Gene Symbol: rb
Description: ruby
Alias: AP-3beta, CG11427, Dmel\CG11427, apl6, beta3, cg11427, ruby, CG11427-PA, CG11427-PC, CG11427-PD, adaptor protein complex 3, beta subunit, rb-PA, rb-PC, rb-PD
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Lloyd V, Ramaswami M, Kramer H. Not just pretty eyes: Drosophila eye-colour mutations and lysosomal delivery. Trends Cell Biol. 1998;8:257-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, classical work describing more than 85 eye-colour mutations and their genetic interactions offers a remarkable, untapped resource for the genetic analysis of protein delivery to lysosomes. ..
  2. Ma J, Plesken H, Treisman J, Edelman Novemsky I, Ren M. Lightoid and Claret: a rab GTPase and its putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor in biogenesis of Drosophila eye pigment granules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11652-7 pubmed
    ..the gene products of claret and lightoid function in the same pathway, which is different from that of garnet and ruby (which encode the delta- and beta-subunit of the tetrameric adaptor protein 3 complex, respectively)...
  3. Pflugfelder G, Schwarz H, Roth H, Poeck B, Sigl A, Kerscher S, et al. Genetic and molecular characterization of the optomotor-blind gene locus in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1990;126:91-104 pubmed
    ..The three nonlethals affect the external appearance of the fly and seem to be unrelated to brain development. ..
  4. Asensio C, Sirkis D, Edwards R. RNAi screen identifies a role for adaptor protein AP-3 in sorting to the regulated secretory pathway. J Cell Biol. 2010;191:1173-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Although vesicles with a dense core still form in the absence of AP-3, they contain substantially less synaptotagmin 1, indicating that AP-3 concentrates the proteins required for regulated exocytosis. ..
  5. Elias V, Nicolas C, Abramson C. Eye color as an indicator of behavior: revisiting Worthy and Scott. Psychol Rep. 2008;102:759-78 pubmed
    ..melanogaster pointed to significant behavioral differences among cell-defect groups, indicating that the cell defect which causes eye color, rather than eye color itself, may serve as a crude indicator of behavior. ..
  6. Boehm M, Bonifacino J. Genetic analyses of adaptin function from yeast to mammals. Gene. 2002;286:175-86 pubmed
    ..Here, we review recent progress in the genetic analysis of the function of AP complexes, focusing on studies that make use of targeted interference or naturally-occurring mutations in various model organisms. ..
  7. Kretzschmar D, Poeck B, Roth H, Ernst R, Keller A, Porsch M, et al. Defective pigment granule biogenesis and aberrant behavior caused by mutations in the Drosophila AP-3beta adaptin gene ruby. Genetics. 2000;155:213-23 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that the Drosophila eye color mutant ruby is defective in the AP-3beta subunit gene...
  8. Dell Angelica E, Mullins C, Caplan S, Bonifacino J. Lysosome-related organelles. FASEB J. 2000;14:1265-78 pubmed
  9. Mullins C, Bonifacino J. The molecular machinery for lysosome biogenesis. Bioessays. 2001;23:333-43 pubmed
    ..Other recently identified components, however, appear to be unique to higher eukaryotes. BioEssays 23:333-343, 2001. Published 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ..

More Information


  1. Lloyd V, Sinclair D, Alperyn M, Grigliatti T. Enhancer of garnet/deltaAP-3 is a cryptic allele of the white gene and identifies the intracellular transport system for the white protein. Genome. 2002;45:296-312 pubmed
    ..This observation supports a role for these genes in intracellular transport and leads to a model whereby incorrect sorting of the white gene product can explain the pigmentation phenotypes of an entire group of eye-color genes...
  2. Rodriguez Fernandez I, Dell Angelica E. Identification of Atg2 and ArfGAP1 as Candidate Genetic Modifiers of the Eye Pigmentation Phenotype of Adaptor Protein-3 (AP-3) Mutants in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0143026 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide genetic evidence for new functional links connecting the machinery for biogenesis of LROs with molecules implicated in autophagy and small GTPase regulation. ..
  3. Steinmann Zwicky M. Sex determination in Drosophila: the X-chromosomal gene liz is required for Sxl activity. EMBO J. 1988;7:3889-98 pubmed
    ..This shows that SxlM1 is not truly expressed constitutively in animals with an X:A ratio of 0.5, but requires activity of liz for initiation or maintenance. ..
  4. Fox A. Immunogenetic studies of Drosophila melanogaster; interaction between the rb and v loci in production of antigens. Genetics. 1949;34:647-64 pubmed
  5. Cherry S, Perrimon N. Entry is a rate-limiting step for viral infection in a Drosophila melanogaster model of pathogenesis. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:81-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, this virus model provides a sensitive and efficient approach for identifying components required for pathogenesis. ..
