Gene Symbol: ProtB
Description: Protamine B
Alias: BG:DS03431.3, BcDNA:GH11850, CG4478, Dmel\CG4478, MST35Bb, Mst35Bb, dProtB, mst35b, prot-B, protB, protamine B, CG4478-PA, Male-specific-transcript-35Bb, ProtB-PA, ProtamineB, dProtamineB, protamine, protamine (mst35Bb)
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Konev A, Tribus M, Park S, Podhraski V, Lim C, Emelyanov A, et al. CHD1 motor protein is required for deposition of histone variant H3.3 into chromatin in vivo. Science. 2007;317:1087-90 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our results point to the general requirement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-utilizing motor proteins for histone deposition in vivo. ..
  2. Schnakenberg S, Matias W, Siegal M. Sperm-storage defects and live birth in Drosophila females lacking spermathecal secretory cells. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001192 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish the reproductive functions of the SSC, shed light on the evolution of live birth, and open new avenues for studying and manipulating female fertility in insects. ..
  3. Bonnefoy E, Orsi G, Couble P, Loppin B. The essential role of Drosophila HIRA for de novo assembly of paternal chromatin at fertilization. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:1991-2006 pubmed
    ..that protamines are correctly removed at fertilization in the absence of HIRA, thus demonstrating that protamine removal and histone deposition are two functionally distinct processes. Finally, we showed that H3...
  4. Avila F, Wolfner M. Acp36DE is required for uterine conformational changes in mated Drosophila females. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:15796-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather, consistent with their role in later steps of sperm storage, we show here that their presence can affect the outcome of sperm competition situations. ..
  5. Awe S, Renkawitz Pohl R. Histone H4 acetylation is essential to proceed from a histone- to a protamine-based chromatin structure in spermatid nuclei of Drosophila melanogaster. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2010;56:44-61 pubmed publisher
    ..cultures of cysts with 64 synchronously developing spermatids genetically marked with histone H2AvD-RFP and ProtamineB-eGFP...
  6. Manier M, Belote J, Berben K, Novikov D, Stuart W, Pitnick S. Resolving mechanisms of competitive fertilization success in Drosophila melanogaster. Science. 2010;328:354-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that competitive male fertilization success derives from a multivariate process involving ejaculate-female and ejaculate-ejaculate interactions, as well as complex sperm behavior in vivo...
  7. Yang Y, Cochran D, Gargano M, King I, Samhat N, Burger B, et al. Regulation of flagellar motility by the conserved flagellar protein CG34110/Ccdc135/FAP50. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:976-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that the CG34110/Ccdc135/FAP50 family of conserved flagellar proteins functions within the axoneme to mediate Pkd2-dependent processes in the sperm flagellum and other motile cilia. ..
  8. Köttgen M, Hofherr A, Li W, Chu K, Cook S, Montell C, et al. Drosophila sperm swim backwards in the female reproductive tract and are activated via TRPP2 ion channels. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20031 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support an evolutionarily conserved role for TRPP2 channels in cilia. ..
  9. Jayaramaiah Raja S, Renkawitz Pohl R. Replacement by Drosophila melanogaster protamines and Mst77F of histones during chromatin condensation in late spermatids and role of sesame in the removal of these proteins from the male pronucleus. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:6165-77 pubmed
    ..ProtamineA-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), ProtamineB-eGFP, and Mst77F-eGFP carrying Drosophila lines show that these proteins become the important chromosomal ..

More Information


  1. Rathke C, Barckmann B, Burkhard S, Jayaramaiah Raja S, Roote J, Renkawitz Pohl R. Distinct functions of Mst77F and protamines in nuclear shaping and chromatin condensation during Drosophila spermiogenesis. Eur J Cell Biol. 2010;89:326-38 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, we previously identified protamine A, protamine B and Mst77F as major chromatin components of the mature sperm...
