Gene Symbol: pr
Description: purple
Alias: 38B.9, CG16784, Dmel\CG16784, anon-38Bb, purple, CG16784-PC, pr-PC
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Lloyd V, Ramaswami M, Kramer H. Not just pretty eyes: Drosophila eye-colour mutations and lysosomal delivery. Trends Cell Biol. 1998;8:257-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, classical work describing more than 85 eye-colour mutations and their genetic interactions offers a remarkable, untapped resource for the genetic analysis of protein delivery to lysosomes. ..
  2. Li J, Li W, Gelbart W. A genetic screen for maternal-effect suppressors of decapentaplegic identifies the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A in Drosophila. Genetics. 2005;171:1629-41 pubmed
    ..This result provides an intriguing link between a component of the translation machinery and Dpp signaling. ..
  3. Zhou X, Duan X, Qian J, Li F. Abundant conserved microRNA target sites in the 5'-untranslated region and coding sequence. Genetica. 2009;137:159-64 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the functionality of target sites in the 5'-UTR and CDS requires thorough investigation. ..
  4. Ohkura H, Torok T, Tick G, Hoheisel J, Kiss I, Glover D. Mutation of a gene for a Drosophila kinesin-like protein, Klp38B, leads to failure of cytokinesis. J Cell Sci. 1997;110 ( Pt 8):945-54 pubmed
    ..Taken together, we conclude that these Klp38B mutations lead to a failure of cytokinesis resulting in polyploidy, and discuss whether or not this is a direct effect of the mutation. ..
  5. Ruden D, Cui W, Sollars V, Alterman M. A Drosophila kinesin-like protein, Klp38B, functions during meiosis, mitosis, and segmentation. Dev Biol. 1997;191:284-96 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that klp38B mutations have defects in abdominal segmentation, suggesting that Klp38B, like Xenopus chromokinesin Xklp1, might be involved in polar granule formation. ..
  6. Hilliker A, Holm D. Genetic analysis of the proximal region of chromosome 2 of Drosophila melanogaster. I. Detachment products of compound autosomes. Genetics. 1975;81:705-21 pubmed
    ..The data further demonstrate that rolled, and probably light, are located within the proximal heterochromatin. Thus, functional genetic loci are found in heterochromatin, albeit at low density. ..
  7. Romanova N, Aslanian M, Kim A. [Analysis of spontaneous and ethylmethanesulfonate-induced visible mutations in the genetically unstable MS, w strain of Drosophila melanogaster]. Genetika. 1996;32:759-66 pubmed
    ..The frequency of induced mutations was estimated in the X chromosome, in five loci of chromosome 2 (b, j, pr, cn, and vg), and in eight loci of chromosome 3 (ru, h, th, st, cu, sr, es, and ca)...
  8. Omel ianchuk L. [A method of obtaining complementary "deletion-duplication" pairs on the posterior arm of Drosophila autosomes]. Genetika. 1991;27:1359-65 pubmed
    ..Unequal exchanges induced in such gametes give deletions and tandem duplications corresponding to the arm. This approach makes it possible to induce deletion without having a marker in the region under study. ..
  9. Hiebert J, Birchler J. Effects of the maleless mutation on X and autosomal gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1994;136:913-26 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that if mle plays a role in the discrimination of the X and the autosomes, it may do so by modification of the effects of dosage sensitive regulatory genes. ..

More Information


  1. Crow J. Why is Mendelian segregation so exact?. Bioessays. 1991;13:305-12 pubmed
    ..This provides a mechanism for removing cheaters and preserving the honesty of the Mendelian gene-shuffle. ..
  2. Reuter G, Wolff I. Isolation of dominant suppressor mutations for position-effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1981;182:516-9 pubmed
    ..The significance of the isolated mutants to genetic dissection of structural and regulatory functions of the eukaryotic chromosome is discussed. ..
