Gene Symbol: Ras85D
Description: Ras oncogene at 85D
Alias: C-ras1, CG9375, D-Ras, D-Ras1, D-ras-1, D-ras1, DRAS1, DRas, DRas85D/Ras, Dm Ras1, Dmel\CG9375, Dmras85D, Dras, Dras1, Dras85D, E(faf), E(sev)3C, EC3-3, EK3-4, P08646, RAS, RAS1, RAS85D, RTK, Ras, Ras 85D, Ras-1, Ras1, Ras1/RAs85D, Ras185D, Ras85, Ras85DNt, RasI, RasV12, Ras[V12], S35097, Su(tor)3-2, dRAS1, dRas, dRas1, dRas85D, dras1, fs(3)05703, l(3)06677, l(3)s1747, p21[Ras1], ras, ras 1, ras1, ras85B, ras85D, Ras oncogene at 85D, CG9375-PA, Ras GTPase, Ras oncogene at 85B, Ras1, Ras85D-PA, enhancer of faf
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Ras85D

Top Publications

  1. Geiger J, Carvalho L, Campos I, Santos A, Jacinto A. Hole-in-one mutant phenotypes link EGFR/ERK signaling to epithelial tissue repair in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28349 pubmed publisher
    ..We also provide evidence suggesting that Holn1 may be involved in the Ras/ERK signaling pathway, by acting downstream of ERK...
  2. Anselmo A, Bumeister R, Thomas J, White M. Critical contribution of linker proteins to Raf kinase activation. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:5940-3 pubmed
    Genetic analysis of Ras signaling has unveiled the participation of non-enzymatic accessory proteins in signal transmission...
  3. Jiang Y, Scott K, Kwak S, Chen R, Mardon G. Sds22/PP1 links epithelial integrity and tumor suppression via regulation of myosin II and JNK signaling. Oncogene. 2011;30:3248-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Without sds22, cells lose epithelial architecture, and become invasive and tumorigenic when combined with Ras overexpression; conversely, sds22 overexpression can largely suppress tumorigenic growth of Ras(V12)scrib(-/-) ..
  4. Brumby A, Goulding K, Schlosser T, Loi S, Galea R, Khoo P, et al. Identification of novel Ras-cooperating oncogenes in Drosophila melanogaster: a RhoGEF/Rho-family/JNK pathway is a central driver of tumorigenesis. Genetics. 2011;188:105-25 pubmed publisher
    We have shown previously that mutations in the apico-basal cell polarity regulators cooperate with oncogenic Ras (Ras(ACT)) to promote tumorigenesis in Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian cells...
  5. Srivastava A, Pastor Pareja J, Igaki T, Pagliarini R, Xu T. Basement membrane remodeling is essential for Drosophila disc eversion and tumor invasion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:2721-6 pubmed
    ..Finally, although past efforts using MMP inhibitors have not yielded much success, our results strongly argue that BM modulation could be a critical target for cancer therapy. ..
  6. Brückner K, Kockel L, Duchek P, Luque C, Rørth P, Perrimon N. The PDGF/VEGF receptor controls blood cell survival in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2004;7:73-84 pubmed
    ..Additional rescue experiments suggest involvement of the Ras pathway in PVR-mediated blood cell survival...
  7. Yang L, Baker N. Cell cycle withdrawal, progression, and cell survival regulation by EGFR and its effectors in the differentiating Drosophila eye. Dev Cell. 2003;4:359-69 pubmed
    ..Each response requires the same Ras, Raf, MAPK, and Pnt signal transduction pathway...
  8. Carmena A, Gisselbrecht S, Harrison J, Jimenez F, Michelson A. Combinatorial signaling codes for the progressive determination of cell fates in the Drosophila embryonic mesoderm. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3910-22 pubmed
    ..Thus, localized RTK activity induces the formation of mesodermal equivalence groups...
  9. Bangi E, Pitsouli C, Rahme L, Cagan R, Apidianakis Y. Immune response to bacteria induces dissemination of Ras-activated Drosophila hindgut cells. EMBO Rep. 2012;13:569-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Drosophila hindgut provides a valuable system for the study of intestinal malignancies. ..

More Information


  1. Tong J, Schriner S, McCleary D, Day B, Wallace D. Life extension through neurofibromin mitochondrial regulation and antioxidant therapy for neurofibromatosis-1 in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Genet. 2007;39:476-85 pubmed
    ..effects proved to be modulated by the adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A pathway, not the Ras/Raf pathway. Treatment of wild-type D...
