Gene Symbol: prd
Description: paired
Alias: CG6716, Dmel\CG6716, PRD, Prd, paired, CG6716-PA, CG6716-PB, prd-PA, prd-PB
Species: fruit fly
Products:     prd

Top Publications

  1. Cai J, Lan Y, Appel L, Weir M. Dissection of the Drosophila paired protein: functional requirements for conserved motifs. Mech Dev. 1994;47:139-50 pubmed
    The Drosophila paired gene encodes three conserved motifs: a homeodomain, paired domain and PRD (his/pro) repeat...
  2. Xue L, Noll M. The functional conservation of proteins in evolutionary alleles and the dominant role of enhancers in evolution. EMBO J. 1996;15:3722-31 pubmed
    Drosophila paired- embryos can be rescued to viable adults by the evolutionary alleles prd-Gsb and prd-Pax3, which express the Drosophila Gooseberry and mouse Pax3 proteins under the control of the paired cis-regulatory region...
  3. Fujioka M, Jaynes J, Goto T. Early even-skipped stripes act as morphogenetic gradients at the single cell level to establish engrailed expression. Development. 1995;121:4371-82 pubmed
    ..These distinct repression thresholds serve to both limit and subdivide a narrow zone of paired expression...
  4. Fujioka M, Emi Sarker Y, Yusibova G, Goto T, Jaynes J. Analysis of an even-skipped rescue transgene reveals both composite and discrete neuronal and early blastoderm enhancers, and multi-stripe positioning by gap gene repressor gradients. Development. 1999;126:2527-38 pubmed
    ..Additionally, a strong pairing-sensitive repression element was localized to the 3' end of the locus, but was not found to contribute to efficient functional rescue. ..
  5. Xu W, Rould M, Jun S, Desplan C, Pabo C. Crystal structure of a paired domain-DNA complex at 2.5 A resolution reveals structural basis for Pax developmental mutations. Cell. 1995;80:639-50 pubmed
    The 2.5 A resolution structure of a cocrystal containing the paired domain from the Drosophila paired (prd) protein and a 15 bp site shows structurally independent N-terminal and C-terminal subdomains...
  6. Saulier Le Dréan B, Nasiadka A, Dong J, Krause H. Dynamic changes in the functions of Odd-skipped during early Drosophila embryogenesis. Development. 1998;125:4851-61 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, and the segmental phenotypes generated by ectopic Odd, we suggest a number of new roles for Odd in the patterning of embryonic segments. These include gap-, pair-rule- and segment polarity-type functions. ..
  7. Kaplan T, Li X, Sabo P, Thomas S, Stamatoyannopoulos J, Biggin M, et al. Quantitative models of the mechanisms that control genome-wide patterns of transcription factor binding during early Drosophila development. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001290 pubmed publisher
  8. MacArthur S, Li X, Li J, Brown J, Chu H, Zeng L, et al. Developmental roles of 21 Drosophila transcription factors are determined by quantitative differences in binding to an overlapping set of thousands of genomic regions. Genome Biol. 2009;10:R80 pubmed publisher
  9. Baumgartner S, Noll M. Network of interactions among pair-rule genes regulating paired expression during primordial segmentation of Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1990;33:1-18 pubmed
    A model of the trans-regulation of the Drosophila pair-rule segmentation gene, paired (prd), has been derived from the observed alterations in the distribution of prd transcripts during early embryogenesis in single and double pair-rule ..

More Information


  1. Luengo Hendriks C, Keränen S, Fowlkes C, Simirenko L, Weber G, DePace A, et al. Three-dimensional morphology and gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm at cellular resolution I: data acquisition pipeline. Genome Biol. 2006;7:R123 pubmed
    ..The application of these quantitative methods to other developmental systems will likely reveal many other previously unknown features and provide a more rigorous understanding of developmental regulatory networks. ..
  2. Bouchard M, St Amand J, Cote S. Combinatorial activity of pair-rule proteins on the Drosophila gooseberry early enhancer. Dev Biol. 2000;222:135-46 pubmed
    ..The transcription factor Paired (Prd) is the main activator of this enhancer in all parasegments of the embryo...