  3. Dell Angelica E, Mullins C, Caplan S, Bonifacino J. Lysosome-related organelles. FASEB J. 2000;14:1265-78 pubmed
  4. Real M, Ferre J. Biosynthesis of xanthurenic acid 8-O-beta-D-glucoside in Drosophila. Characterization of the xanthurenic acid:UDP-glucosyltransferase activity. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:7407-12 pubmed
    ..a) We have demonstrated that the Drosophila melanogaster vermilion purple mutant (unable to synthesize 3-hydroxykynurenine) synthesizes xanthurenic acid 8-glucoside when fed with ..
  5. Boyd J, Harris P. Isolation and characterization of a photorepair-deficient mutant in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1987;116:233-9 pubmed
    ..Both defects map to the chromosomal region between pr and c...
  6. Kim N, Kim J, Park D, Rosen C, Dorsett D, Yim J. Structure and expression of wild-type and suppressible alleles of the Drosophila purple gene. Genetics. 1996;142:1157-68 pubmed
    Viable mutant alleles of purple (pr), such as prbw, exhibit mutant eye colors. This reflects low 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin (PTP) synthase activity required for pigment synthesis...
  7. Park Y, Kim J, Jacobson K, Yim J. Purification and characterization of 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase from Drosophila melanogaster. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990;1038:186-94 pubmed
    ..5 kDa on SDS-PAGE and NH2-Asx-Pro- as N-terminal amino acids. The native enzyme in crude extract was shown to be more complex, existing as higher multimeric forms. ..
  8. Wright T, Hodgetts R, Sherald A. The genetics of dopa decarboxylase in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Isolation and characterization of deficiencies that delete the dopa-decarboxylase-dosage-sensitive region and the alpha-methyl-dopa-hypersensitive locus. Genetics. 1976;84:267-85 pubmed
    ..These deficiencies permit a localization of both the dopa-decarboxylase-dosage-sensitive region and the alpha-methyl-dopa-hypersensitive locus, l(2) amd, to the same region, 37B10-37C7. ..
  9. Wiederrecht G, Paton D, Brown G. Enzymatic conversion of dihydroneopterin triphosphate to the pyrimidodiazepine intermediate involved in the biosynthesis of the drosopterins in Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:2195-200 pubmed
    ..The last enzyme is present only in relatively small quantities in the mutant, purple. Because PDA is two electrons more reduced than H2-NTP, it would appear that the reducing power needed for this ..
  10. Siegel J. Genetic characterization of the region of the Drosophila genome known to include the histone structural gene sequences. Genetics. 1981;98:505-27 pubmed
    ..The salivary map positions of certain of the complementation groups suggest that the mutants in these groups may affect histone gene functions. ..
  11. Dorsett D, Jacobson K. Purification and biosynthesis of quench spot, a drosopterin precursor in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochemistry. 1982;21:1238-43 pubmed
    ..A substance named "quench spot" was found earlier to be at low levels in the purple mutants that were defective in drosopterin synthesis and to be restored to normal when a suppressor mutant, su(s)2,..
  12. Dernburg A, Daily D, Yook K, Corbin J, Sedat J, Sullivan W. Selective loss of sperm bearing a compound chromosome in the Drosophila female. Genetics. 1996;143:1629-42 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with a model of meiotic drive in which aberrations occurring early in meiosis lead ultimately to sperm dysfunction. ..
  13. Beadle G, Ephrussi B. The Differentiation of Eye Pigments in Drosophila as Studied by Transplantation. Genetics. 1936;21:225-47 pubmed
  14. Stathakis D, Pentz E, Freeman M, Kullman J, Hankins G, Pearlson N, et al. The genetic and molecular organization of the Dopa decarboxylase gene cluster of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1995;141:629-55 pubmed
  15. Humphreys J, Duyf B, Joiner M, Phillips J, Hilliker A. Genetic analysis of oxygen defense mechanisms in Drosophila melanogaster and identification of a novel behavioural mutant with a Shaker phenotype. Genome. 1996;39:749-57 pubmed
    ..This mutation is similar in phenotype to the Shaker (Sh), ether-a-gogo (eag), and Hyperkinetic (Hk) mutations, all of which affect potassium channel function in D. melanogaster. ..