  2. Prober D, Edgar B. Interactions between Ras1, dMyc, and dPI3K signaling in the developing Drosophila wing. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2286-99 pubmed
    The Ras GTPase links extracellular signals to intracellular mechanisms that control cell growth, the cell cycle, and cell identity...
  3. SIMCOX A, Austin C, Jacobsen T, Jafar Nejad H. Drosophila embryonic 'fibroblasts': extending mutant analysis in vitro. Fly (Austin). 2008;2:306-9 pubmed
    ..We recently discovered that expression of activated Ras (Ras(V12)) provides cells in vitro with both a survival and a proliferative advantage and hence promotes the ..
  4. Bergmann A, Agapite J, McCall K, Steller H. The Drosophila gene hid is a direct molecular target of Ras-dependent survival signaling. Cell. 1998;95:331-41 pubmed
    ..They often signal through the activation of the Ras pathway...
  5. Schnorr J, Berg C. Differential activity of Ras1 during patterning of the Drosophila dorsoventral axis. Genetics. 1996;144:1545-57 pubmed
    In Drosophila, the Ras1 gene is required downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases for correct eye development, embryonic patterning, wing vein formation, and border cell migration...
  6. Baonza A, Freeman M. Control of cell proliferation in the Drosophila eye by Notch signaling. Dev Cell. 2005;8:529-39 pubmed
    ..Delta to Notch signaling derepresses the inhibition of dE2F1 by RBF, and Delta expression depends on the secreted proteins Hedgehog and Dpp. Notch is also required for the expression of Cyclin A in the SMW. ..
  7. Brumby A, Richardson H. scribble mutants cooperate with oncogenic Ras or Notch to cause neoplastic overgrowth in Drosophila. EMBO J. 2003;22:5769-79 pubmed
    ..In contrast, when oncogenic Ras or Notch is expressed within the scribble mutant clones, cell death is prevented and neoplastic tumors develop...
  8. Hayashi T, Kojima T, Saigo K. Specification of primary pigment cell and outer photoreceptor fates by BarH1 homeobox gene in the developing Drosophila eye. Dev Biol. 1998;200:131-45 pubmed
    ..Extra outer photoreceptor formation was suppressed and enhanced, respectively, by reducing the activity of Ras/MAPK signaling and by dosage reduction of yan, a negative regulator of the pathway, suggesting interactions between ..
  9. Harden N, Ricos M, Ong Y, Chia W, Lim L. Participation of small GTPases in dorsal closure of the Drosophila embryo: distinct roles for Rho subfamily proteins in epithelial morphogenesis. J Cell Sci. 1999;112 ( Pt 3):273-84 pubmed
    ..We now show that two other Rho subfamily proteins, Dcdc42 and RhoA, as well as Ras1 are also required for dorsal closure...
  10. Biteau B, Jasper H. EGF signaling regulates the proliferation of intestinal stem cells in Drosophila. Development. 2011;138:1045-55 pubmed publisher
  11. Menendez J, Pérez Garijo A, Calleja M, Morata G. A tumor-suppressing mechanism in Drosophila involving cell competition and the Hippo pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14651-6 pubmed publisher
    ..lgl mutant cells may form tumors if they acquire constitutive activity of the Ras pathway (lgl(-) UAS-ras(V12)), which confers proliferation advantage through inhibition of the Hippo pathway...
  12. Buchon N, Broderick N, Kuraishi T, Lemaitre B. Drosophila EGFR pathway coordinates stem cell proliferation and gut remodeling following infection. BMC Biol. 2010;8:152 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that one signaling pathway, the EGFR pathway, is central to all these stages, and its activation at multiple steps could synchronize the complex cellular events leading to gut repair and homeostasis. ..
  13. Halfar K, Rommel C, Stocker H, Hafen E. Ras controls growth, survival and differentiation in the Drosophila eye by different thresholds of MAP kinase activity. Development. 2001;128:1687-96 pubmed
    b>Ras mediates a plethora of cellular functions during development. In the developing eye of Drosophila, Ras performs three temporally separate functions...
  14. Miller D, Cagan R. Local induction of patterning and programmed cell death in the developing Drosophila retina. Development. 1998;125:2327-35 pubmed
    ..by supplying a 'life'-promoting activity; evidence is provided that this signal occurs through localized activation of the EGF Receptor/Ras pathway. Together, these signals refine the highly regular pattern observed in the adult retina.
