Gene Symbol: ras
Description: raspberry
Alias: CG11485, CG1799, Dmel\CG1799, EP(X)1093, IMPDH, IMPdH, LD02673, LD06825, Ras, l(1)9Eb, l(1)G0002, l(1)G0056, l(1)G0098, l(1)G0127, l(1)G0238, l(1)G0351, l(1)G0380, l(1)G0388, l(1)G0391, l(1)G0436, l(1)G0482, ras-l, raspberry/impd, raspberry, CG1799-PA, CG1799-PC, CG1799-PD, CG1799-PE, IMP dehydrogenase, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, lethal (1) G0380, ras-PA, ras-PC, ras-PD, ras-PE, raspberry-lethal
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Cuvier O, Hart C, Laemmli U. Identification of a class of chromatin boundary elements. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:7478-86 pubmed
    ..This is the first example of a class of boundary elements that share a sequence motif and a binding protein. ..
  2. Aron L, Klein P, Pham T, Kramer E, Wurst W, Klein R. Pro-survival role for Parkinson's associated gene DJ-1 revealed in trophically impaired dopaminergic neurons. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000349 pubmed publisher
    ..Using Drosophila genetics, we show that constitutively active Ret and associated Ras/ERK, but not PI3K/Akt, signaling components interact genetically with DJ-1...
  3. Hoheisel J, Lennon G, Zehetner G, Lehrach H. Use of high coverage reference libraries of Drosophila melanogaster for relational data analysis. A step towards mapping and sequencing of the genome. J Mol Biol. 1991;220:903-14 pubmed
    ..cDNA clones are further examined by a partial sequencing analysis by oligomer hybridization. ..
  4. Ukken F, Aprill I, Jayanandanan N, Leptin M. Slik and the receptor tyrosine kinase Breathless mediate localized activation of Moesin in terminal tracheal cells. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e103323 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal the FGF-receptor Breathless as an additional necessary cue for the activation of Moesin in terminal cells. Breathless-mediated activation of Moesin is independent of the canonical MAP kinase pathway. ..
  5. Grigliatti T, Suzuki D. Temperature-sensitive mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. V. A mutation affecting concentrations of pteridines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1970;67:1101-8 pubmed
    A temperature-sensitive ras allele has an effective lethal phase at 29 degrees C about 12 hr after pupation and a temperature-sensitive period for lethality beginning midway through the third larval instar and ending around pupation...
  6. Nash D, Hu S, Leonard N, Tiong S, Fillips D. The raspberry locus of Drosophila melanogaster includes an inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase like coding sequence. Genome. 1994;37:333-44 pubmed
    ..DNA segment adjacent to the P insert encodes an amino acid sequence that is similar to known inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) sequences...
  7. Nash D, Janca F. Hypomorphic lethal mutations and their implications for the interpretation of lethal complementation studies in Drosophila. Genetics. 1983;105:957-68 pubmed
    ..Accidental inclusion of disguised haplo-specific lethals in autosomal complementation tests will generate spurious examples of interallelic complementation. ..
  8. Hutter P, Roote J, Ashburner M. A genetic basis for the inviability of hybrids between sibling species of Drosophila. Genetics. 1990;124:909-20 pubmed
    ..These data are interpreted on the basis of a model for the genetic basis of hybrid inviability of complementary genes. ..
  9. Barbash D, Roote J, Ashburner M. The Drosophila melanogaster hybrid male rescue gene causes inviability in male and female species hybrids. Genetics. 2000;154:1747-71 pubmed
    ..melanogaster mothers. Implications of our findings for understanding Haldane's rule-the observation that hybrid breakdown is often specific to the heterogametic sex-are also discussed. ..

More Information


  1. Lefevre G. The eccentricity of vermilion deficiencies in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1969;63:589-600 pubmed
  2. Kim S, Kim J, Malik S, Son W, Kwon K, Kim C. Negative regulation of EGFR/MAPK pathway by Pumilio in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34016 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our evidence suggests that Pum functions as a negative regulator of EGFR signaling by directly targeting components of the pathway in Drosophila. ..
  3. Eeken J. The stability of mutator (MR)-induced X-chromosomal recessive visible mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1982;96:213-24 pubmed
    ..induction of visible mutations by MR is observed at only a limited number of genes, such as singed bristle (sn), raspberry eye colour (ras), yellow body colour (y) and a carmine eye colour (car)...
  4. Nivard M, Pastink A, Vogel E. Mutational spectra induced under distinct excision repair conditions by the 3 methylating agents N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and N-nitrosodimethylamine in postmeiotic male germ cells of Drosophila. Mutat Res. 1996;352:97-115 pubmed
    ..Based on the data obtained in the vermilion system with ENU, we propose, in addition, that the Drosophila alkyltransferase system repairs O6-methylguanine more efficiently than O6-ethylguanine. ..
