Gene Symbol: rdgA
Description: retinal degeneration A
Alias: CG10966, CG12660, CG15352, CG34344, CG42667, DGK, DGK2, Dmel\CG42667, Dmel_CG10966, Dmel_CG12660, Dmel_CG15352, Dmel_CG34344, RDGA, dDGK2, dgk-5, x35, retinal degeneration A, CG42667-PA, CG42667-PB, CG42667-PC, CG42667-PD, CG42667-PE, CG42667-PG, CG42667-PH, CG42667-PI, CG42667-PJ, CG42667-PK, DAG kinase, DAG-kinase, diacylglycerol kinase, rdgA-PA, rdgA-PB, rdgA-PC, rdgA-PD, rdgA-PE, rdgA-PG, rdgA-PH, rdgA-PI, rdgA-PJ, rdgA-PK, receptor degeneration A, receptor-degeneration-I
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Georgiev P, Garcia Murillas I, Ulahannan D, Hardie R, Raghu P. Functional INAD complexes are required to mediate degeneration in photoreceptors of the Drosophila rdgA mutant. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:1373-84 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila photoreceptors, lack of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) activity (encoded by rdgA) leads to both constitutive TRP-channel activity and retinal degeneration...
  2. Hotta Y, Benzer S. Genetic dissection of the Drosophila nervous system by means of mosaics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1970;67:1156-63 pubmed
    ..e., a mutant eye always functions abnormally, regardless of the amount of normal tissue present elsewhere, indicating that the primary causes of the behavioral deficits in these mutants are within the eye. ..
  3. Inoue H, Yoshioka T, Hotta Y. Membrane-associated phospholipase C of Drosophila retina. J Biochem. 1988;103:91-4 pubmed
    ..the mutants, while the activities of other enzymes related to phosphatidylinositol metabolism, such as diacylglycerol kinase, were not...
  4. Matsumoto E, Hirosawa K, Takagawa K, Hotta Y. Structure of retinular cells in a Drosophila melanogaster visual mutant, rdgA, at early stages of degeneration. Cell Tissue Res. 1988;252:293-300 pubmed
    A Drosophila visual mutant rdgA has photoreceptive cells which degenerate gradually after eclosion...
  5. Raghu P, Usher K, Jonas S, Chyb S, Polyanovsky A, Hardie R. Constitutive activity of the light-sensitive channels TRP and TRPL in the Drosophila diacylglycerol kinase mutant, rdgA. Neuron. 2000;26:169-79 pubmed
    Mutations in the Drosophila retinal degeneration A (rdgA) gene, which encodes diacylglycerol kinase (DGK), result in early onset retinal degeneration and blindness...
  6. Leung H, Tseng Crank J, Kim E, Mahapatra C, Shino S, Zhou Y, et al. DAG lipase activity is necessary for TRP channel regulation in Drosophila photoreceptors. Neuron. 2008;58:884-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Analyses of norpA inaE double mutants and severe inaE mutants show that normal DAGL activity is required for the generation of physiologically meaningful photoreceptor responses. ..
  7. Harris W, Stark W. Hereditary retinal degeneration in Drosophila melanogaster. A mutant defect associated with the phototransduction process. J Gen Physiol. 1977;69:261-91 pubmed
    Two genes in Drosophila, rdgA and rdgB, which when defective cause retinal degeneration, were discovered by Hotta and Benzer (Hotta, Y., and S. Benzer. 1970. Proc. Natl, Acad. Sci. U. S, A. 67:1156-1163)...
  8. Hardie R. Phototransduction in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 2001;204:3403-9 pubmed
  9. Steele F, O Tousa J. Rhodopsin activation causes retinal degeneration in Drosophila rdgC mutant. Neuron. 1990;4:883-90 pubmed
    ..Thus the rdgC+ gene product is required to prevent retinal degeneration that results from a previously unrecognized consequence of rhodopsin stimulation. ..

More Information


  1. LaLonde M, Janssens H, Rosenbaum E, Choi S, Gergen J, Colley N, et al. Regulation of phototransduction responsiveness and retinal degeneration by a phospholipase D-generated signaling lipid. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:471-9 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these findings suggest that Pld facilitates phototransduction by maintaining adequate levels of PIP2 and by protecting the visual system from metarhodopsin-induced, low light degeneration. ..
  2. Xu X, Chien F, Butler A, Salkoff L, Montell C. TRPgamma, a drosophila TRP-related subunit, forms a regulated cation channel with TRPL. Neuron. 2000;26:647-57 pubmed
    ..While TRPL and TRPgamma homomultimers are constitutively active, we demonstrate that TRPL-TRPgamma heteromultimers form a regulated phospholipase C- (PLC-) stimulated channel. ..