  15. Casci T, Vinós J, Freeman M. Sprouty, an intracellular inhibitor of Ras signaling. Cell. 1999;96:655-65 pubmed
    ..Sprouty binds to two intracellular components of the Ras pathway, Drk and Gap1...
  16. Prober D, Edgar B. Ras1 promotes cellular growth in the Drosophila wing. Cell. 2000;100:435-46 pubmed
    The Ras GTPase links extracellular mitogens to intracellular mechanisms that control cell proliferation...
  17. Mishra S, Smolik S, Forte M, Stork P. Ras-independent activation of ERK signaling via the torso receptor tyrosine kinase is mediated by Rap1. Curr Biol. 2005;15:366-70 pubmed
    In Drosophila embryos, the Torso receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activates the small G protein Ras (D-Ras1) and the protein kinase Raf (D-Raf) to activate ERK to direct differentiation of terminal structures ...
  18. Kim M, Lee J, Koh H, Lee S, Jang C, Chung C, et al. Inhibition of ERK-MAP kinase signaling by RSK during Drosophila development. EMBO J. 2006;25:3056-67 pubmed
    ..known as an important downstream effector of the ribosomal protein S6 kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras/ERK) pathway, its endogenous role, and precise molecular function remain unclear...
  19. Bergmann A, Agapite J, Steller H. Mechanisms and control of programmed cell death in invertebrates. Oncogene. 1998;17:3215-23 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes some of the key findings in this area, but also touches on some of the many unresolved questions and challenges that remain. ..
  20. Halfon M, Carmena A, Gisselbrecht S, Sackerson C, Jimenez F, Baylies M, et al. Ras pathway specificity is determined by the integration of multiple signal-activated and tissue-restricted transcription factors. Cell. 2000;103:63-74 pubmed
    b>Ras signaling elicits diverse outputs, yet how Ras specificity is generated remains incompletely understood...
  21. Zecca M, Struhl G. Subdivision of the Drosophila wing imaginal disc by EGFR-mediated signaling. Development. 2002;129:1357-68 pubmed
    ..Hence, as the disc grows, the DV compartment boundary can shift ventrally, beyond the range of the instructive EGFR signal(s), in contrast to the notum-wing boundary, which continues to be defined by EGFR input. ..
  22. Vincent S, Wilson R, Coelho C, Affolter M, Leptin M. The Drosophila protein Dof is specifically required for FGF signaling. Mol Cell. 1998;2:515-25 pubmed
    ..MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade, using specific molecules to link the activated receptors to the MAPK cascade activator, Ras. We have identified a component of the FGF receptor (FGFR) signal transduction pathway, Downstream of FGFR (Dof)...
  23. Hay B, Maile R, Rubin G. P element insertion-dependent gene activation in the Drosophila eye. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:5195-200 pubmed
    ..A screen with one of these vectors identified eagle as a suppressor of a rough eye phenotype associated with overexpression of an activated Ras1 gene.
  24. Wu M, Pastor Pareja J, Xu T. Interaction between Ras(V12) and scribbled clones induces tumour growth and invasion. Nature. 2010;463:545-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila eye-antennal discs, cooperation between the oncogenic protein Ras(V12) (ref...
  25. Li W, Skoulakis E, Davis R, Perrimon N. The Drosophila 14-3-3 protein Leonardo enhances Torso signaling through D-Raf in a Ras 1-dependent manner. Development. 1997;124:4163-71 pubmed
    ..The effect of leo requires D-Raf and Ras1 activities but not KSR or DOS, two recently identified essential components of Drosophila RTK signaling pathways...
  26. Brown K, Baonza A, Freeman M. Epithelial cell adhesion in the developing Drosophila retina is regulated by Atonal and the EGF receptor pathway. Dev Biol. 2006;300:710-21 pubmed
    ..These observations define a new function for EGFR signalling in eye development and illustrate a mechanism for the control of epithelial morphology by developmental signals. ..
  27. Rohrbaugh M, Ramos E, Nguyen D, Price M, Wen Y, Lai Z. Notch activation of yan expression is antagonized by RTK/pointed signaling in the Drosophila eye. Curr Biol. 2002;12:576-81 pubmed
    Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling plays an instructive role in cell fate decisions, whereas Notch signaling is often involved in restricting cellular competence for differentiation...