  16. Wright T, Beermann W, Marsh J, Bishop C, Steward R, Black B, et al. The genetics of dopa decarboxylase in Drosophila melanogaster. IV. The genetics and cytology of the 37B10-37D1 region. Chromosoma. 1981;83:45-58 pubmed
    ..It eliminates Ddc+ and 1(2)37Ca+ function and at 30 degrees C reduces 1(2)37Ce+ function. It is not a deficiency but could be a polar mutant. ..
  17. Lloyd V, Sinclair D, Alperyn M, Grigliatti T. Enhancer of garnet/deltaAP-3 is a cryptic allele of the white gene and identifies the intracellular transport system for the white protein. Genome. 2002;45:296-312 pubmed
    ..This observation supports a role for these genes in intracellular transport and leads to a model whereby incorrect sorting of the white gene product can explain the pigmentation phenotypes of an entire group of eye-color genes...
  18. Pasyukova E, Roshina N, Mackay T. Shuttle craft: a candidate quantitative trait gene for Drosophila lifespan. Aging Cell. 2004;3:297-307 pubmed
    ..Quantitative genetic analysis of naturally occurring variants with subtle effects on lifespan can identify novel candidate genes and pathways important in the regulation of longevity. ..
  19. Bhadra U, Pal Bhadra M, Birchler J. Histone acetylation and gene expression analysis of sex lethal mutants in Drosophila. Genetics. 2000;155:753-63 pubmed
    ..In both cases we find relatively little effect upon X chromosomal gene expression. ..
  20. Matsumoto A, Motoshige T, Murata T, Tomioka K, Tanimura T, Chiba Y. Chronobiological analysis of a new clock mutant, Toki, in Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurogenet. 1994;9:141-55 pubmed
    ..Toki interacts with other clock mutations, pers, perL and And, in such a way that tau s associated with these three X-linked mutations are lengthened and phi values become smaller. ..
  21. Prokop A, Uhler J, Roote J, Bate M. The kakapo mutation affects terminal arborization and central dendritic sprouting of Drosophila motorneurons. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:1283-94 pubmed
    ..On the other, a specific type of sensory neuron (scolopidial neurons) shows defects in microtubule organization and detaches from its support cells. ..
  22. Brittnacher J, Ganetzky B. On the Components of Segregation Distortion in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. II. Deletion Mapping and Dosage Analysis of the SD Locus. Genetics. 1983;103:659-73 pubmed
    ..The Sd product appears to act preferentially at Rsp(s) (sensitive-Responder) but may also act at Rsp(i) (insensitive-Responder). ..
  23. Ohsako T, Yamamoto M. Sperm of the wasted mutant are wasted when females utilize the stored sperm in Drosophila melanogaster. Genes Genet Syst. 2011;86:97-108 pubmed
  24. Krivi G, Brown G. Purification and properties of the enzymes from Drosophila melanogaster that catalyze the synthesis of sepiapterin from dihydroneopterin triphosphate. Biochem Genet. 1979;17:371-90 pubmed
    ..Of a variety of eye color mutants of Drosophila melanogaster tested for sepiapterin synthase activity, only purple (pr) flies contained activity that was significantly lower than that found in the wild-type flies (22% of the wild-..
  25. Wiederrecht G, Brown G. Purification and properties of the enzymes from Drosophila melanogaster that catalyze the conversion of dihydroneopterin triphosphate to the pyrimidodiazepine precursor of the drosopterins. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:14121-7 pubmed
    ..Evidence is presented to indicate that the Drosophila eye color mutant, sepia, is missing PDA synthase. ..