  5. Sifri C, Wilson K, Smolik S, Forte M, Ullman B. Cloning and sequence analysis of a Drosophila melanogaster cDNA encoding IMP dehydrogenase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994;1217:103-6 pubmed
    A cDNA encoding the entire Drosophila melanogaster IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH) protein was isolated and sequenced...
  6. Zhimulev I, Semeshin V, Belyaeva E. Fine cytogenetical analysis of the band 10A1-2 and the adjoining regions in the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome. I. Cytology of the region and mapping of chromosome rearrangement. Chromosoma. 1981;82:9-23 pubmed
    ..The break points of 30 chromosome rearrangements in the region 9E1-2 - 10B1-2 were located under EM or LM within the limits of the EM map of this region. ..
  7. Beadle G, Ephrussi B. The Differentiation of Eye Pigments in Drosophila as Studied by Transplantation. Genetics. 1936;21:225-47 pubmed
  8. Bosveld F, Guirao B, Wang Z, Rivière M, Bonnet I, Graner F, et al. Modulation of junction tension by tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes regulates cell-cell contacts. Development. 2016;143:623-34 pubmed publisher
    ..More generally, either clone bulk or boundary junction tension is modulated by the activation of Yorkie, Myc and Ras, yielding similar contact reductions with wt cells...
  9. Hall E, Verheyen E. Ras-activated Dsor1 promotes Wnt signaling in Drosophila development. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:4499-511 pubmed publisher
    Wnt/Wingless (Wg) and Ras-MAPK signaling both play fundamental roles in growth and cell fate determination, and when dysregulated, can lead to tumorigenesis...
  10. Erokhin M, Parshikov A, Georgiev P, Chetverina D. E(y)2/Sus1 is required for blocking PRE silencing by the Wari insulator in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 2010;119:243-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the E(y)2 protein in different Drosophila insulators serves to protect gene expression from silencing. ..
  11. Janca F, Woloshyn E, Nash D. Heterogeneity of lethals in a "simple" lethal complementation group. Genetics. 1986;112:43-64 pubmed
    ..melanogaster, eight fall into a typically homogeneous lethal complementation group associated with the raspberry (ras) locus...
  12. Maeng O, Son W, Chung J, Lee K, Lee Y, Yoo O, et al. The BTB/POZ-ZF transcription factor dPLZF is involved in Ras/ERK signaling during Drosophila wing development. Mol Cells. 2012;33:457-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic interactions between dPLZF and Ras or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) significantly enhanced the formation of vein cells...
  13. Emberly E, Blattes R, Schuettengruber B, Hennion M, Jiang N, Hart C, et al. BEAF regulates cell-cycle genes through the controlled deposition of H3K9 methylation marks into its conserved dual-core binding sites. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:2896-910 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a novel role for BEAF chromatin dual-cores in regulating a distinct set of genes involved in chromosome organization/segregation and the cell cycle. ..
  14. Eeken J, Sobels F, Hyland V, Schalet A. Distribution of MR-induced sex-linked recessive lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1985;150:261-75 pubmed
  15. Johnson M, Woloshyn E, Nash D. Cytogenetic localisation of the purine 1 and guanosine 1 loci of Drosophila melanogaster; the purine 1 locus specifies a vital function. Mol Gen Genet. 1979;174:287-92 pubmed
    ..Because mutants of pur 1 behaved as semi-lethals against deficiencies even on permissive medium, it appears that the pur 1 locus is vital to the fly and its auxotrophic mutants are hypomorphs. ..
  16. Ragab A, Buechling T, Gesellchen V, Spirohn K, Boettcher A, Boutros M. Drosophila Ras/MAPK signalling regulates innate immune responses in immune and intestinal stem cells. EMBO J. 2011;30:1123-36 pubmed publisher
    ..RNAi screen for modulators of Drosophila immune deficiency (IMD)/NF-?B signalling, we identified components of the Ras/MAPK pathway as essential for suppression of IMD pathway activity, even in the absence of an immune challenge...
  17. Kari B, Csordás G, Honti V, Cinege G, Williams M, Andó I, et al. The raspberry Gene Is Involved in the Regulation of the Cellular Immune Response in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0150910 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the Drosophila inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), encoded by raspberry (ras), is centrally important for a proper cellular immune response against eggs from the parasitoid wasp ..
  18. Hutter P, Karch F. Molecular analysis of a candidate gene for the reproductive isolation between sibling species of Drosophila. Experientia. 1994;50:749-62 pubmed
    ..Analysis of several cDNAs suggested that the rescue of hybrids may be dependent on mutations in the variable 3' end region of this gene, affecting the level and/or the stability of the largest messenger RNA. ..