  28. Cordero J, Macagno J, Stefanatos R, Strathdee K, Cagan R, Vidal M. Oncogenic Ras diverts a host TNF tumor suppressor activity into tumor promoter. Dev Cell. 2010;18:999-1011 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, however, we show that in tumors deficient for scrib that also expressed the Ras oncoprotein, the TNF signal was diverted into a protumor signal that enhanced tumor growth through larval arrest ..
  29. Walker J, Tchoudakova A, McKenney P, Brill S, Wu D, Cowley G, et al. Reduced growth of Drosophila neurofibromatosis 1 mutants reflects a non-cell-autonomous requirement for GTPase-Activating Protein activity in larval neurons. Genes Dev. 2006;20:3311-23 pubmed
    ..requirement for NF1 in larval neurons that express the R-Ras ortholog Ras2, that NF1 is a GAP for Ras1 and Ras2, and that a functional NF1-GAP catalytic domain is both necessary and sufficient for rescue...
  30. Szuts D, Eresh S, Bienz M. Functional intertwining of Dpp and EGFR signaling during Drosophila endoderm induction. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2022-35 pubmed
    ..this process, namely Vein, a neuregulin-like ligand that stimulates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Ras signaling. Dpp and Wg up-regulate vein expression in the midgut mesoderm in two regions overlapping the Dpp sources...
  31. Michelson A, Gisselbrecht S, Buff E, Skeath J. Heartbroken is a specific downstream mediator of FGF receptor signalling in Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:4379-89 pubmed
    ..indicate that heartbroken acts downstream of the two FGF receptors but either upstream of or parallel to RAS1. Furthermore, heartbroken is involved in both the HEARTLESS- and BREATHLESS-dependent activation of MAPK...
  32. Sen A, Kuruvilla D, Pinto L, Sarin A, Rodrigues V. Programmed cell death and context dependent activation of the EGF pathway regulate gliogenesis in the Drosophila olfactory system. Mech Dev. 2004;121:65-78 pubmed
    ..These results underscore the importance of developmental context of cell lineages in their responses to non-autonomous signaling in the choice between survival and death. ..
  33. Nagaraj R, Banerjee U. Regulation of Notch and Wingless signalling by phyllopod, a transcriptional target of the EGFR pathway. EMBO J. 2009;28:337-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this study identifies a Phyl-regulated class of endosomal vesicles that specifically include components of Notch and Wg signalling. ..
  34. Ninov N, Manjón C, Martin Blanco E. Dynamic control of cell cycle and growth coupling by ecdysone, EGFR, and PI3K signaling in Drosophila histoblasts. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000079 pubmed publisher
    ..It sets the stage for the comprehensive understanding of the coordination of cell growth and cell-cycle progression in complex multicellular eukaryotes. ..
  35. Sotillos S, de Celis J. Interactions between the Notch, EGFR, and decapentaplegic signaling pathways regulate vein differentiation during Drosophila pupal wing development. Dev Dyn. 2005;232:738-52 pubmed
    ..Once dpp expression is initiated, Dpp and EGFR activities in the provein maintain each other and, in cooperation, determine vein cell differentiation. ..
  36. Simcox A, Mitra S, Truesdell S, Paul L, Chen T, Butchar J, et al. Efficient genetic method for establishing Drosophila cell lines unlocks the potential to create lines of specific genotypes. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000142 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we found expression of the conserved oncogene Ras(V12) (a constitutively activated form of Ras) profoundly influences the development of primary cultures derived ..
  37. Chi C, Zhu H, Han M, Zhuang Y, Wu X, Xu T. Disruption of lysosome function promotes tumor growth and metastasis in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:21817-23 pubmed publisher
    ..C vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) gene, deep orange (dor), dramatically promote tumor overgrowth and invasion of the Ras(V12) cells...
  38. Dominguez M, Wasserman J, Freeman M. Multiple functions of the EGF receptor in Drosophila eye development. Curr Biol. 1998;8:1039-48 pubmed
    ..At least five distinct functions of EGFR signalling need to be integrated during fly eye development. These include roles in cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. ..
  39. Sawamoto K, Taguchi A, Hirota Y, Yamada C, Jin M, Okano H. Argos induces programmed cell death in the developing Drosophila eye by inhibition of the Ras pathway. Cell Death Differ. 1998;5:262-70 pubmed
    ..Transient misexpression of the activated Ras1 protein (Ras1V12) later in pupal development suppressed the Argos-induced cell death...