  3. Blankenship J, Wieschaus E. Two new roles for the Drosophila AP patterning system in early morphogenesis. Development. 2001;128:5129-38 pubmed
    ..Its establishment requires wild-type paired activity and thus indirectly requires bicoid...
  4. Tsai C, Gergen J. Gap gene properties of the pair-rule gene runt during Drosophila segmentation. Development. 1994;120:1671-83 pubmed
    ..Finally, genetic experiments demonstrated that regulation of gap gene expression by runt is a normal component of the regulatory program that generates the segmented body pattern of the Drosophila embryo. ..
  5. Fujioka M, Miskiewicz P, Raj L, Gulledge A, Weir M, Goto T. Drosophila Paired regulates late even-skipped expression through a composite binding site for the paired domain and the homeodomain. Development. 1996;122:2697-707 pubmed
    ..We report here that paired (prd), a pair-rule gene which had been considered to be below eve in the regulatory hierarchy of pair-rule genes, ..
  6. DiNardo S, O Farrell P. Establishment and refinement of segmental pattern in the Drosophila embryo: spatial control of engrailed expression by pair-rule genes. Genes Dev. 1987;1:1212-25 pubmed
    ..For example, fushi tarazu or odd-paired mutations delete even-numbered stripes, whereas paired mutations delete odd-numbered stripes...
  7. Gutjahr T, Frei E, Noll M. Complex regulation of early paired expression: initial activation by gap genes and pattern modulation by pair-rule genes. Development. 1993;117:609-23 pubmed
    The paired gene is one of approximately 30 zygotic segmentation genes responsible for establishing the segmented body plan of Drosophila melanogaster...
  8. Carr A, Biggin M. A comparison of in vivo and in vitro DNA-binding specificities suggests a new model for homeoprotein DNA binding in Drosophila embryos. EMBO J. 1999;18:1598-608 pubmed
    ..These genes are bound poorly in vivo, even though they contain many high affinity homeoprotein-binding sites. Based on these results, we suggest how the in vivo pattern of homeoprotein DNA binding is determined. ..
  9. Xue L, Noll M. Drosophila female sexual behavior induced by sterile males showing copulation complementation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:3272-5 pubmed
    ..Using paired mutant males that, for the lack of accessory glands, are sterile, we show that this rejection behavior is induced ..
  10. Frasch M, Levine M. Complementary patterns of even-skipped and fushi tarazu expression involve their differential regulation by a common set of segmentation genes in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1987;1:981-95 pubmed
  11. Noll M. Evolution and role of Pax genes. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1993;3:595-605 pubmed
    Pax genes encode a class of highly conserved transcription factors containing a paired-domain. These factors play important roles in Drosophila and vertebrate development, for example, in segmentation and neurogenesis...
  12. Raj L, Vivekanand P, Das T, Badam E, Fernandes M, Finley R, et al. Targeted localized degradation of Paired protein in Drosophila development. Curr Biol. 2000;10:1265-72 pubmed
    ..We identified a gene, partner of paired (ppa), whose properties suggest that localized receptors for protein degradation are integrated into regulatory ..
  13. Jun S, Desplan C. Cooperative interactions between paired domain and homeodomain. Development. 1996;122:2639-50 pubmed
    ..They are characterized by the presence of a paired domain (PD), a bipartite DNA binding domain composed of two helix-turn-helix (HTH) motifs,the PAI and RED domains...
  14. Treisman J, Harris E, Desplan C. The paired box encodes a second DNA-binding domain in the paired homeo domain protein. Genes Dev. 1991;5:594-604 pubmed
    ..The paired box is another conserved sequence motif, first identified in the paired (prd) and gooseberry (gsb) Drosophila ..
  15. Makeev V, Lifanov A, Nazina A, Papatsenko D. Distance preferences in the arrangement of binding motifs and hierarchical levels in organization of transcription regulatory information. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:6016-26 pubmed
    ..We discuss the role of the hierarchy in understanding transcriptional regulation and in detection of transcription regulatory regions in genomes. ..
  16. Sanchez L, Thieffry D. Segmenting the fly embryo: a logical analysis of the pair-rule cross-regulatory module. J Theor Biol. 2003;224:517-37 pubmed
    ..Finally, it provides new insights into the roles and evolutionary origins of the apparent redundancies in the regulatory architecture of the pair-rule module. ..