  2. Minami R, Wakabayashi M, Sugimori S, Taniguchi K, Kokuryo A, Imano T, et al. The homeodomain protein defective proventriculus is essential for male accessory gland development to enhance fecundity in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32302 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide the first evidence that secondary cells are crucial for male fecundity, and also that Dve activity is required for survival of the secondary cells. These findings provide new insights into a mechanism of fertility/fecundity...
  3. Alvi Z, Chu T, Schawaroch V, Klaus A. Protamine-like proteins in 12 sequenced species of Drosophila. Protein Pept Lett. 2013;20:17-35 pubmed
    The current study was aimed at analyzing putative protein sequences of the protamine-like proteins of 12 Drosophila species based on the reference sequences of two protamine-like proteins (Mst35Ba and Mst35Bb) found in Drosophila ..
  4. Dorus S, Freeman Z, Parker E, Heath B, Karr T. Recent origins of sperm genes in Drosophila. Mol Biol Evol. 2008;25:2157-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The expanded Mst35B (protamine) and tektin gene families are the result of tandem duplication events with all family members displaying testis-..
  5. Sartain C, Cui J, Meisel R, Wolfner M. The poly(A) polymerase GLD2 is required for spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2011;138:1619-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that GLD2 is an important regulator of late spermatogenesis and is the first example of a Gld-2 family member that plays a significant role specifically in male gametogenesis. ..
  6. Doyen C, Moshkin Y, Chalkley G, Bezstarosti K, Demmers J, Rathke C, et al. Subunits of the histone chaperone CAF1 also mediate assembly of protamine-based chromatin. Cell Rep. 2013;4:59-65 pubmed publisher
    ..reorganization occurs during spermatogenesis, when the paternal genome is repackaged from a nucleosomal to a protamine-based structure. We assessed the role of the canonical histone chaperone CAF1 in Drosophila spermatogenesis...
  7. Kanippayoor R, Moehring A. Allelic Expression of Drosophila Protamines during Spermatogenesis. Int J Evol Biol. 2012;2012:947381 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present our findings that protamine expression occurs from both alleles in diploid cells, rather than haploid cells, in two species of Drosophila...
  8. Barckmann B, Chen X, Kaiser S, Jayaramaiah Raja S, Rathke C, Dottermusch Heidel C, et al. Three levels of regulation lead to protamine and Mst77F expression in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2013;377:33-45 pubmed publisher
    ..that expression of Mst77F, which is a specialized linker histone-like component of sperm chromatin, and of protamine B (ProtB), which contributes to formation of condensed sperm chromatin, is regulated at three levels...
  9. Gärtner S, Rathke C, Renkawitz Pohl R, Awe S. Ex vivo culture of Drosophila pupal testis and single male germ-line cysts: dissection, imaging, and pharmacological treatment. J Vis Exp. 2014;:51868 pubmed publisher
    ..reshaping process as well as a global epigenetic reconfiguration of the germ line chromatin-the histone-to-protamine switch...
  10. Linnemannstöns K, Ripp C, Honemann Capito M, Brechtel Curth K, Hedderich M, Wodarz A. The PTK7-related transmembrane proteins off-track and off-track 2 are co-receptors for Drosophila Wnt2 required for male fertility. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004443 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of Otk causes female sterility due to malformation of the oviduct, indicating that Otk and Otk2 are specifically involved in the sexually dimorphic development of the genital tract. ..
  11. Emelyanov A, Rabbani J, Mehta M, Vershilova E, Keogh M, Fyodorov D. Drosophila TAP/p32 is a core histone chaperone that cooperates with NAP-1, NLP, and nucleophosmin in sperm chromatin remodeling during fertilization. Genes Dev. 2014;28:2027-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that TAP/p32 is required for the removal of Drosophila protamine B in vitro, whereas NAP-1, NLP, and Nph share roles in the removal of protamine A...
  12. Loppin B, Dubruille R, Horard B. The intimate genetics of Drosophila fertilization. Open Biol. 2015;5: pubmed publisher
  13. Leser K, Awe S, Barckmann B, Renkawitz Pohl R, Rathke C. The bromodomain-containing protein tBRD-1 is specifically expressed in spermatocytes and is essential for male fertility. Biol Open. 2012;1:597-606 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, the mRNAs of proteins required for post-meiotic chromatin reorganisation, like ProtB and Mst77F, are transcribed in meiotic spermatocytes and subjected to translational repression for days...
