eukaryote. ..
  3. Byk T, Bar Yaacov M, Doza Y, Minke B, Selinger Z. Regulatory arrestin cycle secures the fidelity and maintenance of the fly photoreceptor cell. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:1907-11 pubmed
    ..Assays of rhodopsin dephosphorylation in the Drosophila retinal degeneration C (rdgC) mutant, a mutant in a gene previously cloned and predicted to encode a serine/threonine protein ..
  4. Zuker C. The biology of vision of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:571-6 pubmed
    ..In this manuscript I review some of our recent findings and the strategies used to dissect this process. ..
  5. Satoh A, Ready D. Arrestin1 mediates light-dependent rhodopsin endocytosis and cell survival. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1722-33 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila norpA and rdgC mutants, endocytosis of abnormally stable complexes of rhodopsin (Rh1) and fly photoreceptor Arrestin2 (Arr2) ..
  6. Kiselev A, Socolich M, Vinós J, Hardy R, Zuker C, Ranganathan R. A molecular pathway for light-dependent photoreceptor apoptosis in Drosophila. Neuron. 2000;28:139-52 pubmed
    ..Together, these data define the proapoptotic molecules in Drosophila photoreceptors and indicate a novel signaling pathway for light-activated rhodopsin molecules in control of photoreceptor viability. ..
  7. Steele F, Washburn T, Rieger R, O Tousa J. Drosophila retinal degeneration C (rdgC) encodes a novel serine/threonine protein phosphatase. Cell. 1992;69:669-76 pubmed
    The Drosophila retinal degeneration C (rdgC) gene is required to prevent light-induced retinal degeneration. Molecular analysis shows that the rdgC transcription unit encodes a novel serine/threonine protein phosphatase...
  8. Kristaponyte I, Hong Y, Lu H, Shieh B. Role of rhodopsin and arrestin phosphorylation in retinal degeneration of Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2012;32:10758-66 pubmed publisher
    ..in norpA(P24) is the failure to activate CaMKII (Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) and retinal degeneration C (RDGC) because of a loss of light-dependent Ca(2+) entry...
  9. Neely G, Keene A, Duchek P, Chang E, Wang Q, Aksoy Y, et al. TrpA1 regulates thermal nociception in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24343 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our analysis identifies the channel TRPA1 as a conserved regulator of nociception. ..

More Information


  1. Selinger Z, Doza Y, Minke B. Mechanisms and genetics of photoreceptors desensitization in Drosophila flies. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993;1179:283-99 pubmed
  2. Sawin McCormack E, Sokolowski M, Campos A. Characterization and genetic analysis of Drosophila melanogaster photobehavior during larval development. J Neurogenet. 1995;10:119-35 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the transition from negative phototaxis toward photoneutral behavior characteristic of the wandering third instar larva requires vision. ..
  3. Wang N, Leung H, Pak W, Carl Y, Wadzinski B, Shieh B. Role of protein phosphatase 2A in regulating the visual signaling in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2008;28:1444-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus propose that the fast deactivation of the visual response is modulated in part by the phosphorylation of INAD. ..
  4. Davidson F, Steller H. Blocking apoptosis prevents blindness in Drosophila retinal degeneration mutants. Nature. 1998;391:587-91 pubmed
    ..We found that retinal cell death in rdgC and ninaE(RH27)/+ flies occurred by apoptosis and was blocked by eye-specific expression of the baculoviral cell ..
  5. Lee S, Montell C. Regulation of the rhodopsin protein phosphatase, RDGC, through interaction with calmodulin. Neuron. 2001;32:1097-106 pubmed
    ..but the only GPCR phosphatase that has been definitively demonstrated is the rhodopsin phosphatase encoded by the rdgC locus of Drosophila...
  6. Sahly I, Schroder W, Zierold K, Minke B. Accumulation of calcium in degenerating photoreceptors of several Drosophila mutants. Vis Neurosci. 1994;11:763-72 pubmed
    ..Light- and dark-raised mutants of the following strains were studied: retinal degeneration B (rdgB); retinal degeneration C (rdgC); neither inactivation nor afterpotential C (ninaC), and no receptor potential A (norpA)...
  7. Zuker C. Phototransduction in Drosophila: a paradigm for the genetic dissection of sensory transduction cascades. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1992;2:622-7 pubmed
    ..The availability of Drosophila mutants with defects in visual physiology allows for an in vivo dissection of this complex sensory signal transduction process. ..
  8. Kwon Y, Montell C. Dependence on the Lazaro phosphatidic acid phosphatase for the maximum light response. Curr Biol. 2006;16:723-9 pubmed
    ..The genetic interactions with both rdgA and Pld indicate that Laza functions in the convergence of both PLC- and PLD-coupled signaling in vivo. ..
  9. Cohen P, Philp A, Vázquez Martin C. Protein phosphatase 4--from obscurity to vital functions. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:3278-86 pubmed
    ..Antitumour agents, cantharidin and fostriecin, potently inhibit the activity of Ppp4. Orthologues of mammalian Ppp4 subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confer resistance to the anticancer, DNA-binding drugs, cisplatin and oxaliplatin. ..
  10. Kwon Y, Shim H, Wang X, Montell C. Control of thermotactic behavior via coupling of a TRP channel to a phospholipase C signaling cascade. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:871-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that activation of TRPA1 through a signaling cascade promotes amplification of small differences in temperature and facilitates adaptation to temperatures within the comfortable range. ..
  11. Vinós J, Jalink K, Hardy R, Britt S, Zuker C. A G protein-coupled receptor phosphatase required for rhodopsin function. Science. 1997;277:687-90 pubmed
    ..Drosophila RDGC (retinal degeneration C) is a phosphatase required for rhodopsin dephosphorylation in vivo...