  3. Masai I, Okazaki A, Hosoya T, Hotta Y. Drosophila retinal degeneration A gene encodes an eye-specific diacylglycerol kinase with cysteine-rich zinc-finger motifs and ankyrin repeats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:11157-61 pubmed
    The Drosophila visual mutant, carrying the retinal degeneration A gene (rdgA), has photoreceptor cells that degenerate within a week after eclosion...
  4. Hardie R, Raghu P. Visual transduction in Drosophila. Nature. 2001;413:186-93 pubmed
    ..Analysis in Drosophila has revealed many of the underlying molecular strategies, leading to the discovery and characterization of signalling molecules of widespread importance. ..
  5. Hardie R, Martin F, Chyb S, Raghu P. Rescue of light responses in the Drosophila "null" phospholipase C mutant, norpAP24, by the diacylglycerol kinase mutant, rdgA, and by metabolic inhibition. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:18851-8 pubmed
    ..phototransduction, suggest that activation by metabolic inhibition is primarily because of the failure of diacylglycerol kinase, and are consistent with the proposal that polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are potential DAG ..
  6. Garcia Murillas I, Pettitt T, Macdonald E, Okkenhaug H, Georgiev P, Trivedi D, et al. lazaro encodes a lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase that regulates phosphatidylinositol turnover during Drosophila phototransduction. Neuron. 2006;49:533-46 pubmed
    ..Although the identity of this messenger remains unknown, recent evidence has implicated diacylglycerol kinase (DGK), encoded by rdgA, as a key enzyme that regulates its levels, mediating both amplification and ..
  7. Suzuki E, Hirosawa K. Immunoelectron microscopic study of the opsin distribution in the photoreceptor cells of Drosophila melanogaster. J Electron Microsc (Tokyo). 1991;40:187-92 pubmed
    ..In the rdgA mutant, whose SRC are absent, density of gold particles on the rhabdomeric microvilli was about 20% of normal...
  8. Chu B, Liu C, Sengupta S, Gupta A, Raghu P, Hardie R. Common mechanisms regulating dark noise and quantum bump amplification in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Neurophysiol. 2013;109:2044-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Dark noise was similarly increased in heterozygote mutants of diacylglycerol kinase (rdgA/+)...
  9. Xun Z, Sowell R, Kaufman T, Clemmer D. Quantitative proteomics of a presymptomatic A53T alpha-synuclein Drosophila model of Parkinson disease. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2008;7:1191-203 pubmed publisher
    ..at 60A, manganese-superoxide dismutase, and troponin T) and two down-regulated proteins (chaoptin and retinal degeneration A) have literature-supported associations with cellular malfunctions...
  10. Derome N, M tayer K, Montchamp Moreau C, Veuille M. Signature of selective sweep associated with the evolution of sex-ratio drive in Drosophila simulans. Genetics. 2004;166:1357-66 pubmed
    ..This case identifies the causal selective force. It illustrates that all selective sweeps are not necessarily indicative of an increase in the average fitness of populations...
  11. Masai I, Suzuki E, Yoon C, Kohyama A, Hotta Y. Immunolocalization of Drosophila eye-specific diacylgylcerol kinase, rdgA, which is essential for the maintenance of the photoreceptor. J Neurobiol. 1997;32:695-706 pubmed
    The Drosophila retinal degeneration A (rdgA) mutant has photoreceptor cells that degenerate within a week after eclosion...
  12. Zars T, Hyde D. rdgE: a novel retinal degeneration mutation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1996;144:127-38 pubmed
    ..Thus, rdgE may define a mutational class that exhibits both light-enhanced retinal degeneration and a recessive null lethality by perturbing neuronal membrane biosynthesis and/or recycling. ..
  13. Frolov M, Benevolenskaya E, Birchler J. Molecular analysis of a novel Drosophila diacylglycerol kinase, DGKepsilon. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1538:339-52 pubmed
    b>Diacylglycerol kinase plays a central role in the metabolism of diacylglycerol by converting diacylglycerol into phosphatidic acid thus initiating resynthesis of phosphatidylinositols...
  14. Hicks J, Williams D. Distribution of the myosin I-like ninaC proteins in the Drosophila retina and ultrastructural analysis of mutant phenotypes. J Cell Sci. 1992;101 ( Pt 1):247-54 pubmed
    ..In the photoreceptor cell cytoplasm, the number of multivesicular bodies in the null mutant, but not the P221 mutant, was 3-fold greater in comparison with wild-type.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  15. Fortini M, Bonini N. Modeling human neurodegenerative diseases in Drosophila: on a wing and a prayer. Trends Genet. 2000;16:161-7 pubmed
    ..With the advent of complete genomic sequencing on the horizon, Drosophila will continue to be an outstanding model system in which to unravel the complexities, causes and treatments for human neural degeneration. ..
