Gene Symbol: Rac1
Description: Rac1
Alias: 2248, CG2248, D-Rac, D-Rac 1, D-Rac1, DRac, DRac1, DRacA, Dm Rac1, DmRAC, DmRAC1, Dmel\CG2248, Dmrac1, Drac, Drac1, Drac1a, DracA, GTPase Rac1, P40792, RAC1, Rac, Rac GTPase, Rac-1, Rac3, RacA, dRac, dRac1, drac1, rac, rac1, Rac1, CG2248-PA, CG2248-PB, Rac, Rac GTPase, Rac1-PA, Rac1-PB
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Rac1

Top Publications

  1. Conder R, Yu H, Zahedi B, Harden N. The serine/threonine kinase dPak is required for polarized assembly of F-actin bundles and apical-basal polarity in the Drosophila follicular epithelium. Dev Biol. 2007;305:470-82 pubmed
    ..We propose that dPak mediates communication between the basement membrane and intracellular proteins required for polarization of the basal F-actin and for apical-basal polarity. ..
  2. Brumby A, Goulding K, Schlosser T, Loi S, Galea R, Khoo P, et al. Identification of novel Ras-cooperating oncogenes in Drosophila melanogaster: a RhoGEF/Rho-family/JNK pathway is a central driver of tumorigenesis. Genetics. 2011;188:105-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Ras(ACT)-cooperating genes identified were Rac1 Rho1, RhoGEF2, pbl, rib, and east, which encode cell morphology regulators...
  3. Fanto M, Weber U, Strutt D, Mlodzik M. Nuclear signaling by Rac and Rho GTPases is required in the establishment of epithelial planar polarity in the Drosophila eye. Curr Biol. 2000;10:979-88 pubmed
    ..By expressing a dominant negative or a constitutively activated form of Rac1, we interfered specifically with Rac signaling and disrupted ommatidial polarity...
  4. Geisbrecht E, Haralalka S, Swanson S, Florens L, Washburn M, Abmayr S. Drosophila ELMO/CED-12 interacts with Myoblast city to direct myoblast fusion and ommatidial organization. Dev Biol. 2008;314:137-49 pubmed publisher
    ..in the embryonic mesoderm causes defects in myoblast fusion reminiscent of those seen with constitutively-activated Rac1, supporting the previous finding that both the absence of and an excess of Rac activity are deleterious to myoblast ..
  5. Vlisidou I, Dowling A, Evans I, Waterfield N, Ffrench Constant R, Wood W. Drosophila embryos as model systems for monitoring bacterial infection in real time. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000518 pubmed publisher
    ..that endocytosis is required for Mcf1 toxicity and can be modulated by dominant negative or constitutively active Rac expression, suggesting early and unexpected effects of Mcf1 on the actin cytoskeleton...
  6. Denholm B, Brown S, Ray R, Ruiz Gomez M, Skaer H, Hombria J. crossveinless-c is a RhoGAP required for actin reorganisation during morphogenesis. Development. 2005;132:2389-400 pubmed
    ..Genetic interactions between cv-c and RhoGTPase mutants indicate that Rho1, Rac1 and Rac2 are substrates for Cv-c, and suggest that the substrate specificity might be regulated in a tissue-..
  7. Sanny J, Chui V, Langmann C, Pereira C, Zahedi B, Harden N. Drosophila RhoGAP68F is a putative GTPase activating protein for RhoA participating in gastrulation. Dev Genes Evol. 2006;216:543-50 pubmed
    The Rho family small GTPases Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 regulate cell shape and motility through the actin cytoskeleton...
  8. Duchek P, Somogyi K, Jekely G, Beccari S, Rørth P. Guidance of cell migration by the Drosophila PDGF/VEGF receptor. Cell. 2001;107:17-26 pubmed
    ..Intriguingly, the guidance function of PVR is largely redundant with that of EGFR. We present evidence implicating Rac and the Rac activator Mbc/DOCK180/CED-5 as mediators of the guidance signal.