  12. Tripoulas N, Lajeunesse D, Gildea J, Shearn A. The Drosophila ash1 gene product, which is localized at specific sites on polytene chromosomes, contains a SET domain and a PHD finger. Genetics. 1996;143:913-28 pubmed
    ..The chromosomal localization of ASH1 implies that it functions at the transcriptional level to maintain the expression pattern of homeotic selector genes. ..
  13. Han J, Gong P, Reddig K, Mitra M, Guo P, Li H. The fly CAMTA transcription factor potentiates deactivation of rhodopsin, a G protein-coupled light receptor. Cell. 2006;127:847-58 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that calmodulin/CAMTA/Fbxl4 may mediate a long-term feedback regulation of the activity of Ca(2+)-stimulating GPCRs, which could prevent cell damage due to extra Ca(2+) influx. ..
  14. Shen W, Kwon Y, Adegbola A, Luo J, Chess A, Montell C. Function of rhodopsin in temperature discrimination in Drosophila. Science. 2011;331:1333-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that rhodopsins represent a class of evolutionarily conserved GPCRs that are required for initiating thermosensory signaling cascades. ..
  15. Lee J, Song M, Hong S. Negative regulation of the novel norpA(P24) suppressor, diehard4, in the endo-lysosomal trafficking underlies photoreceptor cell degeneration. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003559 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that diehard4 encodes Osiris 21. Loss of its function suppresses retinal degeneration in norpA(P24), rdgC(306), and trp(1), but not in rdgB(2), suggesting a common cause of photoreceptor death...
  16. Lee S, Montell C. Suppression of constant-light-induced blindness but not retinal degeneration by inhibition of the rhodopsin degradation pathway. Curr Biol. 2004;14:2076-85 pubmed
    ..Conversely, the visual impairment was greatly enhanced by mutation of the rhodopsin phosphatase, rdgC. Surprisingly, the mutations that suppressed light-induced blindness did not reduce the severity of the retinal ..
  17. Lee S, Xu H, Montell C. Rhodopsin kinase activity modulates the amplitude of the visual response in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11874-9 pubmed
    ..These data point to an evolutionarily conserved role for GPRK1 in modulating the amplitude of the visual response. ..
  18. Lee S, Montell C. Light-dependent translocation of visual arrestin regulated by the NINAC myosin III. Neuron. 2004;43:95-103 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that the light-dependent translocation of Arr2 into the rhabdomeres requires PI-mediated interactions between Arr2 and the NINAC myosin III. ..
  19. Mutsuddi M, Nambu J. Neural disease: Drosophila degenerates for a good cause. Curr Biol. 1998;8:R809-11 pubmed
    ..Recent studies suggest that molecular genetic approaches in Drosophila may shed important new light on conserved mechanisms underlying such disorders. ..
  20. Jacobson M. Anti-apoptosis therapy: a way of treating neural degeneration?. Curr Biol. 1998;8:R418-21 pubmed
  21. Scott K, Zuker C. Lights out: deactivation of the phototransduction cascade. Trends Biochem Sci. 1997;22:350-4 pubmed
    ..Here, we focus on phototransduction in Drosophila as a paradigm for the study of deactivation in a complex G-protein-coupled signaling pathway in vivo. ..
  22. Kiselev A, Subramaniam S. Studies of Rh1 metarhodopsin stabilization in wild-type Drosophila and in mutants lacking one or both arrestins. Biochemistry. 1997;36:2188-96 pubmed
    ..of Rh1 metarhodopsin recovered from illuminated flies which were deficient either in the eye-specific phosphatase (rdgC mutant) or in the eye-specific phospholipase C (norpA(H24) and norpA(H52) mutants)...
  23. Kurada P, O Tousa J. Retinal degeneration caused by dominant rhodopsin mutations in Drosophila. Neuron. 1995;14:571-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, these dominant rhodopsin mutations suppress the rapid degeneration seen in rdgC and norpA flies, indicating that high levels of rhodopsin are required.
  24. Fortini M, Bonini N. Modeling human neurodegenerative diseases in Drosophila: on a wing and a prayer. Trends Genet. 2000;16:161-7 pubmed
    ..With the advent of complete genomic sequencing on the horizon, Drosophila will continue to be an outstanding model system in which to unravel the complexities, causes and treatments for human neural degeneration. ..
  25. Landry C, Castillo Davis C, Ogura A, Liu J, Hartl D. Systems-level analysis and evolution of the phototransduction network in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3283-8 pubmed
    ..These results provide a preliminary quantification of variation and divergence of gene expression between species in a known gene network and provide a foundation for a system-level understanding of functional and evolutionary change. ..
  26. Liu C, Satoh A, Postma M, Huang J, Ready D, Hardie R. Ca2+-dependent metarhodopsin inactivation mediated by calmodulin and NINAC myosin III. Neuron. 2008;59:778-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that this strategy promotes quantum efficiency, temporal resolution, and fidelity of visual signaling. ..
  27. Bashaw G, Baker B. The msl-2 dosage compensation gene of Drosophila encodes a putative DNA-binding protein whose expression is sex specifically regulated by Sex-lethal. Development. 1995;121:3245-58 pubmed
    ..MSL-2 protein is not produced in females and sequences in both the 5' and 3' UTRs are important for this sex-specific regulation. Furthermore, msl-2 pre-mRNA is alternatively spliced in a Sex-lethal-dependent fashion in its 5' UTR. ..
  28. Ranganathan R, Harris W, Zuker C. The molecular genetics of invertebrate phototransduction. Trends Neurosci. 1991;14:486-93 pubmed
    ..The results of a combination of molecular, genetic, physiological and biochemical studies are beginning to produce a clearer model for the complex mechanisms involved in invertebrate visual transduction. ..