  40. Hazelett D, Bourouis M, Walldorf U, Treisman J. decapentaplegic and wingless are regulated by eyes absent and eyegone and interact to direct the pattern of retinal differentiation in the eye disc. Development. 1998;125:3741-51 pubmed
    ..These results provide a link between the early specification and later differentiation of the eye disc. ..
  41. Tang A, Neufeld T, Kwan E, Rubin G. PHYL acts to down-regulate TTK88, a transcriptional repressor of neuronal cell fates, by a SINA-dependent mechanism. Cell. 1997;90:459-67 pubmed
  42. Vidal M, Wells S, Ryan A, Cagan R. ZD6474 suppresses oncogenic RET isoforms in a Drosophila model for type 2 multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2005;65:3538-41 pubmed
    ..Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor, nor did it suppress the activity of downstream components of the RET/Ras pathway...
  43. Cruz C, Glavic A, Casado M, de Celis J. A gain-of-function screen identifying genes required for growth and pattern formation of the Drosophila melanogaster wing. Genetics. 2009;183:1005-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we present a preliminary characterization of a gene identified in the screen, the function of which is required for the development of the L5 longitudinal vein. ..
  44. Nolo R, Morrison C, Tao C, Zhang X, Halder G. The bantam microRNA is a target of the hippo tumor-suppressor pathway. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1895-904 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that bantam is an essential target of the Hippo signaling pathway to regulate cell proliferation, cell death, and thus tissue size. ..
  45. Liu M, Lim T, Cai Y. The Drosophila female germline stem cell lineage acts to spatially restrict DPP function within the niche. Sci Signal. 2010;3:ra57 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data reveal that the reciprocal crosstalk between the GSCs and the somatic cells defines the spatial limits of DPP action and therefore the extent of the GSC niche. ..
  46. Mohseni N, McMillan S, Chaudhary R, Mok J, Reed B. Autophagy promotes caspase-dependent cell death during Drosophila development. Autophagy. 2009;5:329-38 pubmed
    ..Conversely, upregulation of autophagy results in caspase-dependent premature AS dissociation. These observations are consistent with the interpretation that autophagy is a prerequisite for caspase-dependent cell death in the AS. ..
  47. Smith R, Carroll P, Allard J, Simon M. MASK, a large ankyrin repeat and KH domain-containing protein involved in Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Development. 2002;129:71-82 pubmed
    ..The protein tyrosine phosphatase Corkscrew (CSW) is a common component of many RTK signaling pathways, and is required for signaling downstream of SEV and EGFR...
  48. Willoughby L, Schlosser T, Manning S, Parisot J, Street I, Richardson H, et al. An in vivo large-scale chemical screening platform using Drosophila for anti-cancer drug discovery. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6:521-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a Drosophila Ras-driven tumour model, we demonstrate that tumour overgrowth can be curtailed by feeding larvae with chemicals that ..
  49. Yan H, Chin M, Horvath E, Kane E, Pfleger C. Impairment of ubiquitylation by mutation in Drosophila E1 promotes both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous Ras-ERK activation in vivo. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:1461-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Ubiquitylation is widely accepted to regulate receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) endocytosis upstream of Ras...
  50. Martinez A, Schuettengruber B, Sakr S, Janic A, Gonzalez C, Cavalli G. Polyhomeotic has a tumor suppressor activity mediated by repression of Notch signaling. Nat Genet. 2009;41:1076-82 pubmed publisher
    ..They invade the neighboring tissues and, when combined with an activated form of the Ras proto-oncogene, they trigger the formation of metastases...
  51. Karim F, Rubin G. Ectopic expression of activated Ras1 induces hyperplastic growth and increased cell death in Drosophila imaginal tissues. Development. 1998;125:1-9 pubmed
    The Drosophila Ras1 gene is required for proper cell fate specification throughout development, and the loss-of-function phenotype of Ras1 suggests an additional role in cell proliferation or survival...
  52. Willecke M, Toggweiler J, Basler K. Loss of PI3K blocks cell-cycle progression in a Drosophila tumor model. Oncogene. 2011;30:4067-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The results presented here broaden our insights into the intricate mechanisms underling tumorigenesis and illustrate the power of Drosophila genetics in revealing weak points of tumor progression. ..
  53. Gilboa L, Lehmann R. Soma-germline interactions coordinate homeostasis and growth in the Drosophila gonad. Nature. 2006;443:97-100 pubmed
    ..We propose that similar feedback mechanisms might be generally used for coordinated growth, regeneration and homeostasis. ..