  9. Woolner S, Jacinto A, Martin P. The small GTPase Rac plays multiple roles in epithelial sheet fusion--dynamic studies of Drosophila dorsal closure. Dev Biol. 2005;282:163-73 pubmed
    ..We show that constitutive activation of Rac1 leads to excessive assembly of lamellipodia and precocious halting of epithelial sweeping, possibly through ..

More Information


  1. Nahm M, Long A, Paik S, Kim S, Bae Y, Broadie K, et al. The Cdc42-selective GAP rich regulates postsynaptic development and retrograde BMP transsynaptic signaling. J Cell Biol. 2010;191:661-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, dRich increases Gbb release and elevates presynaptic phosphorylated Mad levels. We propose that dRich coordinates the Gbb-dependent modulation of synaptic growth and function with postsynaptic development. ..
  2. Zettervall C, Anderl I, Williams M, Palmer R, Kurucz E, Ando I, et al. A directed screen for genes involved in Drosophila blood cell activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14192-7 pubmed
    ..Still other signals, mediated by aop(ACT), Toll(10b), and Rac1 expression, cause a simultaneous increase in lamellocyte and total cell numbers, and the same effect is seen when ..
  3. Hou X, Goldstein E, Perrimon N. Drosophila Jun relays the Jun amino-terminal kinase signal transduction pathway to the Decapentaplegic signal transduction pathway in regulating epithelial cell sheet movement. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1728-37 pubmed
    ..In contrast to previous observations, we find that both in the embryo and during photoreceptor cell determination, DJUN is not regulated by a pathway that involves MAPK. ..
  4. Haralalka S, Shelton C, Cartwright H, Katzfey E, Janzen E, Abmayr S. Asymmetric Mbc, active Rac1 and F-actin foci in the fusion-competent myoblasts during myoblast fusion in Drosophila. Development. 2011;138:1551-62 pubmed publisher
    ..guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Mbc plays a fundamental role in the FCMs, where it functions to activate Rac1, but is not required in the founder cells for fusion...
  5. Lu Y, Settleman J. The Drosophila Pkn protein kinase is a Rho/Rac effector target required for dorsal closure during embryogenesis. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1168-80 pubmed
    ..mediate a pathway for cell shape changes in dorsal closure that is independent of the previously reported Rac GTPase-mediated Jun amino (N)-terminal kinase (JNK) cascade that regulates gene expression required for dorsal closure...
  6. Neisch A, Speck O, Stronach B, Fehon R. Rho1 regulates apoptosis via activation of the JNK signaling pathway at the plasma membrane. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:311-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that Rho1 functions at the cell cortex to regulate JNK activity and implicate Rho1 and Moe in epithelial cell survival. ..
  7. Fritz J, VanBerkum M. Regulation of rho family GTPases is required to prevent axons from crossing the midline. Dev Biol. 2002;252:46-58 pubmed
    ..vivo role of Rho GTPases in midline guidance, dominant negative (dn) and constitutively active (ct) forms of Rho, Drac1, and Dcdc42 are expressed in the Drosophila CNS...
  8. van Impel A, Schumacher S, Draga M, Herz H, Grosshans J, Müller H. Regulation of the Rac GTPase pathway by the multifunctional Rho GEF Pebble is essential for mesoderm migration in the Drosophila gastrula. Development. 2009;136:813-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we show that the Rac pathway plays an essential role during mesoderm migration...
  9. Lee A, Li W, Xu K, Bogert B, Su K, Gao F. Control of dendritic development by the Drosophila fragile X-related gene involves the small GTPase Rac1. Development. 2003;130:5543-52 pubmed
    ..the mechanisms underlying Fmr1 function in dendrite development, we found that the mRNA encoding small GTPase Rac1 was present in the Fmr1-messenger ribonucleoprotein complexes in vivo...