  17. Gutjahr T, Vanario Alonso C, Pick L, Noll M. Multiple regulatory elements direct the complex expression pattern of the Drosophila segmentation gene paired. Mech Dev. 1994;48:119-28 pubmed
    The paired (prd) gene of Drosophila belongs to the pair-rule class of segmentation genes involved in establishing the metameric organization of the Drosophila body plan...
  18. Ingham P, Martinez Arias A. Boundaries and fields in early embryos. Cell. 1992;68:221-35 pubmed
  19. Xue L, Li X, Noll M. Multiple protein functions of paired in Drosophila development and their conservation in the Gooseberry and Pax3 homologs. Development. 2001;128:395-405 pubmed
    The Drosophila segmentation gene paired, whose product is homologous to the Drosophila Gooseberry and mammalian Pax3 proteins, has three general functions: proper development of the larval cuticle, survival to adulthood and male fertility...
  20. Frigerio G, Burri M, Bopp D, Baumgartner S, Noll M. Structure of the segmentation gene paired and the Drosophila PRD gene set as part of a gene network. Cell. 1986;47:735-46 pubmed
    The sequence of paired, a pair-rule gene required for segmentation in Drosophila, is presented...
  21. Bertuccioli C, Fasano L, Jun S, Wang S, Sheng G, Desplan C. In vivo requirement for the paired domain and homeodomain of the paired segmentation gene product. Development. 1996;122:2673-85 pubmed
    The Drosophila pair-rule gene paired is required for the correct expression of the segment polarity genes wingless, engrailed and gooseberry...
  22. Surkova S, Kosman D, Kozlov K, Manu -, Myasnikova E, Samsonova A, et al. Characterization of the Drosophila segment determination morphome. Dev Biol. 2008;313:844-62 pubmed
    ..As the first quantitatively characterized morphogenetic field, this system and its behavior constitute an extraordinarily rich set of materials for the study of canalization and embryonic regulation at the molecular level...
  23. Nusslein Volhard C, Wieschaus E. Mutations affecting segment number and polarity in Drosophila. Nature. 1980;287:795-801 pubmed
  24. Bopp D, Burri M, Baumgartner S, Frigerio G, Noll M. Conservation of a large protein domain in the segmentation gene paired and in functionally related genes of Drosophila. Cell. 1986;47:1033-40 pubmed
    Extending our search for homologous domains of the Drosophila paired gene, two closely linked genes at the gooseberry locus have been isolated...
  25. Kosman D, Small S, Reinitz J. Rapid preparation of a panel of polyclonal antibodies to Drosophila segmentation proteins. Dev Genes Evol. 1998;208:290-4 pubmed
    ..Antigenicity of the purified recombinant proteins may be increased by precipitation in double-distilled water. The results of using the serums obtained for fluorescent staining of Drosophila embryos are shown. ..
  26. Bopp D, Jamet E, Baumgartner S, Burri M, Noll M. Isolation of two tissue-specific Drosophila paired box genes, Pox meso and Pox neuro. EMBO J. 1989;8:3447-57 pubmed
    Two new paired domain genes of Drosophila, Pox meso and Pox neuro, are described...
  27. Treisman J, GONCZY P, Vashishtha M, Harris E, Desplan C. A single amino acid can determine the DNA binding specificity of homeodomain proteins. Cell. 1989;59:553-62 pubmed
    ..interactions by making a series of mutations in the helix-turn-helix motif of the Drosophila homeodomain protein Paired (Prd)...
  28. Manoukian A, Krause H. Concentration-dependent activities of the even-skipped protein in Drosophila embryos. Genes Dev. 1992;6:1740-51 pubmed
    ..times appeared to distinguish between genes that were direct [fushi tarazu (ftz), odd-skipped (odd), runt (run), paired, and wingless] and indirect [eve, hairy, and engrailed (en)] targets of Eve...
  29. Xue L, Noll M. Dual role of the Pax gene paired in accessory gland development of Drosophila. Development. 2002;129:339-46 pubmed
    The Drosophila Pax gene paired encodes a transcription factor that is required for the activation of segment-polarity genes and proper segmentation of the larval cuticle, postembryonic viability and male fertility...