  54. Culi J, Martin Blanco E, Modolell J. The EGF receptor and N signalling pathways act antagonistically in Drosophila mesothorax bristle patterning. Development. 2001;128:299-308 pubmed
    ..interactions among cells of the cluster that are mediated by the Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the Ras/Raf pathway...
  55. Freeman M. Cell determination strategies in the Drosophila eye. Development. 1997;124:261-70 pubmed
    ..Since inductive signalling is common in many organisms and its components have been conserved, it is possible that the logic of signalling may also be conserved. ..
  56. Rangarajan R, Gong Q, Gaul U. Migration and function of glia in the developing Drosophila eye. Development. 1999;126:3285-92 pubmed
    ..3) A few glia close to the entry of the optic stalk suffice to guide the axons into the stalk, suggesting that glia instruct axons by local interaction. ..
  57. Rebay I, Chen F, Hsiao F, Kolodziej P, Kuang B, Laverty T, et al. A genetic screen for novel components of the Ras/Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway that interact with the yan gene of Drosophila identifies split ends, a new RNA recognition motif-containing protein. Genetics. 2000;154:695-712 pubmed
    ..While the core RTK/Ras/MAPK signaling cassette has been studied extensively, little is known about the nature of the downstream targets of ..
  58. Therrien M, Morrison D, Wong A, Rubin G. A genetic screen for modifiers of a kinase suppressor of Ras-dependent rough eye phenotype in Drosophila. Genetics. 2000;156:1231-42 pubmed
    ..Ten of these complementation groups correspond to mutations in known components of the Ras1 pathway, demonstrating the ability of the screen to specifically identify loci critical for Ras1 signaling and ..
  59. Martin Blanco E, Roch F, Noll E, Baonza A, Duffy J, Perrimon N. A temporal switch in DER signaling controls the specification and differentiation of veins and interveins in the Drosophila wing. Development. 1999;126:5739-47 pubmed
    ..Together, these temporal and spatial changes in the activity of DER constitute an autoregulatory network that controls the definition of vein and intervein cell types. ..
  60. Chen W, White M, Cobb M. Stimulus-specific requirements for MAP3 kinases in activating the JNK pathway. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:49105-10 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, sorbitol requires expression of four MAP3Ks to cause maximal JNK activation. Thus, we demonstrate that specific stimuli use different mechanisms to recruit distinct MAP3Ks to regulate the JNK pathway. ..
  61. Xu N, Wang S, Tan D, Gao Y, Lin G, Xi R. EGFR, Wingless and JAK/STAT signaling cooperatively maintain Drosophila intestinal stem cells. Dev Biol. 2011;354:31-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that EGFR/Ras/ERK signaling is another important participant in promoting ISC maintenance and division in healthy intestine...
  62. Gisselbrecht S, Skeath J, Doe C, Michelson A. heartless encodes a fibroblast growth factor receptor (DFR1/DFGF-R2) involved in the directional migration of early mesodermal cells in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 1996;10:3003-17 pubmed
    ..Visceral mesoderm can nevertheless be induced by Dpp in the absence of htl function. Ras1 is an important downstream effector of Htl signaling because an activated form of Ras1 partially rescues the htl ..
  63. Almudi I, Stocker H, Hafen E, Corominas M, Serras F. SOCS36E specifically interferes with Sevenless signaling during Drosophila eye development. Dev Biol. 2009;326:212-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The SOCS family of adaptor proteins may have evolved as modulators of specific signaling pathways that contribute to the robustness and precision of cell fate specification. ..
  64. Carmena A, Buff E, Halfon M, Gisselbrecht S, Jimenez F, Baylies M, et al. Reciprocal regulatory interactions between the Notch and Ras signaling pathways in the Drosophila embryonic mesoderm. Dev Biol. 2002;244:226-42 pubmed
    ..of muscle and cardiac progenitors from clusters of equivalent cells in the Drosophila embryonic mesoderm, the Ras/MAPK pathway--activated by both epidermal and fibroblast growth factor receptors--functions as an inductive ..
  65. Michelson A, Gisselbrecht S, Zhou Y, Baek K, Buff E. Dual functions of the heartless fibroblast growth factor receptor in development of the Drosophila embryonic mesoderm. Dev Genet. 1998;22:212-29 pubmed
    ..and somatic muscle cells in the Drosophila embryo, independent of its cell migration function, 2) suggest that Ras and at least one other signal transduction pathway act downstream of Htl, and 3) establish a functional ..