  10. Andersen R, Li Y, Resseguie M, Brenman J. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alters structural plasticity and cytoskeletal dynamics in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2005;25:8878-88 pubmed
    ..In parallel, we examined the effects of Rac1 activity on dendritic structure to explore signaling specificity...
  11. Lundström A, Gallio M, Englund C, Steneberg P, Hemphälä J, Aspenstrom P, et al. Vilse, a conserved Rac/Cdc42 GAP mediating Robo repulsion in tracheal cells and axons. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2161-71 pubmed
    ..These results together with genetic interaction experiments with robo, vilse, and rac mutants suggest a mechanism whereby Robo repulsion is mediated by the localized inactivation of Rac through Vilse.
  12. Hacker U, Perrimon N. DRhoGEF2 encodes a member of the Dbl family of oncogenes and controls cell shape changes during gastrulation in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1998;12:274-84 pubmed
  13. Grosshans J, Wenzl C, Herz H, Bartoszewski S, Schnorrer F, Vogt N, et al. RhoGEF2 and the formin Dia control the formation of the furrow canal by directed actin assembly during Drosophila cellularisation. Development. 2005;132:1009-20 pubmed
    ..Our results support a model in which RhoGEF2 and dia control position, shape and stability of the forming furrow canal by spatially restricted assembly of actin filaments required for the proper infolding of the plasma membrane. ..
  14. Shindo M, Wada H, Kaido M, Tateno M, Aigaki T, Tsuda L, et al. Dual function of Src in the maintenance of adherens junctions during tracheal epithelial morphogenesis. Development. 2008;135:1355-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the two opposing outcomes of Src activation on E-cadherin facilitate the efficient exchange of adherens junctions, demonstrating the key role of Src in the maintenance of epithelial integrity. ..
  15. Paululat A, Holz A, Renkawitz Pohl R. Essential genes for myoblast fusion in Drosophila embryogenesis. Mech Dev. 1999;83:17-26 pubmed
    ..The molecular characterization of further genes relevant for fusion such as singles bar and sticks and stones will help to elucidate the mechanism of myoblast fusion in Drosophila. ..
  16. Prokopenko S, Brumby A, O KEEFE L, Prior L, He Y, Saint R, et al. A putative exchange factor for Rho1 GTPase is required for initiation of cytokinesis in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2301-14 pubmed
    ..pbl interacts genetically with Rho1, but not with Rac1 or Cdc42, and Pbl and Rho1 proteins interact in vivo in yeast...
  17. Govek E, Newey S, Van Aelst L. The role of the Rho GTPases in neuronal development. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1-49 pubmed
    ..This review will focus on the role of the Rho GTPases and their associated signaling molecules throughout neuronal development and discuss how perturbations in Rho GTPase signaling may lead to cognitive disorders. ..
  18. Eaton S, Auvinen P, Luo L, Jan Y, Simons K. CDC42 and Rac1 control different actin-dependent processes in the Drosophila wing disc epithelium. J Cell Biol. 1995;131:151-64 pubmed
    ..b>Drac1 is required to assemble actin at adherens junctions...
  19. Ng J, Luo L. Rho GTPases regulate axon growth through convergent and divergent signaling pathways. Neuron. 2004;44:779-93 pubmed
    ..Genetic data provide evidence that Rho or Rac/Cdc42, via effector kinases Rok or Pak, respectively, activate LIM kinase to inhibit axon growth...
  20. Chang H, Ready D. Rescue of photoreceptor degeneration in rhodopsin-null Drosophila mutants by activated Rac1. Science. 2000;290:1978-80 pubmed
    ..Here we report that transgenic expression of a dominant-active Drosophila Rho guanosine triphosphatase, Drac1, rescued photoreceptor morphogenesis in rhodopsin-null mutants; expression of dominant-negative Drac1 resulted in ..