  6. Slizynski B. Salivary Chromosome Studies of Lethals in Drosophila Melanogaster. Genetics. 1938;23:283-90 pubmed
  7. Oliver B, Perrimon N, Mahowald A. Genetic evidence that the sans fille locus is involved in Drosophila sex determination. Genetics. 1988;120:159-71 pubmed
  8. Banga S, Bloomquist B, Brodberg R, Pye Q, Larrivee D, Mason J, et al. Cytogenetic characterization of the 4BC region on the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster: localization of the mei-9, norpA and omb genes. Chromosoma. 1986;93:341-6 pubmed
    ..by screening for reversion of the dominant mutants Oce and Qd or for induction of the recessive mutants bi and rb. Among the 23 mutants generated by ionizing radiation, 20 have proven to be cytologically detectable chromosomal ..
  9. Tearle R. Tissue specific effects of ommochrome pathway mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Genet Res. 1991;57:257-66 pubmed
    ..Two mutations affecting the red eye pigments (drosopterins), bw and mal, do not substantially perturb brown pigment synthesis in any of the four organs. ..
  10. Beadle G. Development of Eye Colors in Drosophila: Fat Bodies and Malpighian Tubes in Relation to Diffusible Substances. Genetics. 1937;22:587-611 pubmed
  11. Spritz R. Multi-organellar disorders of pigmentation: intracellular traffic jams in mammals, flies and yeast. Trends Genet. 1999;15:337-40 pubmed
    ..Recent discoveries show that several of these mutations directly affect components in the pathway of organelle-specific protein trafficking, and provide new insights into the relationships of these pathways in mammals, flies and yeast. ..
  12. Christis C, Munro S. The small G protein Arl1 directs the trans-Golgi-specific targeting of the Arf1 exchange factors BIG1 and BIG2. J Cell Biol. 2012;196:327-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that in mammalian cells, Arl1 is necessary for Golgi recruitment of BIG1 and BIG2 but not GBF1. Thus, Arl1 acts to direct a trans-Golgi-specific Arf1 GEF, and hence active Arf1, to the trans side of the Golgi. ..
  13. Aparisi M, Najera C. Genetic location and biochemical characterization of eye-colour mutants from natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Genome. 1990;33:203-8 pubmed
    ..The eye-colour mutants show large effects on the red and brown pigments. The high variability of the eye-colour loci is discussed in relation to the mutation and selection hypotheses. ..
  14. Mullins C, Hartnell L, Bonifacino J. Distinct requirements for the AP-3 adaptor complex in pigment granule and synaptic vesicle biogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 2000;263:1003-14 pubmed
    ..We report that the Drosophila pigmentation mutants orange and ruby carry genetic lesions in the sigma3 and beta3-adaptin subunits of the AP-3 complex, respectively...
  15. Sturtevant A. Genetic Studies on DROSOPHILA SIMULANS. II. Sex-Linked Group of Genes. Genetics. 1921;6:43-64 pubmed
  16. Welshons W, Welshons H. Enhancement and Suppression of a Euchromatic Position Effect at NOTCH in Drosophila. Genetics. 1986;113:337-54 pubmed
    ..The fa(swb) mutant is interpreted to be a nonvariegating position effect at the Notch locus resulting from a novel euchromatic-euchromatic association of base sequences caused by the small deletion. ..
  17. Harris D, Kim K, Nakahara K, Vásquez Doorman C, Carthew R. Cargo sorting to lysosome-related organelles regulates siRNA-mediated gene silencing. J Cell Biol. 2011;194:77-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Negative regulation is also not linked to sorting into all LROs but only a specific class of pigment LRO. Thus, regulation of siRNA activity is tied to sorting of specific types of cargo to particular LROs...
  18. Beadle G, Ephrussi B. The Differentiation of Eye Pigments in Drosophila as Studied by Transplantation. Genetics. 1936;21:225-47 pubmed
  19. Wilkin M, Tongngok P, Gensch N, Clemence S, Motoki M, Yamada K, et al. Drosophila HOPS and AP-3 complex genes are required for a Deltex-regulated activation of notch in the endosomal trafficking pathway. Dev Cell. 2008;15:762-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss ways in which these endocytic pathways may modulate ligand-dependent and -independent events, as a mechanism that can potentiate Notch signaling or dampen noise in the signaling network. ..
  20. Cook R, Deal M, Deal J, Garton R, Brown C, Ward M, et al. A new resource for characterizing X-linked genes in Drosophila melanogaster: systematic coverage and subdivision of the X chromosome with nested, Y-linked duplications. Genetics. 2010;186:1095-109 pubmed publisher
    ..These duplication chromosomes will be valuable resources for rescuing and mapping X-linked mutations and identifying dosage-dependent modifiers of mutant phenotypes. ..
  21. Boehm M, Bonifacino J. Adaptins: the final recount. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:2907-20 pubmed
    ..Finally, we extend our survey to adaptin-related proteins such as the GGAs and stonins, which contain domains homologous to the adaptins. ..
  22. Herz H, Madden L, Chen Z, Bolduc C, Buff E, Gupta R, et al. The H3K27me3 demethylase dUTX is a suppressor of Notch- and Rb-dependent tumors in Drosophila. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:2485-97 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these data suggest that dUTX is a suppressor of Notch- and Rbf-dependent tumors in Drosophila melanogaster and may provide a model for UTX-dependent tumorigenesis in humans. ..