  30. Snook R, Hosken D. Sperm death and dumping in Drosophila. Nature. 2004;428:939-41 pubmed
    ..Instead, males may cause stored sperm to be dumped or females may differentially eject sperm from the previous mating. ..
  31. Pisarev A, Poustelnikova E, Samsonova M, Reinitz J. FlyEx, the quantitative atlas on segmentation gene expression at cellular resolution. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:D560-6 pubmed publisher
    ..5 h of development. FlyEx supports the data downloads and construction of personal reference datasets, that makes it possible to more effectively use and analyze data. ..
  32. Nikulova A, Favorov A, Sutormin R, Makeev V, Mironov A. CORECLUST: identification of the conserved CRM grammar together with prediction of gene regulation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:e93 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with related methods, CORECLUST shows better performance at identification of CRMs conferring muscle-specific gene expression in vertebrates and early-developmental CRMs in Drosophila. ..
  33. Aswani A, Biggin M, Bickel P, TOMLIN C. Nonparametric variable selection and modeling for spatial and temporal regulatory networks. Methods Cell Biol. 2012;110:243-61 pubmed publisher
    ..By being able to quantify a continuum of interaction likelihoods, this helps to direct future experiments. ..
  34. Swantek D, Gergen J. Ftz modulates Runt-dependent activation and repression of segment-polarity gene transcription. Development. 2004;131:2281-90 pubmed
    ..These experiments identify sloppy paired 1 (slp1) as a gene that is activated and repressed by Runt in a simple combinatorial parasegment-dependent manner...
  35. Schwartz C, Sampson H, Hlousek D, Percival Smith A, Copeland J, Simmonds A, et al. FTZ-Factor1 and Fushi tarazu interact via conserved nuclear receptor and coactivator motifs. EMBO J. 2001;20:510-9 pubmed
    ..These unexpected findings have important implications for the conserved homologs of the two proteins. ..
  36. Kennerdell J, Carthew R. Heritable gene silencing in Drosophila using double-stranded RNA. Nat Biotechnol. 2000;18:896-8 pubmed
    ..The success of this approach in Drosophila and C. elegans suggests that a similar approach may prove useful to study gene function in higher organisms for which transgenic technology is available. ..
  37. Breitling R, Gerber J. Origin of the paired domain. Dev Genes Evol. 2000;210:644-50 pubmed
    Pax proteins play a diverse role in early animal development and contain the characteristic paired domain, consisting of two conserved helix-turn-helix motifs...
  38. Macias A, Pelaz S, Morata G. Genetic factors controlling the expression of the abdominal-A gene of Drosophila within its domain. Mech Dev. 1994;46:15-25 pubmed
    ..We have investigated the possible role of several pair-rule, e.g. fushi tarazu, even-skipped, runt, hairy, paired, and segment polarity e.g...
  39. Lucchetta E, Munson M, Ismagilov R. Characterization of the local temperature in space and time around a developing Drosophila embryo in a microfluidic device. Lab Chip. 2006;6:185-90 pubmed
    ..Embryos were removed from the device and immunostained histochemically for detection of Paired protein. Biochemical processes are sensitive to small differences in environmental temperature...
  40. Goldstein R, Cook O, Dinur T, Pisanté A, Karandikar U, Bidwai A, et al. An eh1-like motif in odd-skipped mediates recruitment of Groucho and repression in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10711-20 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that phosphorylation of these phosphomeric residues, if it occurs, will down-regulate Groucho binding and therefore repression, providing a mechanism for posttranslational control of Groucho-mediated repression. ..
  41. Nüsslein Volhard C. The bicoid morphogen papers (I): account from CNV. Cell. 2004;116:S1-5, 2 p following S9 pubmed
  42. White R. Cell type-specific enhancement in the Drosophila embryo by consensus homeodomain binding sites. Bioessays. 1990;12:537-9 pubmed
  43. Weir M, Edgar B, Kornberg T, Schubiger G. Spatial regulation of engrailed expression in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 1988;2:1194-203 pubmed
    ..We suggest that products of known segmentation genes are the repressors that suppress engrailed expression in interbands. ..
  44. Dohrmann C, Azpiazu N, Frasch M. A new Drosophila homeo box gene is expressed in mesodermal precursor cells of distinct muscles during embryogenesis. Genes Dev. 1990;4:2098-111 pubmed
    ..Here, the molecular analysis and expression pattern of one such gene, containing both a homeo box and a PRD repeat, is described...