  21. Stuart L, Deng J, Silver J, Takahashi K, Tseng A, Hennessy E, et al. Response to Staphylococcus aureus requires CD36-mediated phagocytosis triggered by the COOH-terminal cytoplasmic domain. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:477-85 pubmed
    ..aureus in vivo resulting in profound bacteraemia. Thus, response to S. aureus requires CD36-mediated phagocytosis triggered by the COOH-terminal cytoplasmic domain, which initiates TLR2/6 signaling. ..
  22. Barrett K, Leptin M, Settleman J. The Rho GTPase and a putative RhoGEF mediate a signaling pathway for the cell shape changes in Drosophila gastrulation. Cell. 1997;91:905-15 pubmed
    ..Together, these results establish a Rho-mediated signaling pathway that is essential for the major morphogenetic events in Drosophila gastrulation. ..
  23. Williams M, Wiklund M, Wikman S, Hultmark D. Rac1 signalling in the Drosophila larval cellular immune response. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:2015-24 pubmed
    ..By using two Rac1 GTPase effector-loop mutants together with epistasis studies, we show that Rac1 requires the Drosophila ..
  24. Bateman J, Shu H, Van Vactor D. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor trio mediates axonal development in the Drosophila embryo. Neuron. 2000;26:93-106 pubmed
    Recent analysis of Rho subfamily GTPases in Drosophila revealed roles for Rac and Cdc42 during axonogenesis...
  25. Yang L, Bashaw G. Son of sevenless directly links the Robo receptor to rac activation to control axon repulsion at the midline. Neuron. 2006;52:595-607 pubmed
    ..forms a ternary complex with the Roundabout receptor and the SH3-SH2 adaptor protein Dreadlocks (Dock) to regulate Rac-dependent cytoskeletal rearrangement in response to the Slit ligand...
  26. Winter C, Wang B, Ballew A, Royou A, Karess R, Axelrod J, et al. Drosophila Rho-associated kinase (Drok) links Frizzled-mediated planar cell polarity signaling to the actin cytoskeleton. Cell. 2001;105:81-91 pubmed
    ..Drosophila myosin VIIA, the homolog of the human Usher Syndrome 1B gene, also functions in conjunction with this newly defined portion of the Fz/Dsh signaling pathway to regulate the actin cytoskeleton. ..
  27. Conder R, Yu H, Ricos M, Hing H, Chia W, Lim L, et al. dPak is required for integrity of the leading edge cytoskeleton during Drosophila dorsal closure but does not signal through the JNK cascade. Dev Biol. 2004;276:378-90 pubmed
    The Pak kinases are effectors for the small GTPases Rac and Cdc42 and are divided into two subfamilies. Group I Paks possess an autoinhibitory domain that can suppress their kinase activity in trans...
  28. Avet Rochex A, Bergeret E, Attree I, Meister M, Fauvarque M. Suppression of Drosophila cellular immunity by directed expression of the ExoS toxin GAP domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cell Microbiol. 2005;7:799-810 pubmed
    ..Directed expression of the ExoS GAP domain (ExoSGAP) during fly eye morphogenesis inhibited Rac1-, Cdc42- and Rho-dependent signalling, demonstrating for the first time its activity on RhoGTPases in a whole ..
  29. Huelsmann S, Hepper C, Marchese D, Knoll C, Reuter R. The PDZ-GEF dizzy regulates cell shape of migrating macrophages via Rap1 and integrins in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2006;133:2915-24 pubmed
    ..These data provide the first link between a PDZ-GEF, the corresponding small GTPase and integrin-dependent cell adhesion during cell migration in embryonic development. ..
  30. Chen E, Pryce B, Tzeng J, Gonzalez G, Olson E. Control of myoblast fusion by a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, loner, and its effector ARF6. Cell. 2003;114:751-62 pubmed
    ..Loner and ARF6, which also control the proper membrane localization of another small GTPase, Rac, are key components of a cellular apparatus required for myoblast fusion and muscle development...