  26. Reaume A, Knecht D, Chovnick A. The rosy locus in Drosophila melanogaster: xanthine dehydrogenase and eye pigments. Genetics. 1991;129:1099-109 pubmed
  27. Kolodziej P, Jan L, Jan Y. Mutations that affect the length, fasciculation, or ventral orientation of specific sensory axons in the Drosophila embryo. Neuron. 1995;15:273-86 pubmed
    ..Mutations in 4 complementation groups cause lch axon defasciculation. Mutations in 7 complementation groups cause some lch axon bundles to grow dorsally along a trajectory 180 degrees from normal. ..
  28. O DONNELL J, Mandel H, Krauss M, Sofer W. Genetic and cytogenetic analysis of the Adh region in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1977;86:553-66 pubmed
    ..If one includes three other loci known to belong there (el, Adh and Sco) a total of 16 complemetation groups have been identified in the region close to Adh. ..
  29. Yang H, Tanikawa A, Kondrashov A. Molecular nature of 11 spontaneous de novo mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2001;157:1285-92 pubmed
    ..melanogaster than in H. sapiens. If so, the per nucleotide mutation rate in D. melanogaster may be lower than in H. sapiens, even if their per locus mutation rates are similar. ..
  30. Piedrafita A, Martínez Ramírez A, Silva F. A genetic analysis of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases involvement in DOPA synthesis during Drosophila adult development. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 1994;24:581-8 pubmed
  31. Ganetzky B. On the components of segregation distortion in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1977;86:321-55 pubmed
    ..for the Rsp locus renders a chromosome insensitive to distortion; (3) the Sd locus is located to the left of pr (2-54...
  32. Beadle G. Development of Eye Colors in Drosophila: Fat Bodies and Malpighian Tubes in Relation to Diffusible Substances. Genetics. 1937;22:587-611 pubmed
  33. Rice W. Sexually antagonistic genes: experimental evidence. Science. 1992;256:1436-9 pubmed
    ..A 29-generation study provides experimental evidence that sexually antagonistic genes may be common in nature and will accumulate in response to a new sex-determining gene. ..
  34. Miglani G, Preet K. Gradual decline of formaldehyde-induced male recombination in successive generations of Drosophila melanogaster. Indian J Exp Biol. 1994;32:103-5 pubmed
    ..melanogaster for three generations. Among recombinants, al dp was the most and b pr the next most frequent phenotype in the progenies of F1, TC1, TC2 and TC3 males of genotype + /al dp br...
  35. Oudman L. A locus in Drosophila melanogaster affecting heat resistance. Hereditas. 1991;114:285-7 pubmed
  36. Kronert W, Acebes A, Ferrus A, Bernstein S. Specific myosin heavy chain mutations suppress troponin I defects in Drosophila muscles. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:989-1000 pubmed
    ..Our study illustrates how expression of genetic defects are dependent upon genetic background, and therefore could have implications for understanding gene interactions in human disease. ..
  37. Searles L, Voelker R. Molecular characterization of the Drosophila vermilion locus and its suppressible alleles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:404-8 pubmed
    ..Preliminary evidence suggests that su(s)-suppressible alleles at other loci may also be 412 insertions. ..
  38. Mogami K, Hotta Y. Isolation of Drosophila flightless mutants which affect myofibrillar proteins of indirect flight muscle. Mol Gen Genet. 1981;183:409-17 pubmed
    ..IFM myofibrils of these mutants are either abnormal or absent in homozygotes as well as in heterozygotes. ..
  39. Wilson T, Jacobson K. Mechanism of suppression in Drosophila. V. Localization of the purple mutant of Drosophila melanogaster in the pteridine biosynthetic pathway. Biochem Genet. 1977;15:321-32 pubmed
    The suppressible eye color mutant purple (pr) of Drosophila melanogaster is known to be unable to synthesize a wild-type complement of pteridine eye pigments...