  16. Meyerowitz E, Kankel D. A genetic analysis of visual system development in Drosophilia melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1978;62:112-142 pubmed
  17. Hardie R, Gu Y, Martin F, Sweeney S, Raghu P. In vivo light-induced and basal phospholipase C activity in Drosophila photoreceptors measured with genetically targeted phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-sensitive ion channels (Kir2.1). J Biol Chem. 2004;279:47773-82 pubmed
    ..1 channel. PIP(2) levels were reduced approximately 5-fold in the diacylglycerol kinase mutant (rdgA), but basal PLC activity was still pronounced, consistent with the suggestion that raised ..
  18. Rodriguez J, Menet J, Rosbash M. Nascent-seq indicates widespread cotranscriptional RNA editing in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 2012;47:27-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that ADAR-mediated editing is more widespread than previously indicated and largely occurs cotranscriptionally. ..
  19. Suzuki E, Hirosawa K. Immunolocalization of a Drosophila phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (rdgB) in normal and rdgA mutant photoreceptor cells with special reference to the subrhabdomeric cisternae. J Electron Microsc (Tokyo). 1994;43:183-9 pubmed
  20. Zhai R, Cao Y, Hiesinger P, Zhou Y, Mehta S, Schulze K, et al. Drosophila NMNAT maintains neural integrity independent of its NAD synthesis activity. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e416 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate an NAD-independent requirement of NMNAT for maintaining neuronal integrity that can be exploited to protect neurons from neuronal activity-induced degeneration by overexpression of the protein. ..
  21. Han J, Gong P, Reddig K, Mitra M, Guo P, Li H. The fly CAMTA transcription factor potentiates deactivation of rhodopsin, a G protein-coupled light receptor. Cell. 2006;127:847-58 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that calmodulin/CAMTA/Fbxl4 may mediate a long-term feedback regulation of the activity of Ca(2+)-stimulating GPCRs, which could prevent cell damage due to extra Ca(2+) influx. ..
  22. Sanxaridis P, Cronin M, Rawat S, Waro G, Acharya U, Tsunoda S. Light-induced recruitment of INAD-signaling complexes to detergent-resistant lipid rafts in Drosophila photoreceptors. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2007;36:36-46 pubmed
    ..Finally, selective recruitment of phosphorylated, and therefore activatable, eye-PKC to DRM rafts suggests that DRM domains are likely to function in signaling, rather than trafficking. ..
  23. Kain P, Badsha F, Hussain S, Nair A, Hasan G, Rodrigues V. Mutants in phospholipid signaling attenuate the behavioral response of adult Drosophila to trehalose. Chem Senses. 2010;35:663-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These data together with observations from other mutants in phospholipid signaling provide insights into the mechanisms of taste transduction in Drosophila. ..
  24. Mazzotta G, Rossi A, Leonardi E, Mason M, Bertolucci C, Caccin L, et al. Fly cryptochrome and the visual system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:6163-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A coimmunoprecipitation assay followed by mass spectrometry analysis revealed that dCRY interacts with Retinal Degeneration A (RDGA) and with Neither Inactivation Nor Afterpotential C (NINAC) proteins...
  25. Delgado R, Muñoz Y, Peña Cortés H, Giavalisco P, Bacigalupo J. Diacylglycerol activates the light-dependent channel TRP in the photosensitive microvilli of Drosophila melanogaster photoreceptors. J Neurosci. 2014;34:6679-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The ATP effect was abolished by inhibiting DGK and in the rdgA mutant, lacking functional DGK, implicating DGK...
  26. Huang Y, Xie J, Wang T. A Fluorescence-Based Genetic Screen to Study Retinal Degeneration in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0144925 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that this "Rh1::GFP ey-flp/hid" method enables high-throughput F1 genetic screens to rapidly and precisely identify mutations of retinal degeneration. ..
  27. Hurley J. Signal transduction. Phospholipids in action. Nature. 1995;373:194-5 pubmed
  28. Stark W, Sapp R, Carlson S. Ultrastructure of the ocellar visual system in normal and mutant Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurogenet. 1989;5:127-53 pubmed
    ..The trp. rdgBKS222 and rgdAPC47 mutants are essentially normal with respect to structure and survival of ocellar receptors and synapses. ..