  45. Zamparo L, Perkins T. Statistical lower bounds on protein copy number from fluorescence expression images. Bioinformatics. 2009;25:2670-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The data are all drawn from FlyEx (explained within), and is available at ..
  46. Myasnikova E, Kosman D, Reinitz J, Samsonova M. Spatio-temporal registration of the expression patterns of Drosophila segmentation genes. Proc Int Conf Intell Syst Mol Biol. 1999;:195-201 pubmed
    ..The registration method was based on a quadratic spline approximation with flexible knots. A classifier for automatic attribution of an embryo to one of the temporal classes according to its gene expression pattern was developed.) ..
  47. Grueneberg D, Natesan S, Alexandre C, Gilman M. Human and Drosophila homeodomain proteins that enhance the DNA-binding activity of serum response factor. Science. 1992;257:1089-95 pubmed
  48. Ursuliak Z, Clemens J, Dixon J, Price J. Differential accumulation of DPTP61F alternative transcripts: regulation of a protein tyrosine phosphatase by segmentation genes. Mech Dev. 1997;65:19-30 pubmed
    ..The segmental modulation of DPTP61Fm transcript accumulation in the A/P axis of the germband is regulated by the pair-rule genes, and the intrasegmental pattern of transcript accumulation is regulated by the segment polarity genes. ..
  49. Gehring W. The homeobox in perspective. Trends Biochem Sci. 1992;17:277-80 pubmed
    ..Their mechanism of action can now be studied at the molecular level and their occurrence seems to be much more universal than originally anticipated. ..
  50. Lan Y, Fujioka M, Polsgrove R, Miskiewicz P, Morrissey D, Goto T, et al. Plasticity of Drosophila paired function. Dev Genet. 1998;23:45-55 pubmed
    The Drosophila Paired (Prd) transcription factor has homeodomain (HD) and paired domain (PD) DNA-binding activities required for in vivo function...
  51. Jiao R, Daube M, Duan H, Zou Y, Frei E, Noll M. Headless flies generated by developmental pathway interference. Development. 2001;128:3307-19 pubmed
  52. Kerszberg M, Changeux J. A simple molecular model of neurulation. Bioessays. 1998;20:758-70 pubmed
    ..Little is known experimentally about the concerned pathways: their importance as a fruitful area for future investigation is emphasized by our theoretical results. ..
  53. Karlin S, Blaisdell B, Brendel V. Identification of significant sequence patterns in proteins. Methods Enzymol. 1990;183:388-402 pubmed
  54. McKeon J, Slade E, Sinclair D, Cheng N, Couling M, Brock H. Mutations in some Polycomb group genes of Drosophila interfere with regulation of segmentation genes. Mol Gen Genet. 1994;244:474-83 pubmed
    ..These results support a role for Pc genes in regulation of some segmentation genes, and suggest that esc may act differently from other Pc group genes. ..
  55. Dahl E, Koseki H, Balling R. Pax genes and organogenesis. Bioessays. 1997;19:755-65 pubmed
    ..They are characterized by the presence of the paired domain, a conserved amino acid motif with DNA-binding activity...
  56. Yoffe K, Manoukian A, Wilder E, Brand A, Perrimon N. Evidence for engrailed-independent wingless autoregulation in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1995;170:636-50 pubmed
    ..We also provide evidence that late, localized Wg expression is crucial for the asymmetric patterning of epidermal cell types as reflected in the larval cuticle. ..
  57. Guerin C, Kramer S. RacGAP50C directs perinuclear gamma-tubulin localization to organize the uniform microtubule array required for Drosophila myotube extension. Development. 2009;136:1411-21 pubmed publisher
  58. Ochoa Espinosa A, Yu D, Tsirigos A, Struffi P, Small S. Anterior-posterior positional information in the absence of a strong Bicoid gradient. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:3823-8 pubmed publisher
  59. Fowlkes C, Eckenrode K, Bragdon M, Meyer M, Wunderlich Z, Simirenko L, et al. A conserved developmental patterning network produces quantitatively different output in multiple species of Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002346 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results emphasize that transcriptional networks can diverge over short evolutionary timescales and that even small changes can lead to distinct output in terms of the placement and number of equivalent cells. ..