  14. Kimura S, Loppin B. The Drosophila chromosomal protein Mst77F is processed to generate an essential component of mature sperm chromatin. Open Biol. 2016;6: pubmed required for the compaction of sperm DNA and the production of mature sperm, through its cooperation with protamine-like proteins Mst35Ba/b...
  15. Corrigan L, Redhai S, Leiblich A, Fan S, Perera S, Patel R, et al. BMP-regulated exosomes from Drosophila male reproductive glands reprogram female behavior. J Cell Biol. 2014;206:671-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a new function for the MVB-exosome pathway in the reproductive tract that appears to be conserved across evolution. ..
  16. Yang Y, Lu X. Drosophila sperm motility in the reproductive tract. Biol Reprod. 2011;84:1005-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analyses here suggest that Pkd2 is required for the sperm to adopt the correct waveform and movement orientation during SR entry. A working model for the sperm's SR entry movement is proposed. ..
  17. Vardanyan A, Atanesyan L, Egli D, Raja S, Steinmann Zwicky M, Renkawitz Pohl R, et al. Dumpy-30 family members as determinants of male fertility and interaction partners of metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) in Drosophila. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:68 pubmed publisher
    ..The results from these studies reveal an inhibitory effect of Dpy-30L1 on MTF-1 and an essential role for Dpy-30L2 in male fertility. ..
  18. Gärtner S, Rothenbusch S, Buxa M, Theofel I, Renkawitz R, Rathke C, et al. The HMG-box-containing proteins tHMG-1 and tHMG-2 interact during the histone-to-protamine transition in Drosophila spermatogenesis. Eur J Cell Biol. 2015;94:46-59 pubmed publisher
    ..expressed in the testis, tHMG-1 and tHMG-2, whose expression levels were highest during the histone-to-protamine transition. Protein-protein interaction studies revealed that tHMG-1 and tHMG-2 form heterodimers in vivo...
  19. Emelyanov A, Fyodorov D. Thioredoxin-dependent disulfide bond reduction is required for protamine eviction from sperm chromatin. Genes Dev. 2016;30:2651-2656 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Protamine chaperone TAP/p32 dissociates DNA-protamine complexes in vitro only when protamine oligomers are first converted ..
  20. Tirmarche S, Kimura S, Sapey Triomphe L, Sullivan W, Landmann F, Loppin B. Drosophila protamine-like Mst35Ba and Mst35Bb are required for proper sperm nuclear morphology but are dispensable for male fertility. G3 (Bethesda). 2014;4:2241-5 pubmed publisher showed that Drosophila males homozygous for a genomic deletion covering several genes including the protamine-like genes Mst35Ba/b are surprisingly fertile...
  21. Sun J, Spradling A. Ovulation in Drosophila is controlled by secretory cells of the female reproductive tract. elife. 2013;2:e00415 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the reproductive tract signals to the ovary using glandular secretions, and that this pathway has been conserved during evolution. DOI: ..
  22. Kimura S. The Nap family proteins, CG5017/Hanabi and Nap1, are essential for Drosophila spermiogenesis. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:922-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings imply that Nap family proteins might individually sustain cytoskeleton-based morphogenesis, rather than histone biogenesis. ..
  23. Droge Young E, Manier M, Lupold S, Belote J, Pitnick S. Covariance among premating, post-copulatory and viability fitness components in Drosophila melanogaster and their influence on paternity measurement. J Evol Biol. 2012;25:1555-63 pubmed publisher
  24. Vibranovski M, Lopes H, Karr T, Long M. Stage-specific expression profiling of Drosophila spermatogenesis suggests that meiotic sex chromosome inactivation drives genomic relocation of testis-expressed genes. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000731 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest MSCI as a general mechanism affecting the evolution of some testis-expressed genes. ..