  29. Raghu P, Coessens E, Manifava M, Georgiev P, Pettitt T, Wood E, et al. Rhabdomere biogenesis in Drosophila photoreceptors is acutely sensitive to phosphatidic acid levels. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:129-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that PA levels are critical for apical membrane transport events required for rhabdomere biogenesis. ..
  30. Lee S, Xu H, Montell C. Rhodopsin kinase activity modulates the amplitude of the visual response in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11874-9 pubmed
    ..These data point to an evolutionarily conserved role for GPRK1 in modulating the amplitude of the visual response. ..
  31. Roykhman M, Ibach S, Harding D, Wolff B, Vowels M, Gelsthorpe M, et al. The generation and analysis of deficiencies within a small genomic region on the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster containing two genes, enhancer of rudimentary and CG15352. Fly (Austin). 2007;1:245-50 pubmed
    ..Deficiencies of CG15352, the gene directly upstream of e(r), are not associated with any obvious mutant phenotypes and present the ..
  32. Zuker C. The biology of vision of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:571-6 pubmed
    ..In this manuscript I review some of our recent findings and the strategies used to dissect this process. ..
  33. Inoue H, Yoshioka T, Hotta Y. Diacylglycerol kinase defect in a Drosophila retinal degeneration mutant rdgA. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:5996-6000 pubmed
    The Drosophila visual mutant rdgA is known to show age-dependent retinal degeneration with defective diacylglycerol (DG) kinase activity...
  34. Kain P, Chakraborty T, Sundaram S, Siddiqi O, Rodrigues V, Hasan G. Reduced odor responses from antennal neurons of G(q)alpha, phospholipase Cbeta, and rdgA mutants in Drosophila support a role for a phospholipid intermediate in insect olfactory transduction. J Neurosci. 2008;28:4745-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly although, the olfactory phenotype of mutant alleles of diacylglycerol kinase (rdgA) was rescued by dgq mutant alleles...
  35. Inoue H, Yoshioka T, Hotta Y. Partial purification and characterization of membrane-associated diacylglycerol kinase of Drosophila heads. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992;1122:219-24 pubmed
    A membrane-associated diacylglycerol kinase of Drosophila heads was purified to near homogeneity from the KCl extract of Drosophila heads...
  36. Zuker C. Phototransduction in Drosophila: a paradigm for the genetic dissection of sensory transduction cascades. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1992;2:622-7 pubmed
    ..The availability of Drosophila mutants with defects in visual physiology allows for an in vivo dissection of this complex sensory signal transduction process. ..
  37. Gordesky Gold B, Warrick J, Bixler A, Beasley J, Tompkins L. Hypomorphic mutations in the larval photokinesis A (lphA) gene have stage-specific effects on visual system function in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1995;139:1623-9 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the lphA gene affects a larval-specific aspect of visual system function. ..
  38. Macdonald S, Long A. Joint estimates of quantitative trait locus effect and frequency using synthetic recombinant populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2007;176:1261-81 pubmed
    ..Models that seek to explain the maintenance of genetic variation make different predictions about the population frequency of QTL alleles. Thus, mapping QTL in eight-way recombinant populations can distinguish between these models. ..
  39. Kwon Y, Montell C. Dependence on the Lazaro phosphatidic acid phosphatase for the maximum light response. Curr Biol. 2006;16:723-9 pubmed
    ..Loss of laza suppressed the severity of the phenotype caused by mutation of the DAG kinase, RDGA , indicating that Laza functions in opposition to RDGA...
  40. Hardie R, Liu C, Randall A, Sengupta S. In vivo tracking of phosphoinositides in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:4328-40 pubmed publisher
    ..was faster than PtdIns(4,5)P2 (t½ ∼40 s), but both were greatly slowed in mutants of DAG kinase (rdgA) or PtdIns transfer protein (rdgB)...
  41. Yoon C, Hirosawa K, Suzuki E. Studies on the structure of ocellar photoreceptor cells of Drosophila melanogaster with special reference to subrhabdomeric cisternae. Cell Tissue Res. 1996;284:77-85 pubmed
    ..The ocellar photoreceptor cells of the retinal degeneration mutants (rdgA,B) were also studied...
  42. Acharya J, Labarca P, Delgado R, Jalink K, Zuker C. Synaptic defects and compensatory regulation of inositol metabolism in inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase mutants. Neuron. 1998;20:1219-29 pubmed
    ..We also show that Li+ phenocopies this effect in wild-type synapses. Together, these results support a role for phosphoinositides in synaptic vesicle function in vivo and mechanistically question the "lithium hypothesis." ..