  60. Biggin M. To bind or not to bind. Nat Genet. 2001;28:303-4 pubmed
    ..Genome-wide surveys of DNA binding by transcription factors in vivo are beginning to provide some answers. ..
  61. Kassis J. Spatial and temporal control elements of the Drosophila engrailed gene. Genes Dev. 1990;4:433-43 pubmed
    ..These experiments suggest that multiple regulatory programs control an expression in stripes, and each may be able to confer "normal" spatial regulation independently...
  62. Kauffman S, Goodwin B. Spatial harmonics and pattern specification in early Drosophila development. Part II. The four colour wheels model. J Theor Biol. 1990;144:321-45 pubmed
    ..The alternative familiar hypothesis that longitudinal position is specified in an "on" "off" combinatorial code does not readily account for the duplication deletion phenomena. ..
  63. Sambrani N, Hudry B, Maurel Zaffran C, Zouaz A, Mishra R, Merabet S, et al. Distinct molecular strategies for Hox-mediated limb suppression in Drosophila: from cooperativity to dispensability/antagonism in TALE partnership. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003307 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, changes in protein sequences not only provide the driving force for functional specialization of Hox paralogue proteins, but also provide means to perform common ancient functions in distinct ways. ..
  64. Ananthan J, Baler R, Morrissey D, Zuo J, Lan Y, Weir M, et al. Synergistic activation of transcription is mediated by the N-terminal domain of Drosophila fushi tarazu homeoprotein and can occur without DNA binding by the protein. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:1599-609 pubmed
    ..We examined the synergistic activation of an engrailed-derived promoter by the pair-rule proteins paired (PRD) and fushi tarazu (FTZ)...
  65. Miskiewicz P, Morrissey D, Lan Y, Raj L, Kessler S, Fujioka M, et al. Both the paired domain and homeodomain are required for in vivo function of Drosophila Paired. Development. 1996;122:2709-18 pubmed
    Drosophila paired, a homolog of mammalian Pax-3, is key to the coordinated regulation of segment-polarity genes during embryogenesis...
  66. Patel N. Imaging neuronal subsets and other cell types in whole-mount Drosophila embryos and larvae using antibody probes. Methods Cell Biol. 1994;44:445-87 pubmed
  67. Matsuo Y. Molecular evolution of the paired gene in Drosophila: cloning and characterization of the partial paired gene from Drosophila willistoni. Biochem Genet. 1996;34:415-20 pubmed
    A partial paired gene of Drosophila willistoni containing the paired box and extended homeo box was amplified by PCR and the nucleotide sequence of 1141 bp was determined. Comparison of the paired genes in D. willistoni and D...
  68. Nasiadka A, Krause H. Kinetic analysis of segmentation gene interactions in Drosophila embryos. Development. 1999;126:1515-26 pubmed
    ..In total, 11 putative Ftz target genes are analyzed, and the data provide a substantially revised view of Ftz roles and activities within the segmentation hierarchy. ..
  69. Li L, Li P, Xue L. The RED domain of Paired is specifically required for Drosophila accessory gland maturation. Open Biol. 2015;5:140179 pubmed publisher
    The evolutionarily conserved paired domain consists of the N-terminal PAI and the C-terminal RED domains, each containing a helix-turn-helix motif capable of binding DNA...
  70. Jaynes J, Fujioka M. Drawing lines in the sand: even skipped et al. and parasegment boundaries. Dev Biol. 2004;269:609-22 pubmed
    ..Here we identify the forkhead domain transcription factor Sloppy-paired as the key intermediate in the initial activation of engrailed by Eve in odd-numbered parasegments...
  71. Gellon G, McGinnis W. Shaping animal body plans in development and evolution by modulation of Hox expression patterns. Bioessays. 1998;20:116-25 pubmed
  72. Mullen J, DiNardo S. Establishing parasegments in Drosophila embryos: roles of the odd-skipped and naked genes. Dev Biol. 1995;169:295-308 pubmed
    ..wingless expression is regulated by both odd-skipped and the pair-rule gene paired. odd-skipped represses wingless expression, while paired restricts the domain of expression of odd-skipped...