  31. Singh J, Aaronson S, Mlodzik M. Drosophila Abelson kinase mediates cell invasion and proliferation through two distinct MAPK pathways. Oncogene. 2010;29:4033-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Downstream of dAbl, Rac GTPases activate two distinct MAPK pathways: c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling (required for cell invasion and ..
  32. Glise B, Noselli S. Coupling of Jun amino-terminal kinase and Decapentaplegic signaling pathways in Drosophila morphogenesis. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1738-47 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the small GTPases Dcdc42, Drac1, and the Hep JNKK control dpp expression in this migratory process...
  33. Newsome T, Schmidt S, Dietzl G, Keleman K, Asling B, Debant A, et al. Trio combines with dock to regulate Pak activity during photoreceptor axon pathfinding in Drosophila. Cell. 2000;101:283-94 pubmed
    ..This GEF domain activates Rac, which in turn activates Pak...
  34. Wood W, Jacinto A, Grose R, Woolner S, Gale J, Wilson C, et al. Wound healing recapitulates morphogenesis in Drosophila embryos. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:907-12 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest a more complex model for epithelial repair than previously envisaged and highlight remarkable similarities with the well-characterized morphogenetic movement of dorsal closure in Drosophila. ..
  35. Ryabinina O, Subbian E, Iordanov M. D-MEKK1, the Drosophila orthologue of mammalian MEKK4/MTK1, and Hemipterous/D-MKK7 mediate the activation of D-JNK by cadmium and arsenite in Schneider cells. BMC Cell Biol. 2006;7:7 pubmed
    ..D-MEKK1, the fly orthologue of mammalian MEKK4/MTK1, and Hemipterous/D-MKK7 mediates the activation of D-JNK by cadmium and arsenite. ..
  36. Gildor B, Massarwa R, Shilo B, Schejter E. The SCAR and WASp nucleation-promoting factors act sequentially to mediate Drosophila myoblast fusion. EMBO Rep. 2009;10:1043-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations further imply a separate, Rac-dependent role for the SCAR complex in promoting myoblast migration...
  37. Leiss F, Koper E, Hein I, Fouquet W, Lindner J, Sigrist S, et al. Characterization of dendritic spines in the Drosophila central nervous system. Dev Neurobiol. 2009;69:221-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, their number is modulated by the level of the small GTPase dRac1. Our results provide a basis to dissect the genetics of dendritic spine formation and maintenance and the ..
  38. Hu H, Marton T, Goodman C. Plexin B mediates axon guidance in Drosophila by simultaneously inhibiting active Rac and enhancing RhoA signaling. Neuron. 2001;32:39-51 pubmed
    ..Previous studies showed that Plexin B (PlexB) binds directly to the active, GTP-bound form of the Rac GTPase. Here, we define a seven amino acid sequence in PlexB required for Rac(GTP) binding...
  39. Simoes S, Denholm B, Azevedo D, Sotillos S, Martin P, Skaer H, et al. Compartmentalisation of Rho regulators directs cell invagination during tissue morphogenesis. Development. 2006;133:4257-67 pubmed
  40. Hariharan I, Hu K, Asha H, Quintanilla A, Ezzell R, Settleman J. Characterization of rho GTPase family homologues in Drosophila melanogaster: overexpressing Rho1 in retinal cells causes a late developmental defect. EMBO J. 1995;14:292-302 pubmed
    ..expressed members of this family from Drosophila melanogaster; a rho homologue (Rho1) and two rac homologues (Rac1 and Rac2)...
  41. Boutros M, Paricio N, Strutt D, Mlodzik M. Dishevelled activates JNK and discriminates between JNK pathways in planar polarity and wingless signaling. Cell. 1998;94:109-18 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that different Wnt/Fz signals activate distinct intracellular pathways, and Dishevelled discriminates among them by distinct domain interactions. ..