  43. Pak W. Drosophila in vision research. The Friedenwald Lecture. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995;36:2340-57 pubmed
  44. Morgante F, Sørensen P, Sorensen D, Maltecca C, Mackay T. Genetic Architecture of Micro-Environmental Plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster. Sci Rep. 2015;5:9785 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified several candidate genes associated with micro-environmental plasticity of startle response, including Drosophila Hsp90, setting the stage for future genetic dissection of this phenomenon. ..
  45. Suzuki E, Hirosawa K, Hotta Y. Analysis of photoreceptor membrane turnover in a Drosophila visual mutant, rdgA, by electron microscope autoradiography. J Electron Microsc (Tokyo). 1990;39:50-3 pubmed
    A Drosophila visual mutant, rdgA, has photoreceptor cells whose rhabdomeres degenerate in several days after eclosion...
  46. Lin Y, Chen Y, Kao T, Lin Y, Hsu T, Wu Y, et al. Diacylglycerol lipase regulates lifespan and oxidative stress response by inversely modulating TOR signaling in Drosophila and C. elegans. Aging Cell. 2014;13:755-64 pubmed publisher
    ..and Caenorhabditis elegans, overexpression of diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL/inaE/dagl-1) or knockdown of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK/rdgA/dgk-5) extends lifespan and enhances response to oxidative stress...
  47. Georgiev P, Toscano S, Nair A, Hardie R, Raghu P. Identification of a suppressor of retinal degeneration in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Neurogenet. 2012;26:338-47 pubmed publisher
    ..su(40), that is able to suppress the retinal degeneration seen in photoreceptors from loss-of-function alleles of rdgA that are known to have constitutively active TRP channels...
  48. Williams D. Actin filaments and photoreceptor membrane turnover. Bioessays. 1991;13:171-8 pubmed
    ..A simple model is proposed to illustrate how the actin-myosin system of the connecting cilium might function to initiate the morphogenesis of a disk membrane. ..
  49. Vagin V, Yu Y, Jankowska A, Luo Y, Wasik K, Malone C, et al. Minotaur is critical for primary piRNA biogenesis. RNA. 2013;19:1064-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We have named this new biogenesis factor Minotaur. ..
  50. Kain P, Chandrashekaran S, Rodrigues V, Hasan G. Drosophila mutants in phospholipid signaling have reduced olfactory responses as adults and larvae. J Neurogenet. 2009;23:303-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that larval olfactory transduction, like that of the adult, utilizes a phospholipid second messenger, generated by the activation of G(q)alpha and Plcbeta21c, and modulated by the stmA gene product. ..
  51. Ranganathan R, Harris W, Zuker C. The molecular genetics of invertebrate phototransduction. Trends Neurosci. 1991;14:486-93 pubmed
    ..The results of a combination of molecular, genetic, physiological and biochemical studies are beginning to produce a clearer model for the complex mechanisms involved in invertebrate visual transduction. ..
  52. Mizrak D, Ruben M, Myers G, Rhrissorrakrai K, Gunsalus K, Blau J. Electrical activity can impose time of day on the circadian transcriptome of pacemaker neurons. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1871-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The electrical state of a clock neuron can impose time of day to its transcriptional program. We propose that this acts as an internal zeitgeber to add robustness and precision to circadian behavioral rhythms. ..
  53. Kwon Y, Shim H, Wang X, Montell C. Control of thermotactic behavior via coupling of a TRP channel to a phospholipase C signaling cascade. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:871-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that activation of TRPA1 through a signaling cascade promotes amplification of small differences in temperature and facilitates adaptation to temperatures within the comfortable range. ..
  54. Hardie R, Martin F, Cochrane G, Juusola M, Georgiev P, Raghu P. Molecular basis of amplification in Drosophila phototransduction: roles for G protein, phospholipase C, and diacylglycerol kinase. Neuron. 2002;36:689-701 pubmed
    ..3- to 5-fold but are restored to near wild-type values by mutations in the rdgA gene encoding diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) and also by depleting intracellular ATP...
  55. Lloret Llinares M, Pérez Lluch S, Rossell D, Morán T, Ponsa Cobas J, Auer H, et al. dKDM5/LID regulates H3K4me3 dynamics at the transcription-start site (TSS) of actively transcribed developmental genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:9493-505 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that, at developmental genes, dKDM5/LID and ASH2 coordinately regulate H3K4me3 at TSS and that this dynamic regulation contributes to transcription. ..
  56. Sawin McCormack E, Sokolowski M, Campos A. Characterization and genetic analysis of Drosophila melanogaster photobehavior during larval development. J Neurogenet. 1995;10:119-35 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the transition from negative phototaxis toward photoneutral behavior characteristic of the wandering third instar larva requires vision. ..