  19. Aguirrezabalaga I, Nivard M, Comendador M, Vogel E. The cross-linking agent hexamethylphosphoramide predominantly induces intra-locus and multi-locus deletions in postmeiotic germ cells of Drosophila. Genetics. 1995;139:649-58 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that an eukaryotic in vivo system with no limitations for the recovery of multi-locus deletions, such as vermilion, should be used for the analysis of DNA damage induced by cross-linking agents. ..
  20. Kozhevnikova E, van der Knaap J, Pindyurin A, Ozgur Z, van Ijcken W, Moshkin Y, et al. Metabolic enzyme IMPDH is also a transcription factor regulated by cellular state. Mol Cell. 2012;47:133-9 pubmed publisher
    Cells need to coordinate gene expression and metabolic state. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) controls the guanine nucleotide pool and, thereby, cell proliferation...
  21. Charng W, Yamamoto S, Bellen H. Shared mechanisms between Drosophila peripheral nervous system development and human neurodegenerative diseases. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2014;27:158-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we summarize and discuss how studies of Drosophila PNS and NMJ development have provided guidance in experimental approaches for these diseases. ..
  22. Slee R, Bownes M. The raspberry locus encodes Drosophila inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mol Gen Genet. 1995;248:755-66 pubmed
    ..testis-specific beta-galactosidase expression led to the isolation of the Drosophila gene encoding inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPD), the rate-limiting enzyme in guanine nucleotide synthesis, which has been implicated in cell ..
  23. BARRON D, Kagey J. The role of the Hippo pathway in human disease and tumorigenesis. Clin Transl Med. 2014;3:25 pubmed publisher
    ..The common activation of YAP in many different tumor types provides an attractive target for potential therapeutic intervention. ..
  24. Long H, Cameron S, Yu L, Rao Y. De novo GMP synthesis is required for axon guidance in Drosophila. Genetics. 2006;172:1633-42 pubmed
    ..Similar defects were observed when the raspberry (ras) gene, encoding for inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase catalyzing the IMP-to-XMP conversion in GMP de novo synthesis, was mutated...
  25. Zhang Y, Roote J, Brogna S, Davis A, Barbash D, Nash D, et al. stress sensitive B encodes an adenine nucleotide translocase in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1999;153:891-903 pubmed
    ..This hypothesis is not supported by our study of the ANT genes of D. melanogaster. ..
  26. Ivshina M, Lasko P, Richter J. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding proteins in development, health, and disease. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2014;30:393-415 pubmed publisher
    ..We review the biochemical features of the CPEB proteins, discuss their activities in several biological systems, and illustrate how understanding CPEB activity in model organisms has an important impact on neurological disease. ..
  27. Lloyd V, Sinclair D, Alperyn M, Grigliatti T. Enhancer of garnet/deltaAP-3 is a cryptic allele of the white gene and identifies the intracellular transport system for the white protein. Genome. 2002;45:296-312 pubmed
    ..This observation supports a role for these genes in intracellular transport and leads to a model whereby incorrect sorting of the white gene product can explain the pigmentation phenotypes of an entire group of eye-color genes...
  28. Zhimulev I, Pokholkova G, Bgatov A, Semeshin V, Belyaeva E. Fine cytogenetical analysis of the band 10A1-2 and the adjoining regions in the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome. II. Genetical analysis. Chromosoma. 1981;82:25-40 pubmed
    ..About 70% of the band's DNA was found to be silent. - Using the set of chromosome rearrangements removing different parts of the band it was shown that these five sequences may function independently from each other. ..
  29. Hutter P, Ashburner M. Genetic rescue of inviable hybrids between Drosophila melanogaster and its sibling species. Nature. 1987;327:331-3 pubmed
    ..melanogaster females and males of its three closest relatives. The study of this locus may shed light on the genetic control of both speciation and development. ..
  30. Evans B, Howells A. Control of drosopterin synthesis in Drosophila melanogaster: mutants showing an altered pattern of GTP cyclohydrolase activity during development. Biochem Genet. 1978;16:13-26 pubmed
    ..The mutants raspberry and prune show an increased GTP cyclohydrolase activity at pupariation relative to wild type, but a decreased ..
  31. Ohsawa S, Takemoto D, Igaki T. Dissecting tumour heterogeneity in flies: genetic basis of interclonal oncogenic cooperation. J Biochem. 2014;156:129-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on describing recent findings obtained from Drosophila genetics that provide genetic basis of interclonal oncogenic cooperation in heterogeneous tumour tissue. ..