  42. Sato D, Sugimura K, Satoh D, Uemura T. Crossveinless-c, the Drosophila homolog of tumor suppressor DLC1, regulates directional elongation of dendritic branches via down-regulating Rho1 activity. Genes Cells. 2010;15:485-500 pubmed publisher
    ..All of our results suggest that Cv-c contributes to sprouting and subsequent growth of the A-P-oriented branches through negative regulation of Rho1. We discuss a role of Cv-c in dendritic growth in response to environmental cues. ..
  43. Bashaw G, Hu H, Nobes C, Goodman C. A novel Dbl family RhoGEF promotes Rho-dependent axon attraction to the central nervous system midline in Drosophila and overcomes Robo repulsion. J Cell Biol. 2001;155:1117-22 pubmed
    The key role of the Rho family GTPases Rac, Rho, and CDC42 in regulating the actin cytoskeleton is well established (Hall, A. 1998. Science. 279:509-514)...
  44. Stronach B, Perrimon N. Activation of the JNK pathway during dorsal closure in Drosophila requires the mixed lineage kinase, slipper. Genes Dev. 2002;16:377-87 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our results show that other putative JNKKKs cannot compensate for the loss of slpr function and, thus, may regulate other JNK or MAPK-dependent processes. ..
  45. Paladi M, Tepass U. Function of Rho GTPases in embryonic blood cell migration in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:6313-26 pubmed
    ..We use both Gal4 lines to express dominantnegative and constitutively active isoforms of the Rho GTPases Rac1, Cdc42, Rho1 and RhoL in macrophages, and complement these experiments by analyzing embryos mutant for Rho GTPases...
  46. Martin Bermudo M, Alvarez Garcia I, Brown N. Migration of the Drosophila primordial midgut cells requires coordination of diverse PS integrin functions. Development. 1999;126:5161-9 pubmed
    ..We find that dominant negative (N17) versions of Rac and Cdc42 cause a very similar defect in migration as loss of integrins, while those of Rho and Ras have no effect...
  47. Agnes F, Suzanne M, Noselli S. The Drosophila JNK pathway controls the morphogenesis of imaginal discs during metamorphosis. Development. 1999;126:5453-62 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we show that the small GTPase Dcdc42, but not Drac1, is an activator of puc expression in a hep-dependent manner in imaginal discs...
  48. Brumby A, Richardson H. scribble mutants cooperate with oncogenic Ras or Notch to cause neoplastic overgrowth in Drosophila. EMBO J. 2003;22:5769-79 pubmed
  49. Olofsson B, Page D. Condensation of the central nervous system in embryonic Drosophila is inhibited by blocking hemocyte migration or neural activity. Dev Biol. 2005;279:233-43 pubmed
    ..hemocyte migration by removing the function of the Drosophila VEGF receptor homologue, Pvr, or by disrupting Rac1 function in these cells, inhibits condensation...
  50. Mentzel B, Raabe T. Phylogenetic and structural analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster p21-activated kinase DmPAK3. Gene. 2005;349:25-33 pubmed publisher
    ..cell motility, transformation and cell death are regulated both by the binding of the small RhoGTPases RAC and CDC42 and by RhoGTPase independent mechanisms...
  51. Chartier F, Hardy E, Laprise P. Crumbs controls epithelial integrity by inhibiting Rac1 and PI3K. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:3393-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Using Drosophila embryos, we report that Rac1 sustains PI3K signaling, which is required for Rac1 activation. Crb represses this positive-feedback loop...
  52. Ng J, Nardine T, Harms M, Tzu J, Goldstein A, Sun Y, et al. Rac GTPases control axon growth, guidance and branching. Nature. 2002;416:442-7 pubmed
    ..We show that progressive loss of combined Rac1, Rac2 and Mtl activity leads first to defects in axon branching, then guidance, and finally growth...
  53. Albin S, Davis G. Coordinating structural and functional synapse development: postsynaptic p21-activated kinase independently specifies glutamate receptor abundance and postsynaptic morphology. J Neurosci. 2004;24:6871-9 pubmed
    ..In this pathway, Dock is dispensable. We present a model in which divergent Pak signaling is able to coordinate two different features of postsynaptic maturation, receptor abundance, and muscle membrane specialization. ..