  66. Wandler A, Guillemin K. Transgenic expression of the Helicobacter pylori virulence factor CagA promotes apoptosis or tumorigenesis through JNK activation in Drosophila. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002939 pubmed publisher
    ..further explored the effects of CagA-mediated JNK pathway activation on an epithelium in the context of oncogenic Ras activation, using a Drosophila model of metastasis...
  67. Külshammer E, Uhlirova M. The actin cross-linker Filamin/Cheerio mediates tumor malignancy downstream of JNK signaling. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:927-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that in invasive tumors, resulting from cooperation of activated Ras with disrupted epithelial cell polarity, Cher is upregulated in a Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent manner...
  68. Szuts D, Bienz M. An autoregulatory function of Dfos during Drosophila endoderm induction. Mech Dev. 2000;98:71-6 pubmed
    ..We show that Dfos expression is stimulated by Egfr signalling. Finally, we find that Dfos function is required for its own upregulation. Thus, endoderm induction is based on at least four tiers of positive autoregulatory feedback loops. ..
  69. Apidianakis Y, Rahme L. Drosophila melanogaster as a model for human intestinal infection and pathology. Dis Model Mech. 2011;4:21-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Perspective, we discuss recent advances in the study of Drosophila intestinal infection and pathology, and briefly review the parallels and differences between human and Drosophila intestinal regeneration and disease. ..
  70. Poulton J, Deng W. Dystroglycan down-regulation links EGF receptor signaling and anterior-posterior polarity formation in the Drosophila oocyte. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12775-80 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that Dystroglycan links EGFR-induced repression of the anterior follicle cell fate and anterior-posterior polarity formation in the oocyte. ..
  71. Matsuo T, Takahashi K, Kondo S, Kaibuchi K, Yamamoto D. Regulation of cone cell formation by Canoe and Ras in the developing Drosophila eye. Development. 1997;124:2671-80 pubmed
    ..When a constitutively active form of Ras1 (Ras1V12) is expressed in the R7 equivalence group cells using the sev promoter (sev-Ras1V12), additional cone ..
  72. Cela C, Llimargas M. Egfr is essential for maintaining epithelial integrity during tracheal remodelling in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:3115-25 pubmed
    ..This finding establishes a link between a developmental pathway governing tracheal formation and cell adhesiveness. ..
  73. Igaki T, Pagliarini R, Xu T. Loss of cell polarity drives tumor growth and invasion through JNK activation in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1139-46 pubmed
    ..Here, using a Drosophila genetic model for Ras-induced tumor progression, we show a molecular link between loss of cell polarity and tumor malignancy...
  74. Cordero J, Jassim O, Bao S, Cagan R. A role for wingless in an early pupal cell death event that contributes to patterning the Drosophila eye. Mech Dev. 2004;121:1523-30 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, altering Drosophila Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor or Ras pathway activity had no effect on this death...
  75. Pagliarini R, Xu T. A genetic screen in Drosophila for metastatic behavior. Science. 2003;302:1227-31 pubmed
    ..We found that cooperation between oncogenic RasV12 expression and inactivation of any one of a number of genes affecting cell polarity leads to metastatic behavior, ..
  76. Jiang H, Edgar B. EGFR signaling regulates the proliferation of Drosophila adult midgut progenitors. Development. 2009;136:483-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that signaling through the EGFR/RAS/MAPK pathway is necessary and limiting for AMP proliferation...
  77. Li S, Li Y, Carthew R, Lai Z. Photoreceptor cell differentiation requires regulated proteolysis of the transcriptional repressor Tramtrack. Cell. 1997;90:469-78 pubmed
    ..Down-regulation requires the presence of Phyllopod (PHYL), which is induced by the RAS pathway, and Seven In Absentia (SINA)...
  78. Hasson P, Egoz N, Winkler C, Volohonsky G, Jia S, Dinur T, et al. EGFR signaling attenuates Groucho-dependent repression to antagonize Notch transcriptional output. Nat Genet. 2005;37:101-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, Gro is a new junction between signaling pathways, enabling EGFR signaling to antagonize transcriptional output by Notch and potentially other Gro-dependent pathways. ..
  79. Li W, Melnick M, Perrimon N. Dual function of Ras in Raf activation. Development. 1998;125:4999-5008 pubmed
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