  40. Pentz E, Black B, Wright T. Mutations affecting phenol oxidase activity in Drosophila: quicksilver and tyrosinase-1. Biochem Genet. 1990;28:151-71 pubmed
    ..Deletion and genetic mapping place tyr-1 near purple (pr; 2-54.5). Enzyme activity is reduced to 10% of normal but is not thermolabile and the activator is normal...
  41. Chanut F, Woo K, Pereira S, Donohoe T, Chang S, Laverty T, et al. Rough eye is a gain-of-function allele of amos that disrupts regulation of the proneural gene atonal during Drosophila retinal differentiation. Genetics. 2002;160:623-35 pubmed
    ..We show that Roi can rescue the retinal developmental defect of ato1 mutants and speculate that amos substitutes for some of ato's function in the eye or activates a residual function of the ato1 allele. ..
  42. Yim J, Grell E, Jacobson K. Mechanism of suppression in Drosophila: control of sepiapterin synthase at the purple locus. Science. 1977;198:1168-70 pubmed
    ..and red pteridine eye pigments (drosopterins) in Drosophila melanogaster are known to be reduced in the purple mutant and restored to normal by a suppressor mutation...
  43. Chanut F, Luk A, Heberlein U. A screen for dominant modifiers of ro(Dom), a mutation that disrupts morphogenetic furrow progression in Drosophila, identifies groucho and hairless as regulators of atonal expression. Genetics. 2000;156:1203-17 pubmed
    ..Analysis of their phenotypes in somatic clones suggests that both normally act to restrict neuronal cell fate in the retina, although they control different aspects of ato's complex expression pattern. ..
  44. Temin R. The independent distorting ability of the Enhancer of Segregation Distortion, E(SD), in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1991;128:339-56 pubmed
    ..E(SD) provides an example of a trans-acting gene embedded in heterochromatin that can interact with another heterochromatic gene, Rsp, as well as parallel the effect of a euchromatic gene, Sd. ..
  45. Contamine D, Petitjean A, Ashburner M. Genetic resistance to viral infection: the molecular cloning of a Drosophila gene that restricts infection by the rhabdovirus sigma. Genetics. 1989;123:525-33 pubmed
    ..The dominance relationships of these two alleles, and the fact that ref(2)Pnull alleles are permissive to sigma infection, suggest that the ref(2)Po product is antimorphic to that of the ref(2)Pp allele. ..
  46. Tobler J, Yim J, Grell E, Jacobson K. Developmental changes of sepiapterin synthase activity associated with a variegated purple gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Genet. 1979;17:197-206 pubmed
    A variegated position effect on the autonomous gene, purple, has been studid enzymologically in Drosophila melanogaster...
  47. Harris D, Kim K, Nakahara K, Vásquez Doorman C, Carthew R. Cargo sorting to lysosome-related organelles regulates siRNA-mediated gene silencing. J Cell Biol. 2011;194:77-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Negative regulation is also not linked to sorting into all LROs but only a specific class of pigment LRO. Thus, regulation of siRNA activity is tied to sorting of specific types of cargo to particular LROs...
  48. Tirián L, Puro J, Erdelyi M, Boros I, Papp B, Lippai M, et al. The Ketel(D) dominant-negative mutations identify maternal function of the Drosophila importin-beta gene required for cleavage nuclei formation. Genetics. 2000;156:1901-12 pubmed
    ..The ketel(r) homozygous clones are fully viable in the follicle epithelium in wings and tergites. The Ketel gene is not expressed in most larval tissues, as revealed by the expression pattern of a Ketel promoter-lacZ reporter gene. ..
  49. Giunta K, Jang J, Manheim E, Subramanian G, McKim K. subito encodes a kinesin-like protein required for meiotic spindle pole formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2002;160:1489-501 pubmed
    ..sub is also required for the early embryonic divisions but is otherwise dispensable for most mitotic divisions. ..