  54. Fan X, Labrador J, Hing H, Bashaw G. Slit stimulation recruits Dock and Pak to the roundabout receptor and increases Rac activity to regulate axon repulsion at the CNS midline. Neuron. 2003;40:113-27 pubmed
    ..that the SH3-SH2 adaptor protein Dreadlocks (Dock), the p21-activated serine-threonine kinase (Pak), and the Rac1/Rac2/Mtl small GTPases can function during Robo repulsion...
  55. Nahm M, Lee M, Baek S, Yoon J, Kim H, Lee Z, et al. Drosophila RhoGEF4 encodes a novel RhoA-specific guanine exchange factor that is highly expressed in the embryonic central nervous system. Gene. 2006;384:139-44 pubmed
    ..In this study, the DH-PH motif is shown to enhance the dissociation of GDP from either RhoA or Rac1 but not from Cdc42 in vitro...
  56. Pirraglia C, Walters J, Myat M. Pak1 control of E-cadherin endocytosis regulates salivary gland lumen size and shape. Development. 2010;137:4177-89 pubmed publisher
  57. Harden N, Lee J, Loh H, Ong Y, Tan I, Leung T, et al. A Drosophila homolog of the Rac- and Cdc42-activated serine/threonine kinase PAK is a potential focal adhesion and focal complex protein that colocalizes with dynamic actin structures. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:1896-908 pubmed
    ..DPAK bound to activated (GTP-bound) Drosophila Rac (DRacA) and Drosophila Cdc42...
  58. Dorsten J, Kolodziej P, VanBerkum M. Frazzled regulation of myosin II activity in the Drosophila embryonic CNS. Dev Biol. 2007;308:120-32 pubmed
    ..Midline crossing errors induced by expressing activated Cdc42(v12) or Rac(v12) are suppressed by a heterozygous loss of fra(4) signaling but, in a Fra(wt) gain-of-function condition, no ..
  59. Chen W, White M, Cobb M. Stimulus-specific requirements for MAP3 kinases in activating the JNK pathway. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:49105-10 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, sorbitol requires expression of four MAP3Ks to cause maximal JNK activation. Thus, we demonstrate that specific stimuli use different mechanisms to recruit distinct MAP3Ks to regulate the JNK pathway. ..
  60. Montell D. The genetics of cell migration in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans development. Development. 1999;126:3035-46 pubmed
    ..New types of genetic screens promise to fill in some of these gaps in the near future. ..
  61. Ricos M, Harden N, Sem K, Lim L, Chia W. Dcdc42 acts in TGF-beta signaling during Drosophila morphogenesis: distinct roles for the Drac1/JNK and Dcdc42/TGF-beta cascades in cytoskeletal regulation. J Cell Sci. 1999;112 ( Pt 8):1225-35 pubmed
    ..Signaling by the Jun-amino-terminal-kinase cascade may be initiated by the small Ras-like GTPase Drac1 and acts to assemble the cytoskeleton and specify the identity of the first row of cells of the epidermis prior to ..
  62. Hummel T, Leifker K, Klämbt C. The Drosophila HEM-2/NAP1 homolog KETTE controls axonal pathfinding and cytoskeletal organization. Genes Dev. 2000;14:863-73 pubmed
    ..shown a specific interaction of the vertebrate HEM-2/NAP1 with the SH2-SH3 adapter protein NCK and the small GTPase RAC1, which both have been implicated in regulating cytoskeleton organization and axonal growth...
  63. Ishimaru S, Ueda R, Hinohara Y, Ohtani M, Hanafusa H. PVR plays a critical role via JNK activation in thorax closure during Drosophila metamorphosis. EMBO J. 2004;23:3984-94 pubmed
    ..It was earlier shown that Mbc, a CDM family protein, and its effector, Rac, transduced the guidance signal from PVR during border cell migration...
  64. Noselli S. JNK signaling and morphogenesis in Drosophila. Trends Genet. 1998;14:33-8 pubmed
  65. Elwell C, Ceesay A, Kim J, Kalman D, Engel J. RNA interference screen identifies Abl kinase and PDGFR signaling in Chlamydia trachomatis entry. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000021 pubmed publisher
    ..activation of PDGFRbeta or through independent activation of Abl kinase, culminating in phosphorylation of the Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), Vav2, and two actin nucleators, WAVE2 and Cortactin...
  66. Hu H, Li M, Labrador J, McEwen J, Lai E, Goodman C, et al. Cross GTPase-activating protein (CrossGAP)/Vilse links the Roundabout receptor to Rac to regulate midline repulsion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:4613-8 pubmed
    ..The CrGAP gain-of-function phenotype mimics the loss-of-function phenotypes of both Robo and Rac. Dosage-sensitive genetic interactions among CrGAP, Robo, and Rac support a model in which CrGAP transduces signals ..
  67. Baek S, Kwon Y, Lee H, Choe K. Rho-family small GTPases are required for cell polarization and directional sensing in Drosophila wound healing. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;394:488-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we use myosin localization to demonstrate that Rac1, Cdc42, and Rho1 are each required for cell polarization and directional sensing of the wound...
  68. Harden N, Loh H, Chia W, Lim L. A dominant inhibitory version of the small GTP-binding protein Rac disrupts cytoskeletal structures and inhibits developmental cell shape changes in Drosophila. Development. 1995;121:903-14 pubmed
    ..We have identified two Drosophila genes, DRacA and DRacB, encoding proteins with homology to mammalian Rac1 and Rac2...
  69. Stramer B, Wood W, Galko M, Redd M, Jacinto A, Parkhurst S, et al. Live imaging of wound inflammation in Drosophila embryos reveals key roles for small GTPases during in vivo cell migration. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:567-73 pubmed
    ..first time, we are able to examine the roles of Rho-family small GTPases during inflammation in vivo and show that Rac-mediated lamellae are essential for hemocyte motility and Rho signaling is necessary for cells to retract from ..
  70. Somers W, Saint R. A RhoGEF and Rho family GTPase-activating protein complex links the contractile ring to cortical microtubules at the onset of cytokinesis. Dev Cell. 2003;4:29-39 pubmed
  71. Bai J, Uehara Y, Montell D. Regulation of invasive cell behavior by taiman, a Drosophila protein related to AIB1, a steroid receptor coactivator amplified in breast cancer. Cell. 2000;103:1047-58 pubmed
    ..The finding of this type of coactivator required for cell motility suggests a novel role for steroid hormones, in stimulating invasive cell behavior, independent of effects on proliferation. ..
  72. Johnson R, Seppa M, Cagan R. The Drosophila CD2AP/CIN85 orthologue Cindr regulates junctions and cytoskeleton dynamics during tissue patterning. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:1191-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that Cindr is involved in dynamic cell rearrangement in an emerging epithelium. ..
  73. Evans I, Hu N, Skaer H, Wood W. Interdependence of macrophage migration and ventral nerve cord development in Drosophila embryos. Development. 2010;137:1625-33 pubmed publisher
  74. Emoto K, He Y, Ye B, Grueber W, Adler P, Jan L, et al. Control of dendritic branching and tiling by the Tricornered-kinase/Furry signaling pathway in Drosophila sensory neurons. Cell. 2004;119:245-56 pubmed
    ..Thus, the Trc/Fry signaling pathway plays a key role in patterning dendritic fields by promoting avoidance between homologous dendrites as well as by limiting dendritic branching. ..
  75. Schneeberger D, Raabe T. Mbt, a Drosophila PAK protein, combines with Cdc42 to regulate photoreceptor cell morphogenesis. Development. 2003;130:427-37 pubmed
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